© 2016

Anatomy and Physiology (5th Edition) CHPT. 1

Set Details Share
Helpfulness: +2
created 4 years ago by kriston_hanson

Chapter 1

updated 4 years ago by kriston_hanson

Grade levels:
College: Second year

show more


The study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.



The study of the functions of the body, or how the body parts work and carry out their life sustaining activities.


Principle of Complementarity:

What a structure can do depends on it's specific form. STRUCTURE DETERMINES FUNCTION. (This is the theme of the course)


CATABOLISM (metabolism):

Breakdown into simpler substances


ANABOLISM (metabolism):

Synthesis of more complex substances from simple ones.


Necessary Life Functions:(8 total)

1. MAINTAINING BOUNDARIES: Cell Membrane, integumentary system
2. MOVEMENT: activities promoted by the muscular system
3. RESPONSIVENESS (irritability): sense changes and respond to them
4. DIGESTION: breakdown of ingested food into simple molecules for absorption
5. METABOLISM: all chemical reactions within body cells
6. EXCRETION: removing wastes
7. REPRODUCTION: Creating new daughter cells or offspring
8. GROWTH: Increase in size or cell number


What are the SURVIVAL NEEDS for the body?

Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Normal Body Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure.


Name the different levels of Structural ORGANIZATION that make up the human body and explain their relationships.

Chemicals (atoms, molecules), Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organisms.


Define HOMEOSTASIS and explain its significance:

HOMEOSTASIS: is the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the external conditions are continuously changing.

It is a DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM, where internal conditions vary, but always within relatively narrow limits. Variables are controlled and it involves a RECEPTOR (sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes), a CONTROL CENTER (determines set point and level or range which the variable is to be maintained at), and an EFFECTOR (provides means for the control centers response to the stimulus with negative or positive feedback). (Ex. Blood pH 7.35-7.45 ideal 7.4)


How do NEGATIVE and POSITIVE FEEDBACK maintain body homeostasis?

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: (Most Homeostatic controls are negative) The output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity. These mechanisms cause the variable to change in a direction OPPOSITE to that of the initial change, returning it to its "ideal" value. Like a thermostat. (Ex. Blood glucose levels)

POSITIVE FEEDBACK: The result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated. It is POSITIVE because the change that results proceeds in the same direction as the initial change. (Ex. more oxytocin causes more uterine contractions that cause more oxytocin release that causes more contractions, etc.)


Describe the relationship between HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE and disease.

results in disease or aging, due to the body's inability to maintain a stable environment.



Body erect, arms at sides, legs together, palms face up. (Allows proper orientation of the parts of the body that gives us one directional reference point)


Use correct anatomical terms to describe BODY DIRECTIONS and REGIONS.

DIRECTIONAL TERMS: allows us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another.

SUPERIOR: Above ANTERIOR: In front of

MEDIAL: Toward the midline
LATERAL: Away from the midline (sides, edges)

PROXIMAL: Closer to the main part of body (used with appendages)
DISTAL: Farther away from the main part of body (appendages)

SUPERFICIAL (external): Toward surface
DEEP (internal): Away from surface


Use correct anatomical terms to describe BODY PLANES and SECTIONS.

FRONTAL (coronal): Divides into front and back halves (Like a CT Scan)
SAGITTAL: Divides into left and right halves (midsagittal divides into equal left and right halves)
TRANSVERSE (axial): Divides into top and bottom halves. (See Pg. 14)


Locate the name the MAJOR BODY CAVITIES and their SUBDIVISIONS, and list the MAJOR ORGANS contained within them.

CRANIAL: Contains Brain
SPINAL: Contains Spine
DORSAL: Made of Cranial and Spinal Cavities
VENTRAL: Made of Thoracic, Abdominal and Pelvic cavities.
THORACIC: Contains Lungs and Heart, Bounded Posteriorly by Diaphragm.
ABDOMINAL: Contains Digestive Organs, Spleen.
PELVIC: Contains Urinary Bladder, Reproductive Organs, some Digestive Organs. (See pg. 15)


Describe the specific SEROUS MEMBRANES and indicate their common function.

(like a fist in a balloon) A double layered membrane with fluid in the cavity between layers. It allows organs to move without friction (heart, lungs, etc.)


Serous Membranes in Ventral Body Cavity:

PARIETAL PLEURA: Lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
VISCERAL PLEURA: Covers Lungs, pleural cavity is found between parietal and visceral pleura

PARIETAL PERICARDIUM: Sac around the heart
VISCERAL PERICARDIUM: Also called epicardium, covers heart with pericardial cavity in between

PARIETAL PERITONEUM: Lines walls of abdominal cavity
VISCERAL PERITONEUM: Covers abdominal organs


Name the FOUR QUADRANTS of the Abdominopelvic cavity and list the organs it contains.

card image

Name the NINE REGIONS of the Abdominopelvic cavity and list the organs it contains.

card image

Related pages

where are neurotransmitters locatedsport and exercise psychology journalcutaneous membrane locationplastoquinone in photosynthesis______ is an example of bioremediationvocabulary words for geometrymuscles origin and insertiontube that carries sperm from testeswhat causes vasodilation of arteriolescarbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide tois a candle jar anaerobicaggregate demand and aggregate supply analysiskeystone of the craniumwhat hormones are released by the hypothalamusanatomy and physiology exam 2 practicedescribe the proper procedure for preparing a wet mountexamples of homeostatic imbalancemilady chapter 22roots and combining forms medical terminologythe plantation system of the cotton south wasuga transcript ordercholesterol in membrane fluidityexplain how carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodwalgreens cultureosteocytes and osteoblastsmixed aldol condensation of benzaldehyde and acetonedefinition of microfilamentspellagra is a deficiency of which of the following vitaminsthe digestive function of the liver is to produce bilepes nursing diagnosisechinoderm tube feetwhich of the following statements about pacs is falserecumbent dnainterneurons in a withdrawal reflex are located in thewhat neurons stimulate muscles to contractcellular respiration advantagesproduces three-dimensional images of living organismsbox and tackle pulleycontraction of the ventricles causeswhere is auxin produced in a planttrachea function and locationwhat stimulates red blood cell productionwhen does prenatal development beginautonomic pharmacology quizwhat are the major organs in the digestive systemlymphocyte that produces antibodiesstructure of synovial jointphlebotomy tubes testfrench numbers flashcards printablebicarbonate buffer system equationinformational roles according to mintzbergcerebral aqueduct functionchapter 15 assessment biology answerssilicon nonmetalglycolysis converts glucose into two molecules ofhow many seminiferous tubules are found in the lobulesatrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone thatwhere is the infraspinatusexplain the operation of the heart valvesacetaminophen cox inhibitordaguerreotype pronunciationplant cell chromosomes functioncat axial skeletonsuture sizes smallest to largestjuxtaglomerular complextropical rainforest primary consumerstypes of blood vessels in the circulatory systemtriple sugar iron agarintrinsic rate of av nodesl valve functionchapters pinetree hoursprecursor to vitamin ahuman anatomy and physiology flash cardsthe primary difference between estrous and menstrual cycles is that