Anatomy & Physiology Lab 1: Overview of the Skeleton

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1

Skeleton

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-the body's framework, composed of cartilage & bone
-in embryos the skeleton is predominantly made up of hyaline cartilage, replaced by more rigid bone.

2

Functions of the skeleton.

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-supports and protects the body
-responsible for body movement
-bones store lipid and minerals
-site of hematopoiesis

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Axial Skeleton

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-bones that lie around the body's center of gravity

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Appendicular Skeleton

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-bones of the limbs or appendages

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Articular cartilage

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-covers bone ends at movable joints

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Costal cartilage

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-connects ribs to sternum

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Laryngeal Cartilage

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-constructs the larynx (voice box)

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Tracheal & Bronchial Cartilage

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-reinforce passageways of the respiratory system

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Nasal Cartilage

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-supports the external nose

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Invertebral Discs

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-separates and cushions bones of the spine

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Perichondrium

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-dense connective tissue that surrounds cartilage

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Hyaline Cartilage

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-provides sturdy support with some resilience
-most skeletal cartilage is hyaline cartilage

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Elastic Cartilage

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-more flexible than hyaline cartilage
-located in the external ear and epiglottis

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Fibrocartilage

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-consists of rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers
-great tensile strength, can withstand heavy compression

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Compact Bone

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-smooth and homogenous

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Spongy Bone

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-composed of small bars of bones and lots of open space

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Long Bones

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-much longer than they are wide
-generally consists of a shaft with heads at either end
-predominantly composed of compact bone
-examples: femur & phalanges

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Short Bones

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-typically cube shaped
-contains more spongy bone than compact bone
-example: tarsal and carpals

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Flat Bones

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-generally thin with 2 wafer-like layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them
-many flat bones are curved

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Irregular Bones

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-bones that do not fall into any of the categories
-ex: vertebrae

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Sesamoid Bones

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-special types of short bones formed in tendons
-Example: patellas

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Sutural Bones

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-tiny bones between cranial bones

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Tuberosity

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-large rounded projection

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Crest

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-narrow ridge of bone

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Trochanter

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-very large, blunt, irregulary shaped process

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Line

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-narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest

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Tubercle

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- small rounded projection or process

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Epicondyle

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-raised area on or above a condyle

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Spine

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-sharp, slender, often pointed projection

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Process

-any bony prominence

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Head

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-bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

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Facet

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-smooth, nearly flat articular surface

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Condyle

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-rounded articular projection

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Ramus

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-armlike bar of bone

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Groove

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-furrow

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Fissure

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-narrow, slitlike opening

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Foramen

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-round or oval opening through a bone

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Notch

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-indentation at the edge of a structure

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Meatus

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-canal like passageway

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Sinus

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-bone cavity, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane

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Fossa

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-shallow basin-like depression in a bone

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Diaphysis

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-the shaft of a bone
-composed of compact bone
-has a smooth surface

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Periosteum

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-fibrous membrane covering the bone

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Perforating Fibers

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-fibers of the periosteum that penetrates into the bone

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Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are found on the inner, or osteogenic layer of the _____________.

Periosteum

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Epiphysis

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-end of the long bong
-composed of a thin layer of compact bone that encloses spongy bone

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Epiphyseal Plate

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-thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of the bone during youth

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Medullary Cavity

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-storage region for adipose tissue, or yellow bone marrow

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Epiphyseal Lines

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barely, discernible remnants

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Central (Haversian) Canal

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-runs parallel to the long axis of the bone
-carries blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels through the bony matrix

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Osteons

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the central canal and all the concentric lamellae surrounding it

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Canaliculi

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-tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then lamella to lamella
-forms dense transportation networks through the hard bone matrix, connecting all the living cells of the osteon to the nutrient supply


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