According to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR), a diet that provides adequate energy and nutrients and reduces the risk of chronic disease is one that contains ________ to ________ percent kilocalories from carbohydrate.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of standards created by experts from Canada and the United States for all of the following, except:
a. herbal supplements
c. physical activity
When conducting research, a scientist will begin with a question or problem. Scientists then make an educated guess, also known as a/an ________ to systematically test.
One slice of bread with one tablespoon of peanut butter on it contains 16 grams carbohydrate, 7 grams protein, and 9 grams fat. What amount of energy (calories) can be derived from this food?
Which of the following statements regarding research is correct?
a. A double-blind research experiment is when subjects in either the control group or intervention group are unaware of which "group" they are assigned.
b. The control group within an experiment is the group that receives the intervention or substance being tested.
c. Randomization is a process used to ensure that the experimental and control groups are "equal". d. To prove a hypothesis, a study needs to have at least 500 participants.
e. Placebo is the name given to the intervention or substance that is beneficial in an experiment.
Which of the following statements regarding correlations is incorrect?
a. Correlations demonstrate cause and effect relationships.
b. It is possible for a study to determine there is no correlation between variables.
c. A negative correlation is when both variables change in opposite directions.
d. A positive correlation does not necessarily reflect a desired outcome.
e. A positive correlation is when both variables change in the same direction.
A consumer who purchases vegetables from local farmers to save the fuel and environmental costs of foods shipped from far way is making a food choice based on:
b. social interactions
Which of the following is not a nutrient?
Which of the following statements regarding using nutrient recommendations is incorrect?
a. Most nutrient goals are intended to be met through a diet composed of a variety of foods.
b. Estimates of adequate energy and nutrient intakes apply to healthy people.
c. Recommendations are minimum requirements and should be adjusted for each individual.
d. The RDA or AI can be used to set goals for individuals.
e. Trying to meet recommendations for every nutrient every day is unnecessary.
Which of the following is not a part of a research article?
Which of the following statements regarding risk factors is incorrect?
a. The most prominent risk factor contributing to death in the United States is diet.
b. A lack of risk factors does not guarantee freedom from developing the associated disease.
c. Risk factors tend to cluster.
d. The presence of a risk factor means the likelihood of developing the associated disease increases.
he symptoms of iron deficiency including weakness, fatigue, and headaches, can be classified as a/an ________ deficiency.
The 16 minerals known to be essential in human nutrition are classified into which two categories?
a. major; trace
b. water-soluble; fat-soluble
c. soluble; insoluble
d. heavy; light
e. short-term; long-term
Which of the following is not a credible source of nutrition information?
a. Health and Fitness magazine
b. Nutrition Reviews
c. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
d. Let's Move!
e. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Dietary intakes of Americans are different than 40 years ago in all of the following ways, except:
a. Fewer snacks are consumed throughout the day.
b. Larger portions are consumed.
c. More meals are eaten away from home.
d. We eat more energy-dense foods.
The leading cause of death in the United States is ________ .
b. diabetes mellitus
d. heart disease
Which of the following is not an epidemiological study?
a. case-control studies
b. cross-sectional studies
c. clinical trials
d. cohort studies
Which of the following selections completes this statement correctly? The nutrient, ________, provides ________ calories per gram.
a. carbohydrate; 7
b. alcohol; 8
c. vitamins; 4
d. minerals; 3
e. fat; 9
Which of the following is not an example of a functional food?
a. margarine made with a plant sterol
b. fish sticks
d. orange juice with added calcium
The Healthy People program sets priorities and guides policies for the Nation every ________ years.
Which of the following health care professionals has an educational background of approximately 60 class hours in nutrition or food science; a year's clinical internship or equivalent; has passed a national examination administered by the American Dietetic Association (ADA); and is required to maintain up-to-date knowledge by participating in continuing education activities?
a. dietetic technician, registered
b. dietitian, registered
c. certified nutrition therapist
d. certified nutritional consultant
e. certified nutritionist
When consumed in excess of body needs, which nutrient is converted into storage compounds such as body fat?
c. vitamins and proteins only
d. carbohydrates and proteins only
All of the following are examples of what could be included in a nutrition assessment of an individual, except:
a. educational background and childhood immunization records
b. history of health status, socioeconomic status, drug use, and diet
c. visual inspection of hair, eyes, skin, posture, tongue, and fingernails
d. height and weight of the individual
e. samples of blood or urine
Vitamins are organic nutrients that do not provide energy. What two classifications are used to describe vitamins?
Information from the national nutrition surveys can be used for a number of purposes. Which of the followings is not one of those purposes?
a. Monitoring of national health goals.
b. Guide decisions related to product development by food industry.
c. Establishment of public policy regarding nutrition education.
d. Establishment of research priorities.
e. Establishment of crop planting priorities among farmers.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are made up of several different values. Which of the following statements is correct regarding these values?
a. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the amount recommended to meet the need of most healthy people.
b. An Adequate Intake (AI) level is set when the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cannot be determined.
c. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for each nutrient is the average amount that appears sufficient for 75% of the population.
d. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) is the minimum amount of a nutrient a person should consume.
Which nutrient occupies the greatest percentage of your body composition?
c. lipids (fat)
Which of the following nutrients contains the element of nitrogen?
What is the number one reason people choose the foods they eat?
c. ethnic heritage or tradition
2. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include recommendations for all of the following, except:
a. weight management
b. emotion management as it relates to food
c. food safety
d. food consumption
e. physical activity
2. Which of the following basic diet-planning principles is concerned with the diet providing sufficient energy and enough of all the nutrients to meet the needs of healthy people?
b. nutrient density
e. kcalorie (energy) control
2. Which of the following is not required to be present on the Nutrition Facts panel?
b. total fat
c. dietary fiber
d. vitamin D
2. Which of the following minerals is required by the FDA to be listed on a Nutrition Facts Panel?
2. For ease in understanding serving size equivalents, visual representations, using everyday objects, have been readily used. Which of the following is an incorrect match between serving size equivalent and the everyday object?
a. ¼ cup dried fruit or nuts = a golf ball
b. 2 tablespoons peanut butter = a ping pong ball
c. ½ cup ice cream = a racquetball
d. 1 ounce cheese = a deck of cards
e. 4 small cookies = 4 poker chips
2. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans helps a person know what to eat to stay healthy. Which of the following statements is incorrect with regards to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
a. A healthy diet stays within the daily energy needs for your recommended body weight.
b. A healthy diet emphasizes a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
c. A healthy diet includes lean meats, legumes, eggs, and nuts.
d. A healthy diet is low in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, salt, and added sugars.
e. A healthy diet includes drinking alcohol in moderation.
2. If you were shopping for a loaf of bread and wanted to consume the bread with the greatest amount of whole grains, which of the following phrases would you look for to ensure your success?
a. 100% wheat
b. whole wheat
c. enriched wheat bread
2. According to the USDA Food Guide, which of the following is a whole grain choice from the grains subgroup?
a. taco shells
c. fried rice
2. The oils subgroup of the USDA Food Guide is known to contribute which of the following to your diet:
a. vitamin E
c. kcalories and vitamin D only
d. vitamin D and vitamin E only
e. kcalories and vitamin E only
f. vitamin D
2. When grocery shopping, you purchase a box of your favorite ready-to-eat breakfast cereal. You notice the package says "May reduce the risk of heart disease" in big letters across the front of the box. This statement is a ________ claim.
b. consumer education
d. FDA claim
2. If you wanted to find a food product that was a "good source of fiber", you would look for a product that contains ________ % Daily Value for fiber.
a. 30 or more
2. The difference between the kcalories needed to supply nutrients and those needed to maintain weight are known as the ________ .
a. negative kcalorie balance
b. alternative kcalories
c. discretionary kcalorie allowance
d. positive kcalorie balance
e. nutrient-dense kcalorie allowance
2. Which of the following basic diet-planning principles is concerned with consuming enough, but not too much, of each type of food?
a. nutrient density
d. kcalorie (energy) control
2. Which vitamin are vegans at particular risk for deficiency and must rely on fortified sources (such as soy milk or breakfast cereals) and supplements?
c. vitamin D
d. vitamin B12
2. Which of the following statements is false regarding exchange lists?
a. Due to the sorting strategy of exchange lists, cheeses are grouped with meats.
b. Exchange lists provide help in achieving kcalorie control and moderation.
c. Exchange lists were originally developed to assist with meal planning for diabetics.
d. Exchange lists sort foods primarily by their vitamin and mineral contents.
2. Which of the following is a nutrient that may be insufficient in a vegetarian diet?
d. vitamin A
e. vitamin E
2. According to the USDA Food Guide, all of the following constitutes a one-ounce protein equivalent, except:
a. ¼ cup cooked tofu
b. 1 tablespoon peanut butter
c. 1 egg
d. 1 cup kidney beans
e. ½ ounce almonds
2. The USDA Food Guide assigns foods to five major subgroups and recommends daily amounts of food from each group. Which of the following is not a vegetable subgroup?
a. dark green vegetables such as broccoli, arugula, and romaine lettuce
b. legumes such as black beans, garbanzo beans, and slit peas
c. starchy vegetables such as corn, green peas, and potatoes
d. orange and deep yellow vegetables such as carrots, pumpkin, and sweet potatoes
e. dark blue or purple vegetables such as eggplant, beets, and purple onions
2. When shopping in the meat department, choose fish, poultry, and lean cuts of beef and pork named ________ .
2. Good vegetarian sources of iron include all of the following, except:
a. whole grains
d. black-eyed peas
2. Many times nutrients are added to food products through processing resulting in either a fortified or enriched product. Which of the following is the most highly fortified food on the market?
a. sandwich breads
b. orange and other juices
c. ready-to-eat breakfast cereals
d. pasta sauces
e. pastas and tortillas
2. A vegetarian who chooses to include milk, milk products, and eggs in their diet is referred to as a/an ________ .
d. total vegetarian
2. The statements of "Keep food safe", "Select nutrient-dense foods and beverages", and "Look for foods that describe their vitamin and mineral contents as good source or high", correspond with which Dietary Guidelines?
a. foods and nutrients to increase
b. foods and food components to reduce
c. building healthy eating patterns
d. balancing kclaories to manage weight
2. All of the following diseases may be positively impacted by a primarily plant-based diet (i.e., meat free), except:
a. heart disease
d. rheumatoid arthritis
2. Which of the following is not considered a starchy vegetable?
a. lima beans
c. black beans
2. In comparing the actual intakes to the recommended intakes for the food groups identified in the USDA Daily Food Guide and MyPlate, which of the following groups do Americans consume adequate amounts of as recommended by these two food guides?
a. protein foods
b. whole grains
d. milk products
2. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing all of the following in one's diet, except:
a. refined grain products
c. added sugars
e. monounsaturated fats
2. Many foods contain food labels while others do not. Which of the following foods need to have a food label?
b. those prepared and sold in the same establishment
c. coffee or tea spices
d. those produced by small businesses
e. menu items at restaurants with 20 or more locations
2. Which of the following statements is false regarding Daily Values (DVs)?
a. DVs reflect recommendations for nutrients that have important relationships with health.
b. DVs compare key nutrients in a serving with the goals of a person consuming 2500 kcalories per day.
c. The "% Daily Value" column on a food label estimates how an individual food contributes to the total diet.
d. DVs help consumers see easily whether a food contributes "a little" or "a lot" of a nutrient.
e. DVs make it easy to compare foods.
2. Which two subgroups of the USDA Food Guide do legumes belong?
a. grains and protein
b. fruits and vegetables
c. fruit and grains
d. vegetables and protein
e. grains and vegetables
3. The flavor savory is associated with:
b. monosodium glutamate
d. salt and pepper
e. trans fat
3. Which statement regarding irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incorrect?
a. The exact cause of IBS is not known.
b. avoiding foods that aggravate symptoms, dietary fiber, and peppermint oil are all recommended treatments for IBS.
c. Consuming large meals at regular intervals during the day may be an effective treatment in preventing IBS symptoms.
d. Symptoms of IBS include gas, bloating, diarrhea and/or constipation.
3. The body's constant effort to bring itself back to normal is known as the principle of ________ .
3. Heartburn can be caused by which of the following conditions?
a. all of these choices
b. eating too much food
d. wearing tight clothing
3. Which of the following causes ulcers?
a. bacterial infections
b. spicy foods
d. excessive soda consumption
3. Which GI tract hormone is secreted from the stomach wall in response to the presence of food in the stomach and resulting in hydrochloric acid being secreted into the stomach?
3. The routing of blood for the digestive system has a special feature. Which of the following is the correct path of blood flow for the digestive system taking into account the special feature?
a. heart to arteries to capillaries to hepatic vein to capillaries to hepatic portal vein to heart
b. heart to veins to capillaries to arteries to capillaries to hepatic vein to heart
c. heart to arteries to capillaries to veins to heart
d. heart to arteries to capillaries to hepatic portal vein to capillaries to hepatic vein to heart
e. heart to veins to capillaries to arteries to heart
3. Where does chemical digestion of carbohydrates begin in the GI tract?
a. small intestine
e. large intestine
3. After a mouthful of food has been chewed and swallowed, it is called a/an ________ .
a. salivary mass
3. Which of the following characteristics of your daily meals should be of greatest importance when considering that some food constituents interfere with nutrient absorption?
3. Which digestive secretion serves to emulsify fat so that enzymes can have access to break down the fat?
3. Which of the following types of nutrient absorption requires energy and occurs when nutrients (such as glucose and amino acids) move against a concentration gradient?
b. facilitated diffusion
c. simple diffusion
d. active transport
3. Which of the following foods is a common culprit for choking?
b. hot dogs
c. all of these choices
d. peanut butter
e. raw carrots
3. All of the following organs contribute secretions for the breakdown of food into nutrients, except:
b. salivary glands
d. large intestine
3. Gastric juice has a pH level most similar to which of the following fluids?
a. lemon juice
d. household ammonia
3. Which digestive organ is responsible for the absorption of water and minerals from the diet?
3. What is the correct order for the gastrointestinal tract?
3. Which of following is not a role of GI tract bacteria?
a. Regulation of blood pressure.
b. Production of vitamins.
c. Production of short fat segments for colon cells to use for energy.
d. Protect GI tract from infectious bacteria launching an attack on the system.
3. Which of the following is not one of the four basic taste sensations?
3. Which of the following sphincters is responsible for preventing reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus?
a. ileocecal valve
b. pyloric sphincter
c. dual anal sphincters
d. cardiac sphincter
e. upper esophageal sphincter
3. The potential GI health benefits of probiotics include helping to alleviate all of the following, except:
3. ________ are living microorganisms that change the conditions and native bacterial colonies in the GI tract in ways that seem to benefit health.
3. Which of the following statements regarding nutrient transport is false?
a. Chylomicrons move through the lymph and later enter the bloodstream at a point near the heart.
b. Larger fats and fat-soluble vitamins are assembled with proteins to form chylomicrons which are released into the lymphatic system.
c. Water-soluble nutrients and smaller products of fat digestion are released into the bloodstream from the villus for transport.
d. Nutrients absorbed in the small intestine, whether released into the bloodstream or the lymph, pass through the liver first before distribution to the rest of the body.
3. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the small intestine that occurs in response to foods that contain ________ .
3. Peristalsis and sphincter muscles along the GI tract help keep things moving along. Which of the following factors can influence GI tract contractions?
b. all of these choices
c. medical conditions