Chapter 22- Lymphatic System & Immunity

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1

Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites that are capable of living inside the body and causing harm are called __________.
complement
NK cells
lymphocytes
pathogens

pathogens

2

Which lymphatic vessel collects lymph from the lower half of the body and the left upper half of the body and returns it to venous circulation?
right jugular trunk
right lymphatic duct
intestinal trunk
thoracic duct

The thoracic duct collects lymph from the lower half of the body and the left upper half of the body and returns it to venous circulation.

3

Which type of lymphocyte produces antibodies?
natural killer cell
B cell
cytotoxic T cell
helper T cell

B cell

4

Large lymphoid nodules found on the walls of the pharynx are the __________.
thymus
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
tonsils
spleen

tonsils

5

The largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body, which consists of red and white pulp and is found attached to the lateral border of the stomach, is the __________.
thymus
spleen
MALT
tonsils

Correct Answer:
spleen

The largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body, which consists of red and white pulp and is found attached to the lateral border of the stomach, is the spleen.

6

Which innate defense involves cells that engulf pathogens and cell debris?
inflammation
phagocytes
complement
immunological surveillance

phagocytes

7

Which cells are involved in immunological surveillance?
mast cells
B cells
cytotoxic T cells
natural killer cells

Correct Answer:
natural killer cells

Natural killer cells are involved in immunological surveillance and are responsible for killing tumor cells or cells infected by a virus.

8

Which of the following is a localized tissue response to injury characterized by redness, heat, swelling, and pain?
inflammation
complement
interferons
phagocytosis

inflammation

9

Which of the following is NOT an effect of complement activation?
stimulation of inflammation
release of pyrogens to cause a fever
destruction of target cell membranes
attraction of phagocytes

Correct Answer:
release of pyrogens to cause a fever

Complement activation can stimulate inflammation, attract phagocytes and enhance phagocytosis, and destroy target plasma membranes. It does not cause the release of pyrogens.

10

A child is given a vaccine to polio. What form of immunity does this represent?
artificially induced active immunity
naturally acquired passive immunity
innate immunity
naturally acquired active immunity

Correct Answer:
artificially induced active immunity

A vaccine is an example of artificially induced active immunity.

11

What property of adaptive immunity allows a person to have the chickenpox when he is six years old and still be immune to chickenpox at age 45?
memory
tolerance
specificity
versatility

Correct Answer:
memory

Immunological memory allows the immune system to recognize and respond to an antigen years after the initial encounter.

12

What type of cell surface protein is found only on antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes and allows them to communicate with each other?
CD4
MHC I
MHC II
CD8

Correct Answer:
MHC II

MHC II proteins are found on antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes and allow them to communicate with each other.

13

What type of T cell is responsible for seeking out and destroying abnormal or infected cells?
suppressor T cell
helper T cell
cytotoxic T cell
memory T cell

Correct Answer:
cytotoxic T cell

Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for seeking out and destroying abnormal or infected cells.

14

What is the name for the type of B cell that synthesizes and secretes large quantities of antibodies?
microphage
plasma cell
memory cell
NK cell

plasma cell

15

Which antibody is the first class of antibody to be secreted in response to an antigen and is a pentamer (made of five antibody molecules)?
IgE
IgG
IgA
IgM

Correct Answer:
IgM

IgM is the first class of antibody to be secreted in response to an antigen and is a pentamer.

16

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the secondary response to antigen exposure?
produces a large amount of IgG
inhibits the formation of an infection
is caused by memory B cells
does not peak until one to two weeks after antigen exposure

Correct Answer:
does not peak until one to two weeks after antigen exposure

The secondary response to antigen exposure is caused by the rapid response of memory B cells that produce much higher levels of antibodies than the primary response. In most cases, the secondary response prevents infection.

17

What type of immune disorder is characterized by autoantibodies that attack body cells and tissues?
hypersensitivity
immunodeficiency
autoimmune disorder
anaphylaxis

Correct Answer:
autoimmune disorder

An autoimmune disorder is an immune disorder characterized by autoantibodies that attack body cells and tissues.

18

AIDS is an example of __________.
an immunodeficiency
an immune complex disorder
an autoimmune disorder
a hypersensitivity

an immunodeficiency

19

Which of the following is NOT an effect of advancing age on the immune system?
Immune surveillance declines.
The number of helper T cells declines.
B cells are more receptive to antigens.
There is a decline in circulating thymic hormones.

Correct Answer:
B cells are more receptive to antigens.

With advancing age, the thymic hormones are reduced, immune surveillance declines, and the number of helper T cells declines. B cells, because of the lack of helper T cells, are less receptive to antigens.

20

The CNS can affect the lymphatic system by __________.
producing cytokines
innervating dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues and organs
All of the listed responses are correct.
decreasing immune function in times of emotional distress

Correct Answer:
All of the listed responses are correct.

The CNS can affect lymphatic function because it innervates dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues and organs and produces cytokines. Also, in times of emotional distress immune function can suddenly decline.

21
card image

Label the following components in the diagram of the lymphatic system.

A. thoracic (left lymphatic) duct
B. cisterna chyli
C. inguinal lymph nodes
D. tonsil
E. mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in intestinal tract
F. right lymphatic duct

22
card image

Correctly match the terms with the appropriate structures of the lymph node.

A. Efferent Vessel
B. Afferent Vessel
C. Hilum
D. Capsule
E. Medulla
F. Cortex

23
card image

Correctly identify the cells and structures involved in antibody-mediated immunity.

A. Memory B cells
B. Antigens
C. Helper T cells
D. Class II MHC
E. Sensitized B Cell
F. Plasma Cells

24

Place the following stages of a bacterial infection in the proper order from (1) through (6):

Inflammation, lymphokines, and monokines attract phagocytes.

Neutrophils and NK cells migrate into the infected area.

Pathogens are removed by macrophages as antibody clumping occurs.

B cells differentiate, and the number of plasma cells increases.

A gradual sustained increase in antibodies occurs.

Cytotoxic T cells appear.

1. Neutrophils and NK cells migrate into the infected area.
2. Inflammation, lymphokines, and monokines attract phagocytes.
3. Cytotoxic T cells appear.
4. B cells differentiate, and the number of plasma cells increases.
5. A gradual sustained increase in antibodies occurs.
6. Pathogens are removed by macrophages as antibody clumping occurs.

25

Prevent the approach of and deny access to pathogens

Physical Barriers

26

Remove debris and pathogens

Phagocytes

27

Destroys abnormal cells

Immunological surveillance

28

Increases resistance of cells to viral infection

Interferon

29

Attacks and breaks down target cell membranes, promoting phagocytosis

Complement System

30

Mobilizes defenses and accelerates repairs

Fever

31

Genetically determined, no prior exposure or antibody production involved

Innate immunity

32

Produced by transfer of antibodies from another person

Artificially acquired passive immunity

33

Develops after administration of antigen to prevent disease

Artificially induced active immunity

34

Conferred by transfer of maternal antibodies across placenta or in breast milk

Naturally acquired passive immunity

35

Develops after exposure to antigens in environment

Naturally induced active immunity

36

Produced by exposure to an antigen, not present at birth

Adaptive immunity

37

These originate as blind pockets, may contain lymphocytes and do contain walls with cells not tightly bound together.

Lymphatic capillaries

38

Located in the mediastinum, this organ is largest in children but diminishes with age, and it is the site of T cell maturation.

Thymus

39

Containing both red and white pulp, this is a site for the removal of abnormal blood cells and is used to initiate responses by B and T cells.

Spleen

40

The smallest of organs, these may have a diameter of up to 1 inch and contain afferent and efferent lymphatics.

Lymph Nodes

41

Most people have five of these structures, which are located in the oral, nasal, and pharyngeal areas.

Tonsils

42

The ability of the immune system to ignore normal, self antigens while responding to foreign, nonself antigens.

Tolerance

43

The ability of the immune system to respond to tens of thousands of antigens by producing an enormous number of lymphocyte populations, each with sensitivity to a unique set of antigens.

Versatility

44

The ability of the immune system to produce a response to a particular antigen and no other. This is a result of the ability to activate specific lymphocytes.

Specificity

45

The ability of the immune system to "remember" specific antigens through the production of memory cells, which are produced after an initial exposure and are saved in case of a second exposure to an antigen.

Memory

46

Which of the following are functions of the lymphatic system?
defense of the body against pathogens
defense of the body against cancer
transport of respiratory gases
defense of the body against pathogens and defense of the body against cancer
All of the listed responses are correct.

defense of the body against pathogens and defense of the body against cancer

47

Adaptive responses __________.
include fever
target a specific antigen each time it is activated
respond to a variety of foreign antigens
include complement and interferons

target a specific antigen each time it is activated

48

The majority of lymph fluid in the body returns to the venous circulation via the __________.
right lymphatic duct
intestinal tract
cisterna chyli
thoracic duct

thoracic duct

49

B lymphocytes are responsible for __________.
cell-mediated immunity
regulating the immune response
humoral immunity
immunological surveillance

humoral immunity

50

T cells originate and complete their development in the __________.
thymus
bone marrow
lymph nodes
spleen

thymus

51

Lymphoid tissues __________.
are dominated by lymphocytes
lack a distinct boundary
are surrounded by a fibrous capsule
are dominated by lymphocytes and lack a distinct boundary
are dominated by lymphocytes and are surrounded by a fibrous capsule

are dominated by lymphocytes and lack a distinct boundary

52

Lymphoid organs include which of the following?
tonsils
spleen
gallbladder
spleen and tonsils
None of the listed responses is correct.

spleen and tonsils

53

Lymph nodes function as __________.
filters
an early warning system
filters and an early warning system
None of the listed responses is correct.

filters and an early warning system

54

The spleen __________.
produces a hormone that functions to mature lymphocytes
removes abnormal red blood cells from circulation
initiates the immune responses by B cells and T cells in response to circulating antigens
removes abnormal red blood cells from circulation and initiates the immune responses by B cells and T cells in response to circulating antigens
All of the listed responses are correct.

removes abnormal red blood cells from circulation and initiates the immune responses by B cells and T cells in response to circulating antigens

55

The smallest lymphatic vessels are called __________.
deep lymphatics
superficial lymphatics
lymph ducts
lymph capillaries

lymph capillaries

56

Which of the following is NOT a class of lymphocyte?
NK cells
neutrophils
T cells
B cells

neutrophils

57

Which of the following statements about B cells is INCORRECT?
B cells attack and kill cells infected with viruses.
B cells can become cells that secrete antibodies.
B cells account for 10–15 percent of circulating lymphocytes.
B cells can differentiate into plasma cells.

B cells attack and kill cells infected with viruses.

58

Which of the following statements concerning the thymus is INCORRECT?
The thymus reaches its greatest size after 25 years.
The capsule that covers the thymus divides it into thymic lobes.
Cells of the thymic cortex maintain the blood–thymus barrier and secrete thymosins.
Thymic lobules consist of a densely packed outer cortex and a paler central medulla.
The thymus lies behind the sternum.

The thymus reaches its greatest size after 25 years.

59

Which of the following terms describes the degeneration of tissue cells that have been damaged or destroyed by injury?
necrosis
antigen processing
consolidation
fever

necrosis

60

Which of the following are characteristics of free macrophages and microphages?
adhesion
chemotaxis
diapedesis
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

61

Natural killer cells destroy other cells by secreting __________.
perforins
lysozyme
cytokines
cytokines and lysozyme
None of the listed responses is correct.

perforins

62

Interferons __________.
are small proteins
slow the spread of viral infections
stimulate NK cell activity
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

63

Opsonization __________.
facilitates phagocytosis
inhibits phagocytosis
lyses cell membranes
All of the listed responses are correct.

facilitates phagocytosis

64

Innate defenses include __________.
sweat and sebaceous glands of the skin, which aid in blocking the entry of harmful pathogens through the skin
natural killer cells, which destroy abnormal cells
pyrogens, the release of which can elevate body temperatures above 37.2°C
complement, a collection of proteins that can respond to the presence of antibodies on an abnormal cell and aid in the lysis of that cell
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

65

Which of the following is NOT an effect of phagocytic activity?
engulfing a pathogen or other foreign object and destroying that object by lysosomal enzymes
elevating body temperature to increase body metabolism and potentially limit bacteria and viruses
binding to or removing a pathogen from interstitial fluid and then destroying it with the help of other cells
releasing tumor necrosis factor, leading to the death of the targeted pathogen

elevating body temperature to increase body metabolism and potentially limit bacteria and viruses

66

Which of the following statements concerning inflammation and response to injury is INCORRECT?
Clotting factors and complement proteins leave the bloodstream and enter the injured area.
Fixed and free macrophages actively engulf pathogens and cell debris.
Debris and bacteria are attacked by neutrophils drawn to the area by chemotaxis.
Released histamine decreases capillary permeability and decreases blood flow through the area.

Released histamine decreases capillary permeability and decreases blood flow through the area.

67

T cells are responsible for __________.
humoral immunity
cellular immunity
cell-mediated immunity
both cell-mediated immunity and cellular immunity

both cell-mediated immunity and cellular immunity

68

Which of the following is an example of naturally acquired active immunity?
Antibodies pass from mother to the developing child in the womb.
An adult contracts a streptococcus infection and recovers in a couple of weeks.
A child receives the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
A child bitten by a rabid animal receives an injection of rabies antibodies.
All of the listed responses are correct.

An adult contracts a streptococcus infection and recovers in a couple of weeks.

69

Cells of the immune system usually ignore antigens found in the body. This is called __________.
tolerance
specificity
versatility
memory
All of the listed responses are correct.

tolerance

70

Many American children of the 1950s suffered terribly from the polio virus until the Salk and Sabin vaccines were developed. These vaccines introduced inactivated viruses into the bodies of the vaccine recipients. The type of immunity conferred through this method is called __________.
artificially acquired passive immunity
naturally acquired passive immunity
innate immunity
artificially induced active immunity

artificially induced active immunity

71

CD4 and CD8 markers __________.
are produced and released into circulation by plasma cells
are used in the process of costimulation, a necessary activity for the activation of T cells
suppress the immune response after a specific response has been made
All of the listed responses are correct.

are used in the process of costimulation, a necessary activity for the activation of T cells

72

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins are __________.
found only in lymphocytes and phagocytic cells
found in every nucleated cell in the body
found in every cell in the body
found only in foreign cells

found in every nucleated cell in the body

73

MHC class II proteins are found __________.
in all nucleated cells in the body
only in lymphocytes and phagocytic cells
in all cells in the body
only in foreign proteins

only in lymphocytes and phagocytic cells

74

Cytotoxic (killer) T cells can destroy a target cell by each of the following processes EXCEPT __________.
releasing lymphotoxin
secreting antibodies that destroy cell membranes
releasing perforin to rupture the cell membrane
activating genes that dictate the death of the target cell

secreting antibodies that destroy cell membranes

75

The second response to a single antigen __________ the first response.
is weaker than
is stronger and longer-lasting than
is equal to
varies, depending on circumstances, with

is stronger and longer-lasting than

76

Which cell is needed to activate B cells?
helper T cells
cytotoxic T cells
plasma cells
phagocytes

helper T cells

77

The antigen-binding sites are found in the __________.
variable segments
light segments
constant segments
heavy segments

variable segments

78

The antigen–antibody complex may result in __________.
agglutination
prevention of adhesion
complement activation
attraction of phagocytes
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

79

Which type of antibody is secreted first after the arrival of an antigen?
IgA
IgM
IgE
IGg

IgM

80

A fetus gains most of its immunity from __________.
IgG antibodies secreted by fetal T cells
IgA antibodies secreted by the placenta
IgM antibodies produced by its liver
IgG antibodies that cross the placenta from its mother

IgG antibodies that cross the placenta from its mother

81

Which of the following diseases is caused by a retrovirus that targets helper T cells and is contracted by intimate contact with the body fluids of infected individuals?
filariasis
SCID
rheumatoid arthritis
AIDS
appendicitis

AIDS

82

What are colony-stimulating factors?
cytokines that slow the growth of a tumor or kill sensitive tumor cells
cytokines that enable the producing cell of cell neighbors to be virus resistant
cytokines that stimulate B cell activity and T cell sensitivity
cytokines that stimulate the production of blood cells in bone marrow and lymphocytes in lymph organs and tissues

cytokines that stimulate the production of blood cells in bone marrow and lymphocytes in lymph organs and tissues

83

Which of the following is NOT a function of interleukin?
moderating the immune response
decreasing T cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage membranes
enhancing nonspecific defenses
stimulating B cell activity, plasma cell formation, and antibody production

decreasing T cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage membranes

84

A disorder in which the immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissues is known as an __________.
anaphylactic reaction
immunodeficiency disease
allergy
autoimmune disease

autoimmune disease

85

True/False. T cells produce antibodies, thus giving antibody-mediated immunity.

False
T cells are classified as cytotoxic, helper, memory, or suppressor cells, but they do not produce antibodies. That is the job of B cells.

86

True/False. Immunosurveillance is an innate defense characterized by NK cells destroying cancer cells or cells infected with a virus.

True

87

True/False. Interferons are important in the resistance of tissues to viral infection.

True

88

True/False. Lymph is similar to plasma, except lymph contains more proteins.

False
Large proteins are retained by the capillaries and never enter the tissues as part of the lymph.

89

True/False. The most abundant and diverse class of antibodies is the IgM class.

False
IgM class antibodies are the first to be secreted on exposure to an antigen, but they are not the most abundant or diverse class.

90

NK cells destroy other cells by releasing ___ from secretory vesicles.

perforin

91

The continued secretion of ___ during stress can inhibit the immune response and lower resistance to disease.

glucocorticoids

92

This saclike chamber collects lymph from the lower abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs. ___ ___ (Use two words.)

cisterna chyli

93

The cell that is not a specific immunity cell but a type of lymphocyte that provides immunosurveillance is called a(n) ___ cell.

natural killer

NK

94

The enhancement of phagocytosis caused by the coating of a pathogen with antibodies is called ____ .

opsonization

95

To which of the following would the immune system NOT respond?
influenza virus
decreased levels of blood flow at the kidney
physical injury (penetration of a foreign object) to the skin
a parasitic worm
cancerous cell in the lung

decreased levels of blood flow at the kidney

96

The anatomical barriers and defense mechanisms that CANNOT distinguish one potential threat from another are called __________.
abnormal nontoxicity
the immune response
innate defenses
adaptive defenses

innate defenses

97

The MAJOR components of the lymphatic system include the __________.
thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct, and lymph nodes
spleen, thymus, and tonsils
lymphatic vessels, lymph, and lymphatic organs
lymph nodes, lymph, and lymphocytes

lymphatic vessels, lymph, and lymphatic organs

98

Which of the following is an example of a free macrophage?
alveolar macrophage
microglial cell
Kupffer cell
All of the listed responses are correct.

alveolar macrophage

99

Lymphocytes that assist in the regulation and coordination of the immune response are __________.
helper T and suppressor T cells
plasma cells
B cells
NK and B cells

helper T and suppressor T cells

100

Normal lymphocyte populations are maintained through lymphopoiesis in the __________.
spleen and liver
blood and the lymph
lymph in the lymphatic tissues
bone marrow and lymphatic tissues

bone marrow and lymphatic tissues

101

The largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body is contained within the __________.
lymphatic nodules
tonsils
adult spleen
thymus gland

adult spleen

102

Mucous, sweat gland secretions, hairs, and sebaceous secretions all contribute to the effectiveness of which type of innate defense?
pyrogens
phagocytes
interferons
physical barriers
complement

physical barriers

103

The "first line" of cellular defense against pathogenic invasion is __________.
phagocytes
interferon
complement system
pathogens

phagocytes

104

NK cells contain the proteins perforin and protectin that provide a type of immunity called __________.
the complement system
the inflammatory response
immunological surveillance
phagocytes

immunological surveillance

105

What are the two major ways that the body "carries out" the immune response to a specific antigen?
direct attack by T cells and attack by circulating antibodies
phagocytosis and the inflammatory response
immunological surveillance and fever
physical barriers and the complement system

direct attack by T cells and attack by circulating antibodies

106

An adaptive defense mechanism is always activated by __________.
an antigen
inflammation
fever
an antibody

an antigen

107

Which type of immunity develops as a result of natural exposure to an antigen in the environment?
artificially induced active immunity
naturally acquired passive immunity
artificially induced passive immunity
naturally acquired active immunity

naturally acquired active immunity

108

The fact that people are NOT subject to the same diseases as goldfish describes the presence of __________.
innate immunity
passive immunity
acquired immunity
active immunity

innate immunity

109

A cross-reaction following transfusion with an incompatible blood type is an example of which of the following?
a cytotoxic reaction
an autoimmune disease
immediate hypersensitivity
delayed hypersensitivity

a cytotoxic reaction

110

Before an antigen can stimulate a lymphocyte, it must first be processed by __________.
a cytotoxic T cell
a neutrophil
a macrophage
an NK cell

a macrophage

111

The T cells that limit the degree of immune system activation from a single stimulus are __________.
cytotoxic T cells
memory TC cells
suppressor T cells
CD4 T cells

suppressor T cells

112

Which of the following lymphatic structures do(es) NOT display the outer cortex/inner medulla pattern?
tonsils
lymph node
spleen
thymus
tonsils and spleen
thymus and lymph node

tonsils and spleen

113

Activated B cells produce plasma cells that are specialized to __________.
produce helper T cells
synthesize and secrete antibodies
direct a physical and chemical attack
All of the listed responses are correct.

synthesize and secrete antibodies

114

An antibody exhibits a high degree of flexibility as a result of the interchangeability of the __________.
heavy chain
light chain
constant segment
variable segment

variable segment

115

Antibodies may promote inflammation through the stimulation of __________.
cytotoxic T cells
basophils and mast cells
plasma cells and memory B cells
suppressor T cells

basophils and mast cells

116

The epitope site is the certain portion of the antigen's exposed surface where __________.
the foreign "body" attacks
the antibody attaches
phagocytosis occurs
the immune surveillance system is activated

the antibody attaches

117

For a B cell to be activated, it must __________.
be bound by a helper T cell at a class II MHC
undergo the process of opsonization
bind an antigen to a surface antibody
be bound by a helper T cell at a class II MHC and bind an antigen to a surface antibody
All of the listed responses are correct.

be bound by a helper T cell at a class II MHC and bind an antigen to a surface antibody

118

The effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the body include which of the following?
slowing tumor growth and killing sensitive tumor cells
stimulating granulocyte production
increasing T cell sensitivity to interleukins
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

119

The ability to demonstrate an immune response after exposure to an antigen is called __________.
immunosuppression
passive immunity
anaphylaxis
immunological competence

immunological competence

120

A baby developing in the womb has _____________________ immunity because it receives __________ antibodies from its mother.
naturally acquired passive; IgE
naturally induced active; IgA
antibody-mediated; IgM
naturally acquired passive; IgG

naturally acquired passive; IgG

121

When an immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissues, the result is __________.
immune system failure
depression of the inflammatory response
an autoimmune disorder
the development of an allergy

an autoimmune disorder

122

Cells of the immune system influence CNS and endocrine activity by __________.
increasing circulating thyroid hormone levels during immune responses
stimulating cell and tissue metabolism
secreting endorphins and thymic hormones
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

123

Depression of the immune system due to chronic stress may cause __________.
a reduction in the activities and numbers of phagocytes in peripheral tissues
depression of the inflammatory response
the inhibition of interleukin secretion
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

124

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the immune system?
involution of the thymus, leading to fewer T cells in circulation
increased production of pyrogens, leading to a higher general body temperature
a decrease in immunosurveillance activity, leading to higher rates of cancer
a decrease in responsive B cells, leading to increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infection

increased production of pyrogens, leading to a higher general body temperature

125

Which type of lymphocyte does NOT release perforins?
helper T cell
cytotoxic T cell
both B cell and helper T cell
B cell
NK cell

both B cell and helper T cell

126

The primary effects of complement activation include which of the following?
stimulation and inflammation
attraction of phagocytes and enhancement of phagocytosis
destruction of target cell membranes
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

127

Which of the following nonspecific responses is characterized by the use of C3, properdin, factor B, and factor D?
physical barriers
complement, alternative pathway
complement, classical pathway
immunosurveillance
fever

complement, alternative pathway

128

Tissue fluid enters the lymphatic system via the __________.
thoracic duct
bloodstream
lymph capillaries
lymph nodes

lymph capillaries

129

When an antigen appears, the adaptive immune system response begins with __________.
the activation of the complement system
the activation of specific T cells and B cells
the presence of immunoglobulins in body fluids
the release of endogenous pyrogens

the activation of specific T cells and B cells

130

In what way do mast cells participate in tissue defense?
destruction of cell membranes containing abnormal antigens
stimulation and coordination of inflammation by release of histamine and heparin
secretion of suppression factors that inhibit the immune response
antigen presentation bound to class II MHC proteins

stimulation and coordination of inflammation by release of histamine and heparin

131

Chemical mediators of inflammation include which of the following?
histamine, heparin, prostaglandins, and complement
epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine
kinins, opsonins, epinephrine, and leukotrienes
All of the listed responses are correct.

histamine, heparin, prostaglandins, and complement

132

T cells that are activated by costimulation involving a class I MHC and CD8 markers are called __________.
cytotoxic T cells
plasma cells
memory B cells
helper T cells

cytotoxic T cells

133

B lymphocytes differentiate into __________.
memory and plasma cells
helper and suppressor cells
cytotoxic and suppressor cells
memory and helper cells

memory and plasma cells

134

__________ cells may activate B cells, whereas _________ cells inhibit the activity of B cells.
Helper T; suppressor T
Memory; plasma
Memory; cytotoxic
Macrophages; microphages

Helper T; suppressor T

135

The primary response of CD8 T cell differentiation in cell-mediated immunity is the production of __________ cells.
helper T
suppressor T
memory
cytotoxic T

cytotoxic T

136

The vaccination of antigenic materials into the body is called __________.
naturally acquired passive immunity
artificially induced active immunity
naturally acquired active immunity
artificially acquired passive immunity

artificially induced active immunity

137

In passive immunity, __________ are introduced into the body by injection.
T and B cells
lymphocytes
antibodies
antigens

antibodies

138

What is the lymphatic function of the white pulp of the spleen?
release of splenic hormones into lymphatic vessels
to degrade foreign proteins and toxins released by bacteria
phagocytosis of abnormal blood cell components
initiation of immune responses by B cells and T cells

initiation of immune responses by B cells and T cells

139

Which of the following is characteristic of the secondary response?
massive antibody response
begins almost immediately (less than one week)
failure of pathogens to survive long enough to result in illness
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

140

The antibodies produced and secreted by B lymphocytes are soluble proteins called __________.
agglutinins
immunoglobulins
lymphokines
leukotrienes

immunoglobulins

141

The genes found in a region called the major histocompatibility complex are also called __________.
autoantibodies
human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)
immunoglobulins (IgG)
alpha and gamma interferons

human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)

142

Memory B cells do NOT differentiate into plasma cells UNLESS they __________.
are initially subjected to a specific antigen
are stimulated by passive immunization
are exposed to the same antigen a second time
are stimulated by active immunization

are exposed to the same antigen a second time

143

The three-dimensional "fit" between the variable segments of the antibody molecule and the corresponding antigenic determinant site is referred to as the __________.
immunodeficiency complex
antibody–antigen complex
protein–complement complex
All of the listed responses are correct.

antibody–antigen complex

144

One of the primary nonspecific effects that glucocorticoids have on the immune response is __________.
depression of the inflammatory response
inhibition of interleukin secretion
increased release of T and B cells
decreased activity of cytotoxic T cells

depression of the inflammatory response


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