Reproductive Anatomy and physiology
The outer two-thirds of the fallopian tube; fertilization of the ovum by a spermatozoon usually occurs here.
Pigmented ring surrounding the nipple of the breast
A ligament that keeps the uterus centrally placed and provides stability within the pelvic cavity. It is a double layer that is continuous with the abdominal peritoneum. The broad ligament covers the uterus anteriorly and posteriorly and extends outward from the uterus to enfold the fallopian tubes.
The chief uterine supports, the cardinal ligaments suspend the uterus from the side walls of the true pelvis. Also known as Mackenrodt's or transverse cervical ligaments, they arise from the sides of the pelvic walls and attach to the cervix in the upper vagina. They prevent uterine prolapse and support the upper vagina.
The "neck" between the external os and the body of the uterus. The lower end of the cervix extends into the vagina.
The true conjugate, which extends from the middle of the sacral promontory to the middle of the pubic crest.
The elongated portion of the uterus where the fallopian tubes enter.
The upper two-thirds of the uterus.
A small yellow body that develops within a ruptured ovarian follicle; it secretes progesterone in the second half of the menstrual cycle and atrophies about 3 days before the beginning of menstrual flow. If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function.
An anteroposterior diameter that extends from the subpubic angle to the middle of the sacral promontory and is typically 12.5 cm. One of three diameters that are used to assess the size and shape of the pelvic inlet.
The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the uterus.
The hormones estradiol and estrone, produced by the ovary.
Tubes that extend from the lateral angle of the uterus and terminate near the ovary; they serve as a passageway for the ovum from the ovary to the uterus and for the spermatozoa from the uterus toward the ovary. Also called oviducts and uterine tubes.
The portion above the pelvic brim, or linea terminalis, that serves to support the weight of the enlarged pregnant uterus and direct the presenting fetal part into the true pelvis below.
Female reproductive cycle FRC
The monthly rhythmic changes in sexually mature women.
The funnel-like structure at the abdominal opening of the uterine tube that has many fingerlike projections (fimbriae) reaching out to the ovary.
Follicle stimulating hormone FSH
Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary during the first half of the menstrual cycle, stimulating development of the graafian follicle.
The upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes.
"Gandotropin releasing hormone
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.
The ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum; it secretes estrogens.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
A hormone produced by the chorionic villi and found in the urine of pregnant women. Also called prolan.
The ligament that suspends and supports the ovaries. It arises from the outer third of the broad ligament and contains the ovarian vessels and nerves.
Prominences that arise near the junction of the ilium and ischium and jut into the pelvic cavity; used as a reference point during labor to evaluate the descent of the fetal head into the birth canal.
The straight, narrow part of the fallopian tube with a thick muscular wall and an opening (lumen) 2-3 mm in diameter; the site of tubal ligation. Also, a constriction in the uterus that is located above the cervix and below the corpus.
Luetinizing Hormone LH
Anterior pituitary hormone responsible for stimulating ovulation and for development of the corpus luteum.
Uterine muscular structure.
Implantation of a fertilized ovum in the endometrium.
A protrusion about 0.5 to 1.3 cm in diameter in the center of each mature breast.
Distance from the middle of the sacral promontory to an area approximately 1 cm below the pubic crest.
Ligaments that anchor the lower pole of the ovary to the cornua of the uterus. They are surrounded by muscle fibers that allow the ligaments to contract.
The pair of almond-shaped female reproductive organs that contain the ova. The two structures lie just below the pelvic brim. One ovary is located on each side of the pelvic cavity.
Normal process of discharging a mature ovum from an ovary approximately 14 days prior to the onset of menses.
The lower portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the urinary bladder, the rectum, and internal parts of the reproductive system. The pelvic cavity is divided into the false pelvis and the true pelvis.
Part of the pelvic floor composed of deep fascia and the levator ani and the coccygeal muscles.
Pelvic inlet and outlet
"Pelvic inlet Upper border of the true pelvis.
Pelvic outletLower border of the true pelvis.
The outermost layer of the corpus of the uterus. Also known as the serosal layer.
Wedge-shaped mass of fibromuscular tissue found between the lower part of the vagina and the anal canal.
A hormone produced by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta whose function is to stimulate proliferation of the endometrium to facilitate growth of the embryo.
Complex lipid compounds synthesized by many cells in the body.
The developmental period between childhood and attainment of adult sexual characteristics and functioning.
Pertaining to the pubes or pubic area.
Ligaments that arise from the sides of the uterus near the fallopian tube insertions. They extend outward between the folds of the broad ligament, passing through the inguinal ring and canals and eventually fusing with the connective tissue of the labia majora.
A projection into the pelvic cavity on the anterior upper portion of the sacrum; serves as an obstetric guide in determining pelvic measurements.
The process by which mature spermatozoa are formed, during which the number of chromosomes is halved.
A firm joint between the two pelvic bones.
The male hormone; responsible for the development of secondary male characteristics.
The largest diameter of the pelvic inlet; helps determine the shape of the inlet.
The portion that lies below the linea terminalis, made up of the inlet, cavity, and outlet.
Ligaments that provide support for the uterus and cervix at the level of the ischial spines. They arise on each side of the pelvis from the posterior wall of the uterus and sweep back around the rectum to insert on the sides of the first and second sacral vertebrae.
The hollow muscular organ in which the fertilized ovum is implanted and in which the developing fetus is nourished until birth.
The musculomembranous tube or passageway located between the external genitals and the uterus of a woman.
The external structure of the female genitals, lying below the mons veneris.
Identify the structures of the female reproductive system.
Identify the functions of the female reproductive system.
1. Ovaries Produce female germ cells and sex hormones. Fallopian tubes- Capture the ovum and Allow transport of the ovum to the uterus. Uterus- Implantation site for the fertilized ovum. Cervix- Connection between the vagina and the uterus- Protective portal for the body of the uterus. Vagina- Passageway from the external genitals to the uterus- Provides for discharge of menstrual products out of the body
Identify the structures of the male reproductive system.
1. Penis 2. Scrotum 3. Testes: 4. Epididymis: 5. Vas deferens: 6. Ejaculatory duct: 7. Urethra: 8. Accessory glands 9. Seminal fluid
1.Deposits sperm in the vagina so fertilization of the ovum can occur.
2.Reproductive organ of intercourse
* Protects the testes and sperm by maintaining a temperature lower than the body's.
•Serve as a site for spermatogenesis.
•Produce male gametes and male sex hormones.
* Provides a reservoir for maturing spermatozoa.
* Rapidly squeezes the sperm from their storage sites into the urethra.
•Passageway for semen and fluid secreted by the seminal vesicles
•In conjunction with epididymis and vas deferens, transports spermatozoa outside the
* Passageway for both urine and semen
* Produce secretions necessary for sperm nutrition, survival, and transport..
"* Provides environment favorable to sperm mobility and metabolism.
* Transports viable and mobile sperm to the female reproductive tract."
Discuss the significance of specific female reproductive structures during childbirth.
1. Ischial spines: reference point during labor to evaluate the head.2. S ymphysis pubis: head passes under. 3. False pelvis: support the weight of the enlarged pregnant uterus and direct the presenting fetal part into the true pelvis. 4. True pelvis: Shape and size must be adequate for normal fetal passage. Fetus must change its position to move through the diameter of the true pelvis. Pelvic cavity: influence the length of labor.
Summarize the actions of Estrogen that affect reproductive functioning.
1. Controls development of female secondary sex characteristics. Assists in the maturation of the ovarian follicles. Causes endometrial mucosa to proliferate following menstruation. Causes uterus to increase in size and weight. Increases myometrial contractility in both the uterus and fallopian tubes. Increases uterine sensitivity to oxytocin. Inhibits FSH production. Stimulates LH production.
Summarize the actions of Progesterone t hat affect reproductive functioning.
1. Decreases uterine motility and contractility. Causes uterine endometrium to increase its supply of glycogen, arterial blood, secretory glands, amino acids, and water. Vaginal epithelium proliferates. Cervix secretes thick, viscous mucus. Increases breast glandular tissue, in both size and complexity. Prepares breasts for lactation.
Summarize the actions of Prostaglandins that affect reproductive functioning.
* Necessary for follicular rupture
Identify the two phases of the ovarian cycle, and the changes that occur in each phase.
"1. Follicular phase: Primordial follicle matures under the influence of FSH and LH until ovulation occurs.
2. Luteal phase: Ovum leaves the follicle. Corpus luteum develops under the influence of LH. Corpus luteum produces high levels of progesterone and low levels of estrogen."
Describe the phases of the menstrual phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.
"* Shedding of the endometrial lining
* Low estrogen levels"
Proliferative phase: Describe the phases of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.
"* Enlargement of the endometrial glands under influence of estrogen
* Changes in cervical mucus; peak at ovulation
* Increasing estrogen levels"
Secretory phase: Describe the phases of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.
"* Follows ovulation.
* Influenced primarily by progesterone
* Increase in vascularity of the uterus to make ready for possible implantation"
Ischemic phase: Describe the phases of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.
"* Decreasing levels of estrogen and progesterone
* Degeneration of the corpus luteum
* Constriction of the spiral arteries
* Escape of blood into the stromal cells of the endometrium"