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packet 25 chapter 25

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created 4 years ago by rubigordils
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updated 4 years ago by rubigordils

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1

Site of filtrate formation.

Glomerulus

2

Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Collecting duct

3

Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.

Peritubular capillaries

4

Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs

Proximal convoluted tubule

5

) Low pressure, porous vessels that reabsorb solutes and water from the tubule cells

Peritubular capillaries

6

) High pressure vessel that forces fluid and solutes into the glomerular capsule.

Afferent arterioles

7

May form meandering vessels or bundles of long straight vessels.

Efferent arterioles

8

) Play a role in urine concentration.

Vasa recta

9

Fenestrated vessels that allow passage of all plasma elements but not blood cells.

Glomerular capillaries

10

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.

nephron loop

11

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

a vasa recta

12

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.

increase in the production of ADH

13

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.

transitional

14

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

15

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

by a decrease in the blood pressure

16

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

arcuate

17

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

is drained by an efferent arteriole

18

The descending limb of the nephron loop ________.

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

19

Select the correct statement about the ureters.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

20

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

21

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

22

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.

nephron

23

Which of the following does not describe the justaglomerular complex?

Its macula densa cells produce aldosterone

24

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

25

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?

the stretching of the bladder wall

26

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.

renal fascia

27

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

osmosis

28

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segment

29

The macula densa cells respond to ________.

changes in solute content of the filtrate

30

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

creatinine

31

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

plasma protein

32

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.

inhibits the release of ADH

33

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

34

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.

diabetes insipidus

35

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.

slightly higher than water

36

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
3. nephron
4. urethra
5. ureter
6. collecting duct

nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter,urethra

37

Select the correct statement about the nephrons.

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

38

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

Net filtration would decrease.

39

Which of the following is NOT a part of the juxtaglomerular complex?

podocyte cells

40

Which of the following is NOT true regarding tubular reabsorption?

It is a purely passive transport process.

41

Which of the following is the least important influence on reabsorption of a substance in the nephron?

molecular complexity

42

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.

secondary active transport

43

Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?

form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

44

Which of the following is the correct sequence of kidney development from embryo to fetus?

pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros

45

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

46

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

47

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.

appear in the urine

48

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

49

Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

50

Which of the choices below is NOT a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?

by secreting sodium ions

51

In the ascending limb of the nephron loop the ________.

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

52

Select the correct statement about urinary system development.

Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

53

Which of the choices below is the least important role of tubular secretion?

ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

54

What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

55

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?

macula densa

56

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?

ADH

57

Which of the choices below is NOT a glomerular filtration rate control method?

electrolyte levels

58

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?

angiotensin II and aldosterone

59

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

macula densa cells

60

ADH activated water channels called ________ are essential for water reabsorption in the collecting duct.

Aquaporins

61

The need to get up in the middle of the night to urinate is called ________.

Nocturia

62

The area between the ureters and urethra is called the ________ in a bladder.

Trigone

63

The ________ mechanism is the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched.

Myogenic

64

The presence of pus in the urine is a condition called ________.

Pyuria

65

Sodium-linked water flow across a membrane not under hormonal control is called ________ water reabsorption.

Obligatory

66

List three substances that are abnormal urinary constituents and provide the proper clinical term for such abnormalities.

Proteins- Proteinuria
Ketone bodies-ketonuria
Erythrocyte-hematuria


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