A ligament that keeps the uterus centrally placed and provides stability within the pelvic cavity. It is a double layer that is continuous with the abdominal peritoneum. The broad ligament covers the uterus anteriorly and posteriorly and extends outward from the uterus to enfold the fallopian tubes.
The chief uterine supports, the cardinal ligaments suspend the uterus from the side walls of the true pelvis. Also known as Mackenrodt's or transverse cervical ligaments, they arise from the sides of the pelvic walls and attach to the cervix in the upper vagina. They prevent uterine prolapse and support the upper vagina.
A small yellow body that develops within a ruptured ovarian follicle; it secretes progesterone in the second half of the menstrual cycle and atrophies about 3 days before the beginning of menstrual flow. If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function.
Follicle stimulating hormone FSH
"Gandotropin releasing hormone
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
Luetinizing Hormone LH
Pelvic inlet and outlet
Identify the structures of the female reproductive system.
Identify the functions of the female reproductive system.
1. Ovaries Produce female germ cells and sex hormones. Fallopian tubes- Capture the ovum and Allow transport of the ovum to the uterus. Uterus- Implantation site for the fertilized ovum. Cervix- Connection between the vagina and the uterus- Protective portal for the body of the uterus. Vagina- Passageway from the external genitals to the uterus- Provides for discharge of menstrual products out of the body
Identify the structures of the male reproductive system.
Discuss the significance of specific female reproductive structures during childbirth.
1. Ischial spines: reference point during labor to evaluate the head.2. S ymphysis pubis: head passes under. 3. False pelvis: support the weight of the enlarged pregnant uterus and direct the presenting fetal part into the true pelvis. 4. True pelvis: Shape and size must be adequate for normal fetal passage. Fetus must change its position to move through the diameter of the true pelvis. Pelvic cavity: influence the length of labor.
Summarize the actions of Estrogen that affect reproductive functioning.
1. Controls development of female secondary sex characteristics. Assists in the maturation of the ovarian follicles. Causes endometrial mucosa to proliferate following menstruation. Causes uterus to increase in size and weight. Increases myometrial contractility in both the uterus and fallopian tubes. Increases uterine sensitivity to oxytocin. Inhibits FSH production. Stimulates LH production.
Summarize the actions of Progesterone t hat affect reproductive functioning.
1. Decreases uterine motility and contractility. Causes uterine endometrium to increase its supply of glycogen, arterial blood, secretory glands, amino acids, and water. Vaginal epithelium proliferates. Cervix secretes thick, viscous mucus. Increases breast glandular tissue, in both size and complexity. Prepares breasts for lactation.
Summarize the actions of Prostaglandins that affect reproductive functioning.
Identify the two phases of the ovarian cycle, and the changes that occur in each phase.
Describe the phases of the menstrual phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.
Proliferative phase: Describe the phases of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.
Secretory phase: Describe the phases of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.
Ischemic phase: Describe the phases of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, their dominant hormones, and the changes that occur in each phase.