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Biology Chapter 14

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Biotechnology and Genomics Practice Exam

Grade levels:
College: First year

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1

What is the function of naturally occurring restriction enzymes in bacterial cells?

A. They are used during DNA replication in the bacterial cell.
B. They are used to degrade the bacterial cell's DNA.
C. Restriction enzymes recognize and cleave DNA molecules that are foreign to the bacterial cell.
D. These enzymes are used to attach pieces of DNA into an opening created by ligase enzymes.

C

2

Which of the following is mismatched?

A. bioinformatics - the study of a genomic and proteomic information using computer analysis
B. polymerase chain reaction - process that separates DNA fragments according to size
C. genomics - the study of the genomes of humans and other organisms
D. proteomics - the study of species' proteins

B

3

Place the following steps in cloning DNA in the correct order
1 - use vector to deliver new rDNA to bacterial or other cells
2 - use restriction enzymes to cut a plasmid and add the desired gene
3 - isolate and cut out a desired gene using restriction enzymes
4 - use DNA ligase to seal the new gene
5 - allow bacterial cells to replicate and produce desired product

A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
B. 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
C. 2, 5, 3, 1, 4
D. 3, 2, 4, 1, 5

D

4

The function of a vector in genetic engineering is to

A. cut DNA into many fragments.
B. introduce rDNA into a host cell.
C. link together newly joined fragments of DNA.
D. make millions of copies of a specific segment of DNA.
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges.

B

5

The term "ligase" adds the suffix "-ase" to the Latin root word for

A. gene.
B. work.
C. cut.
D. bind.
E. copy-producing.

D

6

Which of the following molecules forms lengths of DNA with "sticky ends"?

A. DNA ligase
B. DNA polymerase
C. RNA polymerase
D. reverse transcriptase
E. restriction enzyme

E

7

The function of DNA ligase in recombinant technology is to

A. cut DNA into many fragments.
B. carry DNA into a new cell.
C. seal DNA into an opening created by restriction enzymes.
D. make millions of copies of a specific segment of DNA.
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges.

C

8

What is complementary DNA (cDNA)?

A. cDNA is the strand of DNA opposite the strand used to make mRNA.
B. cDNA is a sequence of DNA as it is found in the genome.
C. cDNA is any sequence of cloned DNA.
D. cDNA is DNA made from a mature mRNA template.
E. cDNA is DNA made through the polymerase chain reaction.

D

9

What enzyme is used to make cDNA from mRNA?

A. DNA ligase
B. helicase
C. reverse transcriptase
D. RNA polymerase
E. restriction enzyme

C

10

The function of the polymerase chain reaction in genetic engineering is to

A. cut DNA into many fragments.
B. carry DNA into a new cell.
C. link together newly joined fragments of DNA.
D. make multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA.
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges.

D

11

All of the following statements are true about restriction enzymes EXCEPT

A. they are made by bacteria and viruses.
B. hundreds of different ones have been isolated and purified.
C. they produce single-stranded complementary ends that can join to two different DNA strands by complementary base pairing.
D. each enzyme cuts DNA at a different specific base sequence.

A

12

What was the minimal requirement to perform a "classic DNA fingerprinting" test in order to associate a blood sample with a criminal?

A. one sample of DNA, PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and gel electrophoresis
B. one sample of DNA, restriction enzymes, a DNA synthesizer, and gel electrophoresis
C. two samples of DNA, PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and gel electrophoresis
D. two samples of DNA, PCR amplification, a DNA synthesizer, and gel electrophoresis
E. two samples of DNA, PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and a DNA synthesizer

C

13

To carry out a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), you must have DNA polymerase and

A. a blueprint or gene map of the sequence you wish to copy.
B. the nucleotides to synthesize new DNA strands.
C. a DNA synthesizer machine.
D. a DNA probe.

B

14

A transgenic organism is

A. one that contains a gene from another organism of the same or different species.
B. one produced by cloning a mutant cell.
C. one that acts as the donor for DNA to be moved into another organism.
D. one produced by the polymerase chain reaction.
E. any genetically modified organism resulting from laboratory research.

A

15

Plants are being genetically engineered to have

A. a requirement for more fertilizer.
B. an increased water requirement.
C. the ability to produce human proteins.
D. increased susceptibility to herbicides.
E All of the choices are correct

C

16

A common method used to introduce rDNA into bacterial host cells is

A. viral infection.
B. bacteriophage infection.
C. plasmid transfer.
D. microinjection of DNA.
E. laser irradiation of cells in a fluid containing DNA.

C

17

Transgenic _______ have been given suicide genes that cause them to self-destruct when the job for which they are engineered has been accomplished.

A. animals
B. bacteria
C. plants
D. fungi
E. All of the choices are correct.

B

18

What is the function of gel electrophoresis in genetic engineering?

A. cut DNA into many fragments
B. carry DNA into a new cell
C. link together newly joined fragments of DNA
D. make millions of copies of a specific segment of DNA
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges

E

19
card image

DNA fingerprinting may be used to establish paternity. Analyze the banding pattern to determine the father of the child.

A. Male 1
B. Male 2

A

20

With both bacterial and eukaryotic cells constantly dying and breaking down around us, and with a tremendous load of fragmentary DNA washing around in the fluid world, why aren't genes being transferred among various living organisms at a massive scale daily?

A. DNA that is not protected inside a protein coat or membrane is very vulnerable.
B. Living cells maintain a very effective barrier to the introduction of large molecules.
C. Since a vector appears necessary to snatch up DNA from one protected source and inject it into a cell, "naked" DNA is apparently vulnerable and unable to cross membranes easily.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct, since DNA is readily exchanged among all organisms in nature.

D

21

When bone marrow stem cells are removed from the patient, infected with a virus that carries a normal gene, and returned to the patient, this is an example of

A. PCR.
B. chemotherapy.
C. viral disinfection.
D. in vivo gene therapy.
E. ex vivo gene therapy.

E

22

Transgenic plant products include all of the following EXCEPT

A. soybeans that are resistant to a common herbicide.
B. an antibody produced by soybeans to treat genital herpes.
C. suicide genes that cause the plants to self destruct after their product has been produced.
D. antibodies produced by corn plants that deliver radioisotopes to tumor cells.

C

23

All of the following are true regarding transgenic animals EXCEPT

A. foreign genes are micro-injected into eggs, fertilized in vitro, and the zygotes are placed in host females to develop.
B. the process has inserted bovine growth hormone into fish, cows, and other animals.
C. the process has been used to develop organisms that are partially animals and partially plant.
D. the product desired by the transgenic procedure may be secreted in the milk of female offspring.

C

24

Gene pharming is the use of

A. transgenic plants to produce larger vegetables and sweeter fruits.
B. bacteria to produce organic compounds like aspartame and phenylalanine.
C. STR profiling to determine evolutionary relationships among organisms.
D. transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals.

D

25

It is estimated that humans have approximately ______ base pairs in our genome.

A. 3 billion
B. 2.5 million
C. 180 million
D. 12 trillion

A

26

Human gene therapy

A. includes the insertion of genetic material into human cells for the treatment of a genetic disease.
B. has been used for treatment of children who have severe combined immunodeficiency.
C. has been used in a trial to treat familial hypercholesterolemia.
D. All of the choices are correct.

D

27

Gene therapy in humans has been used to treat

A. cystic fibrosis.
B. cancer.
C. inborn errors of metabolism.
D. All of the above.
E. Only two of the above.

D

28

The introduction of normal genes into an afflicted individual for therapeutic use is called

A. human cloning.
B. proteonomics.
C. gene therapy.
D. genetic profiling.

C

29

What is the first step in producing a transgenic animal?

A. implantation of a donor egg into the host mother.
B. inject the desired gene(s) into a donor egg.
C. transgenic organism produces offspring that have the desired gene which can then produce more transgenic offspring.
D. transgenic eggs are harvested from the surrogate mother.

B

30

Animal cloning is a difficult process with a low success rate.

TRUE

31

All of the following statements about CNVs are true EXCEPT

A. CNVs occur when genes have changed their number.
B. the changes may result from fork stalling and template switching.
C. CNVs have known links to disease.
D. All of the above are true.

D

32

Transgenic plants must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration before they are considered safe for human consumption.

TRUE

33

The polymerase chain reaction uses RNA polymerase.

FALSE

34

Biotechnology products produced by bacteria include all of the following EXCEPT

A. an antibody to deliver radioisotopes to tumor cells.
B. clotting factor VIII.
C. human growth hormone.
D. insulin.

A

35

Familial hypercholesterolemia

A. is characterized by high blood levels of cholesterol.
B. is a condition that develops when liver cells lack a receptor protein for removing cholesterol from the blood.
C. may be treated by ex vivo gene therapy.
D. All of the above are true.
E. Only two of the above are true.

D

36

Proteomics involves the application of computer technologies to study databases of genetic information.

FALSE

37

In what field of study would scientists predict a protein's three-dimensional shape and how DNA mutations would affect protein function.

A. Bioinformatics
B. Proteomics
C. Genomics
D. All of the above.

D

38

Proteomics is the study of the exact role of the genome in cells or organisms.

FALSE

39

Gene therapy is being used in cancer patients to make healthy cells more tolerant of chemotherapy and to make tumors more vulnerable to chemotherapy.

TRUE

40

Small, variable regions of DNA that may change an individual's susceptibility to disease are called proteomes.

FALSE

41

Gene cloning can be accomplished by recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reactions.

TRUE

42

Automated polymerase chain reactions were made possible when the temperature insensitive DNA polymerase was isolated from the thermophile Thermus aquaticus.

TRUE

43

Under which of the following circumstances would a DNA microarray be useful?

A. It would enable a researcher to determine the differences in gene expression between cell types.
B. Researchers are trying to determine if an individual has inherited a genetic disease from their parents.
C. It would enable doctors to determine which genes are responsible for producing diseased tissue in an individual.
D. All of these are circumstances in which a DNA microarray would be useful.
E. None of these are circumstances in which a DNA microarray would be useful.

D

44

How are DNA microarrays used in the study of genomics?

A. They are used to identify the mutations that an individual possesses.
B. They can be used to determine which genes are turned on or off in an individual.
C. They can be used to help determine an individuals genetic profile.
D. All of these are uses for DNA microarrays.
E. None of these are uses for DNA microarrays.

D

45

Steps required to clone a human gene
Which of the following is the correct order of steps in cloning a human gene?

1. DNA ligase seals the human gene and plasmid.
2. Host cell takes up the plasmid.
3. Gene cloning takes place as the cell undergoes the cell cycle.
4. Restriction enzyme is used to cleave the DNA.

A. 4 - 1 - 2 - 3
B. 1- 3 - 4 - 2
C. 4 - 1 - 3 - 2
D. 4 - 2 - 3 - 1

A

46

Which of the following health disorders can be treated with ex vivo gene therapy?

A. Liver cells lack a protein that enables it to remove cholesterol from the blood which leads to high levels of cholesterol in the blood. This can increase the patients susceptibility to heart attacks.
B. The liver cells lack a protein that causes it to produce excessive cholesterol which leads to high levels of cholesterol in the blood. This can increase the patients susceptibility to heart attacks.
C. A gene is implanted that will code for the correct transmembrane carrier of the chloride ion.
D. Genes are implanted that make healthy cells more tolerant to chemotherapy while making the tumor cells more susceptible to chemotherapy

A

47

What consequences could arise if the field of bioinformatics ceased to exist as a field of study?

A. Progress in determining the function of DNA sequences, making comparisons between our genome and other model organisms, and understanding how genes and proteins interact with cells would stop.
B. Many cures for genetic disorders would not be discovered.
C. The creation of new transgenic plants, animals and bacteria that benefit society would not occur.
D. All of these are consequences if the field of bioinformatics ceased to exist as a field of study.

D

48

Which description best fits the term xenotransplantation?

A. The use of animal organs in human transplant patients.
B. The use of human organs in animal transplants.
C. The use of animal DNA during genetic modification.
D. None of these descriptions fit xenotransplantation.

A

49

What is the major reason why xenotransplantation is not being widely used in medicine today?

A. The human patient will often reject the animal organ.
B. There are not enough animal organs available for transplant.
C. People are not willing to accept an animal organ during a transplant.
D. There are not enough human organs to be able to transplant them to the animals in need.

A


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