Exercises 27, 29-33

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Lab exam 1
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1

An endocrine organ located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus.

Thyroid gland

2

An endocrine organ found atop of the kidney.

Adrenal gland

3

An endocrine organ that is a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestines.

Pancreas

4

Paired endocrine glands suspended in the scrotum.

Testes

5

Endocrine glands that ride "horseback" on the thyroid gland.

Parathyroids

6

Endocrine glands found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production.

Ovaries

7

An endocrine gland that is found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth.

Thymus

8

An endocrine gland that is found in the roof of the third ventricle.

Pineal gland

9

Which hormone(s) regulates the function of another endocrine gland? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

10

Which hormone(s) maintain the salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

Aldosterone secreted by the adrenal cortex and ADH secreted by the hypothalamus.

11

Which hormone(s) are directly involved in milk production and ejection? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

Oxytocin secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and prolactin secreted by the anterior pituitary.

12

Which hormone(s) controls the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

T3/T4 secreted by the thyroid gland.

13

Which hormone(s) regulates the blood calcium levels? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

PTH secreted by the parathyroid gland.

14

Which hormone(s) regulates blood glucose levels? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

Insulin and glucagon secreted by the pancreas.

15

Which hormone(s) are released in response to stressors? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

The adrenal cortex secretes cortisol and epinephrine (EP).

16

Which hormone(s) drives the development of secondary sex characteristics in males? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

Testosterone is secreted by the testes.

17

Which hormone(s) are directly responsible for the regulation of the menstrual cycle? Which gland(s) secretes the hormone(s)?

Estrogen and progesterone secreted by the ovaries.

18

What is humoral stimulus?

Hormone release caused by altered levels of certain critical ions or nutrients.

19

What is neural stimulus?

Hormone release caused by neural input.

20

What is hormonal stimulus?

Hormone release caused by another hormone (a tropic hormone).

21

ACTH is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

1. another hormone (hormonal stimulus)

22

Caclitonin is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

3. humoral factors (humoral stimulus)

23

Estrogen is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

1. another hormone

24

Insulin is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

3. humoral factors

25

Norepinephrine (NE) is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

2. the nervous system (neural stimulus)

26

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

3. humoral factors

27

T4/T3 is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

1. another hormone

28

Testosterone is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

1. another hormone

29

TSH, FSH is released by…
1. another hormone
2. the nervous system
3. humoral factors

1. another hormone

30

If PTH is produced inadequately, what condition occurs?

Tetany

31

If ADH is produced inadequately, what condition occurs?

Excessive diuresis without high blood glucose levels.

32

If insulin is produced inadequately, what condition occurs?

Loss of glucose in the urine.

33

If GH (growth hormone) is produced inadequately, what condition occurs?

Abnormally small stature, normal proportions.

34

If T4/T3 (TH) is produced inadequately, what condition occurs?

Low BMR, mental and physical sluggishness.

35

If GH is produced excessively, what condition occurs?

Large hands and feet in adults and large facial bones.

36

If TH is produced excessively, what condition occurs?

Nervousness, sweating, and irregular pulse rate.

37

If PTH is produced excessively, what condition occurs?

Demineralization of bones and spontaneous fractures.

38

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) is the most numerous leukocyte?

Neutorphil

39

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) are granulocytes?

Eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils

40

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) is also called an erythrocyte (hint: anucleate formed element)?

RBCs (red blood cells)

41

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) is actively phagocytic leukocytes?

Monocyte and neutorphil

42

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) are agranulocytes?

Monocyte and lymphocyte

43

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) is a precursor cell of platelets?

Megakaryocyte

44

What term defines RBCs, megakaryocyte, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte?

Formed elements

45

What cell type(s)/blood element(s)' number rises during a parasite inflammation?

Eosinophil

46

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) releases histamine and promotes inflammation?

Basophil

47

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) is formed in lymphoid tissue?

Lymphocyte

48

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) transports oxygen?

RBCs

49

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) is primarily water, noncellular, and is the fluid matrix of blood?

Plasma

50

What cell type(s)/blood element(s) increases in number during prolonged infections?

Monocyte

51

What are the 5 types of WBCs?

Eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte

52

Describe the structural characteristics of Eosinophils. What is the % of it in the total WBC population?

Large, red-staining cytoplasmic granules with bilobed or figure 8 nucleus. 1-4% of WBC.

53

Describe the structural characteristics of Neutrophils. What is the % of it in the total WBC population?

Pale pink cytoplasm with fine granules and the nucleus is multi lobed that stains deep purple. 40-70% of WBC.

54

Describe the structural characteristics of Lymphocytes. What is the % of it in the total WBC population?

Small cells with sparse pale blue cytoplasm and dark purple-staining, spherical nucleus. 20-45% of WBC.

55

Describe the structural characteristics of Basophils. What is the % of it in the total WBC population?

Sparse dark blue cytoplasmic granules that may obscure the large U-shaped nucleus that stains dark blue. 0.5 or less of WBC.

56

Describe the structural characteristics of Monocytes. What is the % of it in the total WBC population?

Abundant gray-blue cytoplasm and a dark blue-purple nucleus that is often kidney-shaped. 4-8% of WBC.

57

What blood pathology has an abnormal increase in the number of WBCs?

Leukocytosis

58

What blood pathology has an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs?

Polycythemia

59

What blood pathology has a condition of too few RBCs or of RBCs with hemoglobin deficiencies?

Anemia

60

What blood pathology has an abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs?

Leukopenia

61

What blood pathology has RBCs that are large and pale?

Macrocytic hypochromic anemia

62

What blood pathology has RBCs that are small and pale?

Microcytic hypochromic anemia

63

What blood pathology has RBCs that are crescent shaped?

Sickle cell anemia

64

What blood pathology has a large number of small abnormal lymphocytes?

Lymphocytic leukemia (chronic)

65

What blood pathology has an increased number of eosinophils?

Eosinophilia

66

Which blood pathology condition is caused by an iron-deficient diet?

Microcytic hypochromic anemia

67

Which blood pathology condition is caused by a type of bone marrow cancer?

Lymphocytic leukemia (chronic)

68

Which blood pathology condition is caused by a genetic defect that causes hemoglobin to become sharp/spiky?

Sickle cell anemia

69

Which blood pathology condition is caused by a lack of vitamin B12?

Macrocytic hypochromic anemia

70

Which blood pathology condition is caused by a tapeworm infestation in the body?

Eosinophilia

71

Which blood pathology condition is caused by a bleeding ulcer?

Microcytic hypochromic anemia

72

Where is the mediastinum of the heart located?

In the thorax

73

Where are the atria located?

In the superior heart chambers

74

Where are the ventricles located?

In the inferior heart chambers

75

Where is the epicardium located?

In the visceral pericardium

76

What are the receiving chambers of the heart called?

Atria

77

What term equals cardiac muscle?

Myocardium

78

What structure provides nutrient blood to the heart muscle?

Coronary arteries

79

What lines the heart chambers?

Endocardium

80

What is the actual "pump" of the heart?

Ventricles

81

What structure drains the blood into the right atrium?

Coronary sinus

82

Complete the scheme of circulation of RBC in the human body:

Right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the _________, through the ______ valve to the pulmonary trunk, to the ________________, to the capillary beds of the lungs, to the _______, to the ____________ of the heart, through the _________ valve to the __________, through the ___________ valve to the _______, to the systemic arteries, to the ___________of the tissues, to the systemic veins, to the _______________, __________, and __________ entering the right atrium of the heart.

Right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the Right Ventricle, through the Pulmonary Semilunar valve to the pulmonary trunk, to the Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries, to the capillary beds of the lungs, to the Pulmonary Veins, to the Left Atrium of the heart, through the Mitral/Bicuspid valve to the Left Ventricle, through the Aortic Semilunar valve to the Aorta, to the systemic arteries, to the Capillary Beds of the tissues, to the systemic veins, to the Inferior Vena Cava, Superior Vena Cava, and Coronary Sinus entering the right atrium of the heart.

83

How does the intrinsic conduction system travel?

Starting at the SA node to ________ to __________ to ___________ and to ______________.

Starting at the SA node to AV Node to AV Bundle (Bundle of His) to Left and Right Bundle Branches and to Subendocardial Conducting Network (Purkinje fibers).

84

Name two events that occur within the body to aid in venous return.

Skeletal muscle "milking action" and changes in the thoracic cavity pressure during breathing.

85

Why are the wall of the arteries proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins?

Arteries must withstand high pressure and pressure fluctuations. Veins are low-pressure vessels.

86

What are 2 characteristics of an artery?

An open, circular lumen and thick tunica media.

87

What are 2 characteristics of a vein?

A somewhat collapsed lumen and thinner tunica media.

88

Name the characteristic description for each tunic.

The tunica intima is the…

The tunica intima is the innermost tunic, thin tunic of capillaries, and has a smooth surface to decrease resistance to blood flow.

89

Name the characteristic description for each tunic.

The tunica media is…

The tunica media is especially thick in elastic arteries and contains smooth muscle and elastin.

90

Name the characteristic description for each tunic.

The tunica externa is the…

The tunica externa is the most superficial tunic.

91

What is the length of the normal cardiac cycle?

0.8 sec

92

What is the time interval of atrial systole?

0.1 sec

93

What is the quiescent period (ventricular relaxation period)?

0.4 sec

94

What is the ventricular contraction period?

0.3 sec

95

If an individual's heart rate is 80 beats/min, what is the length of the cardiac cycle?

0.75 sec

96

Complete the statement on heart sounds.

The monosyllables describing the heart sounds are 1)____. The first heart sound is a result of closure of the 2)_____ valves, whereas the second is a result of closure of the 3)____ valves. The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are the 4)____, and the chambers that have just emptied are the 5)____. Immediately after the second heart sound, both the 6)____ and 7)____ are filling with blood.

The monosyllables describing the heart sounds are 1) lup-dup. The first heart sound is a result of closure of the 2) atrioventricular valves, whereas the second is a result of closure of the 3) aortic and pulmonary (semilunar) valves. The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are the 4) ventricles, and the chambers that have just emptied are the 5) atria. Immediately after the second heart sound, both the 6) atria and 7) ventricles are filling with blood.

97

If someone has been injured in an auto accident and is hemorrhaging badly, what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding from the thigh?

The femoral artery

98

If someone has been injured in an auto accident and is hemorrhaging badly, what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding from the calf?

Popliteal artery

99

If someone has been injured in an auto accident and is hemorrhaging badly, what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding from the forearm?

Brachial artery

100

If someone has been injured in an auto accident and is hemorrhaging badly, what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding from the thumb?

Radial artery


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