Biology notecards

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1

Cell

The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism

2

cell theory

A theory first stated by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms.

3

cell membrane

A membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.

4

cell wall

A rigid layer of covering lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria.

5

nucleus

A dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells

6

cytoplasm

The material or protoplasm within a living cell

7

prokaryote

A microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.

8

eukaryote

An organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus.

9

organelle

Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.

10

chromatin

the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria.

11

chromosome

A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells.

12

nucleolus

A small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell.

13

nuclear envelope

The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

14

cytoskeleton

A microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells.

15

microtubule

a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of cells

16

microfilament

A small rodlike structure, about 4–7 nanometers in diameter.

17

ribosome

A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins.

18

endoplasmic reticulum

A network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

19

Golgi apparatus

A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells.

20

lysosome

An organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

21

vacuole

A space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.

22

mitochondria

An organelle found in large numbers in most cells.

23

chloroplast

A plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.

24

cell specialization

An adaptation to do a particular job in a cell.

25

tissue

Any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.

26

organ

A part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function.

27

organ system

A group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.


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