Anatomically, the spinal cord is part of the _________, and the spinal nerves are part of the _________.
What is the term for the expanded segment of the spinal cord where nerves exit that serve the shoulder and upper limbs?
The collection of dorsal and ventral roots that continues through the vertebral canal and resembles a horse's tail is the __________.
Which part of the gray matter in the spinal cord contains somatic and visceral sensory nuclei?
What term is given to the projections of gray matter toward the outer surface of the spinal cord?
A bilateral region of skin that in innervated by a single pair of spinal nerves is a __________.
What is the term for a reflex where the sensory neuron synapses directly on the motor neuron?
What type of reflex is initiated by increasing the length of a muscle and will cause that muscle to contract?
Which reflex will cause a motor response on the side opposite the stimulus?
Monitors external tension produced during a muscular contraction and prevents tearing or breaking of the tendon.
A form of withdrawal reflex in which the muscles of a limb contract to move the limb away from a source of stimulation.
A polysynaptic reflex in which the motor response occurs on the side opposite the stimulus.
Relay information from one side of the spinal cord to the other before reaching its destination in the gray matter.
Bundles of axons in the CNS that are relatively uniform with respect to diameter, myelination and conduction speed.
Conducts information from peripheral receptors to processing centers in the brain.
The filum terminale and spinal nerves in the lumbar and sacral regions are called the __________.
In the spinal cord, the gray horns contain __________.
The most important branch of the cervical plexus is the __________ nerve, which innervates the diaphragm.
Susan is doing hip extension movements during an exercise class. Which plexus and which nerve(s) is she using to contract the gluteus maximus muscle?
Ryan was in a car accident and has suffered injury to the dorsal root of his C7 spinal nerve on his left side. Which structure would he likely have difficulty receiving sensations from after this injury?
Which of the nerves innervates the sphincter muscles controlling defecation and urination?
Which term describes the action of the neural circuit when collateral branches of axons extend back and further stimulate presynaptic neurons?
The reflex that complements a withdrawal reflex, making compensatory adjustments on the side of the body opposite that which receives the stimulus, is the __________ reflex.
Sherry runs a feather along the sole of her 10-year-old brother's foot. His toes immediately curl in response to the touch. What type of reflex has just occurred?
True statements about the peripheral distribution of spinal nerves.
These nerves arrive from cervical plexus.
Method by which reflexes can be classified.
Which of the following reflexes prevent(s) you from falling when you slip in a puddle of water in your kitchen?
The patellar reflex __________.
True/False. The cauda equina is composed of the long ventral and dorsal roots of spinal segments L2 to S5.
True/False. A sensory message entering the spinal cord enters the dorsal side of the spinal cord, while the motor response exits the ventral side.
There are three complex, interwoven networks of compound nerve trunks called plexuses that branch into peripheral nerves; in descending order, these are the cervical plexus, the brachial plexus, and the __________ plexus.
The largest nerve in the body is the sciatic nerve, which arises from the __________ plexus.
In the CNS, the tracts that link the brain with the rest of the body are composed of __________.
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve is the site for ______________ neurons, whereas the ventral root is the site of ___________ neurons.
The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord supplies nerves to the __________.
The area of the spinal cord that surrounds the central canal and is dominated by the cell bodies of neurons and glial cells is the __________.
The posterior gray horns of the spinal cord contain __________.
The delicate connective tissue fibers that surround individual axons of spinal nerves comprise a layer called the __________.
Parallel processing is the "neural circuit" in which __________.
When sensory information is relayed from one part of the brain to another, the pattern is called __________.
The goal of information processing during a neural reflex is the selection of __________.
Consider the steps of a reflex arc. Which step follows information processing?
When one set of motor neurons is stimulated, those controlling antagonistic muscles are inhibited. This statement illustrates the principle of __________.
The highest level of motor control involves a series of interactions that occur __________.
April stubs her left hallux as she is walking to the kitchen at night. Which nerve and which plexus are involved in the sensation of pain sent to her brain?
Spinal nerves are classified as mixed nerves because they contain __________.
The epidural space is an area that contains __________.
In the spinal cord, the cerebrospinal fluid is found within the __________.
The dura mater attaches itself at its base to the skeletal system through the __________.
The axons in the white matter of the spinal cord that carry sensory information up toward the brain are organized into __________.
In reference to the vertebral column, C2 refers to the cervical nerve that __________.
The white ramus is the branch of a spinal nerve that consists of __________.
Unmyelinated fibers that innervate glands and smooth muscles in the body wall or limbs form the __________.
The lumbo-sacral plexus that supplies the pelvic girdle and the leg includes the spinal nerves __________.
Reflexive removal of a hand from a hot stove and blinking when the eyelashes are touched are examples of __________.
Why are the most complicated responses produced by polysynaptic responses?
The activity occurring in the Golgi tendon organ involves __________.
In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), __________.
Inferior to the lumbar enlargement; a region where the spinal cord becomes tapered and conical.
___ matter is the region of integration and command initiation, and ___ matter carries information from place to place.
____, located only in the thoracic and lumbar segments, contain visceral motor nuclei.
The _____ posterior to and anterior to the central canal contain axons that cross from one side of the cord to the other before they reach an area in the gray matter.