Chapter 57: Amniotic Fluid, Fetal Membranes, and Fetal Hydrops

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1

amniotic band syndrome (ABS)

multiple fibrous strands of amnion that develop in utero and may entangle fetal parts to cause amputations or malformations of the fetus

2

amniotic cavity

forms early in gestation and surrounds the embryo; amniotic fluid fills the cavity to protect the embryo and fetus

3

amniotic fluid

produced by the umbilical cord and membranes, the fetal lung, skin, and kidney

4

amniotic fluid index (AFI)

the uterus is divided into four quadrants, each of which is evaluated with the transducer perpendicular to the table in the deepest vertical pocket without fetal parts; the amniotic fluid index equals the four quadrants added together

5

anasarca

generalized swelling and edema of skin throughout the body

6

ascites

abnormal serous fluid collection found in the abdomen or pelvis

7

Asherman’s syndrome

acquired uterine condition characterized by the presence of intrauterine scars or synechiae

8

chorioamnionitis

bacterial infection of the fetal membranes usually due to the upward ascent of a vaginal infection

9

corticosteroid therapy

administered to pregnant women to help accelerate fetal lung maturity

10

hydramnios

increased amount of amniotic fluid

11

hydrops fetalis

abnormal accumulation of fluid or edema found in at least two fetal areas

12

immune hydrops fetalis (IHF)

accumulation of abnormal fluid collections caused by rhesus incompatibility

13

maximum vertical pocket

method used to determine the amount of amniotic fluid; a pocket less than 2 cm may indicate oligohydramnios; greater than 8 cm indicates polyhydramnios

14

nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF)

accumulation of abnormal fluid collections not caused by rhesus incompatibility

15

oligohydramnios

too little amniotic fluid; associated with intrauterine growth restriction, renal anomalies, premature rupture of membranes, postdate pregnancy, and other factors

16

pericardial effusion

abnormal collection of fluid surrounding the heart greater than 2 mm

17

placental insufficiency

inability of placenta to provide adequate blood/nutrient supply to the fetus because of underlying maternal disease, such as hypertension or diabetes, or because of extensive placental abruption

18

pleural effusion

abnormal fluid collection in the thoracic cavity

19

polyhydramnios

too much amniotic fluid; associated with central nervous system disorder, gastrointestinal anomalies, fetal hydrops, skeletal anomalies, renal disorders, and other factors

20

premature rupture of membranes (PROM)

condition in which the amniotic bag has ruptured, labor has not begun, and the pregnancy is beyond 37 weeks’ gestation

21

preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)

condition in which the amniotic bag has ruptured, labor has not yet begun, and the pregnancy is at less than 37 weeks’ gestation

22

spontaneous premature rupture of membranes (SPROM)

condition in which the amniotic bag ruptures with labor or just after labor begins

23

subjective assessment

sonographer surveys uterine cavity to visually assess amniotic fluid present

24

synechiae

scars within the uterus secondary to previous gynecologic surgery

25

vernix caseosa

fatty material found on fetal skin and in amniotic fluid late in pregnancy


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