Medical Terminology for the Healthcare Professional 7th Edition - Chapter 5 Notecards

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Cardiovascular system note cards to study key terms from the chapter, including pathology, medical specialty, as well as word parts.
updated 4 years ago by admohr1986
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1

What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

The heart and blood vessels work together to efficiently pump blood to all body tissue.

2

What is the function of blood, and what kind of tissue is blood?

transports oxygen and nutrients to body tissues; is a fluid tissue

3

What does blood returns mean?

Blood carries carbon dioxide back to the lungs and carries waste products to the kidneys

4

Heart

hollow, muscular organ located within the thoracic cavity

5

Pericardium

outer surrounding sac of the heart

6

Epicardium

external layer of the heart that connects with the pericardium

7

Myocardium

middle layer of the heart; thickest muscular layer

8

Endocardium

inner lining of the heart that consists of epithelial tissue

9

How is blood supplied to the myocardium?

The coronary arteries get blood to the myocardium.

10

Atria or atrium

The two upper chambers of the heart (right and left)

11

Ventricles

The two lower chambers of the heart (right and left)

12

Why is the left ventricle of the heart unique?

The left ventricle is the thickest, strongest chamber, because it forces blood through the aorta into the body.

13

Tricuspid valve

has 3 cusps; is between the left atrium and the left ventricle

14

Mitral valve or bicuspid valve

has 2 cusps; controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle

15

Pulmonary semilunar valve

located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; shaped like a half moon

16

Aortic semilunar valve

located between the left ventricle and the aorta; shaped like a half moon

17

The heartbeat

AKA the cardiac cycle, is the complete contraction and relaxation of the heart muscles

18

P wave

formed on the ECG when the atria contracts

19

QRS wave

after the AV node fires the QRS wave is formed on the ECG, showing stimulation contraction of the ventricles

20

T wave

recovery or relaxation of the ventricles

21

U wave

represents hyperkalemia or high potassium level

22

The activities of the electrical conduction system: P wave is due to the simulation contraction of the ____; ____ node fires; the ____ complex show stimulation contraction of the ventricles; AV node fires; ____ relaxes; the T wave is the recovery, ______ of the ______.

atria
SA
QRS
atria
relaxation, ventricles

23

What are the three types of blood vessels?

Arteries, veins, and capillaries

24

What are arteries?

Large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other body parts

25

What are veins?

Carry blood to the heart; superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are the two largest viens

26

What are arterials?

smaller arteries that deliver blood to capillaries

27

What is the aorta?

The largest artery in the body

28

What is the carotid artery?

The artery in the neck that supplies the brain with blood

29

What is the role of capillaries?

permit the exchange of nutrients and waste products between blood and cells of tissue; smallest of blood vessels; carry blood to venules

30

What do venules do?

Carry blood to veins

31

Define pulse

rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the heart contracting

32

What is the normal pulse range for an adult?

60 to 100

33

Blood pressure

measurement of amount of systolic and diastolic pressure against the walls of the arteries

34

What is the normal systolic range for an adult?

90-140

35

What is systolic pressure?

ventricles contract; highest pressure

36

What is diastolic pressure?

ventricles relaxing; lower pressure

37

What is the normal range for diastolic pressure for an adult?

60-90

38

What is composed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% formed elements?

Blood

39

plasma

91% water; straw-colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones and waste products

40

erythrocytes

red blood cells; formed element

41

leukocytes

white blood cells; formed element

42

thrombocytes or platelets

smallest formed elements of blood; responsible for blood clotting

43

What are the major blood types?

A, B, AB, and O

44

antigen

any substance the body regards as being foreign; A and B antigens determine blood type

45

What is the universal donor blood type?

O

46

What is the universal recipient blood type?

AB

47

Rh factor

defines the presence of the Rh antigen on RBC; Rh positive makes blood type positive and Rh negative makes blood type negative

48

cardiologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of the heart

49

hematologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissues

50

vascular surgeon

physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical management and surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels

51

CAD

coronary artery disease; atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries

52

atherosclerosis

hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by buildup of cholesterol plaque on the inner walls of the arteries

53

plaque

fatty deposit in the lumen of an artery

54

atheroma

characteristic of atherosclerosis, deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

55

IHD

Ischemic heart disease, group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

56

ischemia

insufficient supply of oxygen in the tissues due to a restricted blood flow to a part of the body

57

angina AKA angina pectoris

severe episodes of chest pain occur due to an inadequate blood flow to the myocardium

58

MI

myocardial infarction; blockage of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup

59

CHF

congestive heart failure; occurs mostly in older people; chronic condition where the heart is unable to pump out all of the blood it receives

60

cardiomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the heart, associated with CHF

61

carditis

inflammation of the heart

62

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

63

bacterial endocarditis

inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by bacteria in the bloodstream

64

myocarditis

uncommon condition, inflammation of the myocardium developed because of a viral infection

65

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium where fluid builds up in the pericardial sac, which restricts the heartbeat and ability of the heart to pump blood to the body

66

cardiomyopathy

used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle

67

heart murmur

abnormal blowing or clicking heart sound usually caused by defective heart valves

68

valvulitis

inflammation of a heart valve

69

valvular prolapse

abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely

70

valvular stenosis

abnormal narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart

71

cardiac arrest

the heart stops beating

72

arrhythmia

irregular heartbeat

73

bardycardia

abnormally slow heartbeat (less than 60)

74

tachycardia

abnormally fast heartbeat (greater than 90)

75

a-fib

atrial fibrillation; twitching or quivering atria replace normal rhythms

76

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

PAT; abrupt onset of very rapid and irregular heartbeats that originate in the atrium or AV node

77

v-fib

ventricular fibrillation; can cause sudden cardiac death - most serious quivering, rapid, irregular and useless contractions of the ventricles.

78

angiitis

inflammation of the blood vessels

79

angiostenosis

abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel

80

PVD

peripheral vascular disease; disorders of blood vessels that are located outside of the heart and brain

81

PAD

peripheral arterial disease; caused by atherosclerosis, impaired circulation in extremities and vital organs

82

aneurysm

localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery

83

ateriosclerosis

abnormal hardening of the arteries

84

phlebitis

AKA thrombophlebitis, inflammation of a vein

85

varicose veins

abnormally swollen veins, usually occurs with superficial veins in the legs

86

thrombosis

abnormal condition of having a thrombus

87

thrombus

stationary blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein

88

thrombotic occlusion

blockage of an artery by a thrombus

89

coronary thrombosis

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

90

DVT

deep vein thrombosis; thrombus in a deep vein in bedridden patients in which a clot can travel to the lungs causing fatality

91

embolism

sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

92

embolus

blood clot that is broken up and circulating through the blood

93

polycythemia

abnormal increase in the number of RBC in the blood due to bone marrow excessively producing RBC

94

septicemia

AKA bacteremia; sudden onset, can lead to sepsis and is often associated with severe infections caused by bacteria in the blood

95

thrombocytopenia

abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood

96

thrombocytosis

abnormal increase in the number of platelets circulating in the blood

97

cholesterol

fatty substance that travels through the blood

98

hyperlipedemia

high cholesterol

99

hypolipedemia

low cholesterol

100

leukemia

type of cancer characterized by progressive increase in the number of abnormal WBC

101

anemia

lower than normal number of RBC

102

aplastic anemia

an absence of all formed elements

103

hemolytic anemia

breaking down of RBC faster than red bone marrow can replace them

104

iron-deficiency anemia

most common anemia; decrease in hemoglobin

105

megaloblastic anemia

larger than normal RBC

106

pernicious anemia

lacking IF; deficiency of vitamin B12; hereditary

107

sickle cell anemia

RBC are sickle shaped; hereditary

108

Thalassemia or Cooley's anemia

decreased hemoglobin and RBC; inherited

109

LDL

low density lipoproteins, bad cholesterol

110

HDL

high density lipoproteins, good cholesterol

111

hypertension

high blood pressure

112

essential hypertension AKA primary or idiopathic hypertension

high blood pressure with no known cause

113

secondary hypertension

high blood pressure due to some other disease

114

hypotension

low blood pressure

115

orthostatic hypotension AKA postural hypotension

when a patient's blood pressure drops from changing position, i.e. sitting to standing, etc.

116

angiography

x-ray of blood vessels

117

cardiac catheterization (CC)

dye is put into the heart via a catheter and an angiogram is formed

118

electrocardiogram

record of the electrical activity of the myocardium

119

EKG/ECG

electrocardiography; nonivasive process of recording the electrical activity of the myocardium

120

Holter monitor

ambulatory EKG a patient takes home and wears for a 24-hour period

121

stress test

an EKG monitoring blood flow of the heart during exercise

122

Antihypertensives

lower blood pressure

123

ACE inhibitor

medications that block the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension

124

Beta-blockers

medications that relieve angina, lower blood pressure, or treat heart failure by reducing the workload of the heart by slowing the heartbeat rate

125

calcium channel blocker

medications that decrease the amount of calcium into the heart and vessels which decreases the workload of the heart by increasing blood supply and oxygen

126

diuretic

water pills, stimulates the kidneys and increases urine output

127

anticoagulant

blood thinners

128

Coumadin

given p.o., blood thinner to reduce clots

129

thrombolytic

clot buster

130

tPA

tissue plasminogen activator, administered to patients having a heart attack or stroke; if given a few hours after symptoms begin it can dissolve the damaging blood clots

131

vasocontrictor

narrows blood vessels

132

vasodilator

dilates blood vessels

133

nitroglycerin

put under the tongue, used to prevent or relieve angina pain

134

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, AKA balloon angioplasty; mechanically open/widen a partially blocked artery

135

stent

wire mesh tube placed inside the artery after it has been opened to prevent restenosis

136

atherectomy

surgical removal of an artery

137

carotid endartectomy

surgical removal of the plaque from a carotid artery

138

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft or bypass surgery; open heart surgery where the leg vein is used to pass over a blocked area

139

defibrillation AKA cardioversion

done by medications or electric shock (cardiac shock) when a patient is in cardiac arrest

140

automated external defribrillation

defibrillator for non-professionals that automatically defibriallates if necessary

141

artificial pacemaker

used for treatment of bradycardia or atrial fibrillation to regulate the heartbeat

142

aneurysmectomy

surgical removal of an aneurysm

143

aneurysmorrhaphy

surgical suturing of an aneurysm

144

arteriectomy

surgical removal of an artery

145

hemostasis

to stop or control bleeding

146

heart

card/o, cardi/o

147

blood vessels

angi/o, vas/o

148

arteries

arteri/o

149

capillaries

capill/o

150

veins

phleb/o, ven/o

151

blood

hem/o, hemat/o

152

aorta

aort/o

153

ather/o

plaque, fatty susbtance

154

brady-

slow

155

-carsia

a mixture or bleeding

156

-emia

blood, blood condition

157

tachy-

fast

158

thromb/o

clot


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