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Endocrine System

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created 4 years ago by Kama
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updated 4 years ago by Kama

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1

Introduction/Delivery Method
-what is exocrine glands?

secrete substance into a tube for delivery to the target tissue

2

Introduction/Delivery Method
-what is endocrine glands?

secrete substance (hormone) into the blood for delivery to the target tissue

3

Introduction/Delivery Method
-what is neurosecretory cells?

(hypothalamus) secrete substance into the blood for delivery to the target

4

Introduction/Delivery Method
-what is paracine cells?

secrete subtance that diffuse to an influence target tissues other than itself

5

Introduction/Delivery Method
-what is autocrine?

secrete substance that diffuse to and influence cells of the same target tissue as itself

6

Introduction/Delivery Method
-what is neurocrine?

secrete substance delivered by neuron

7

Endocrine Mechanism/Define
-what is the definition of hormone?

substances secreted by glands but delivered to the target tissue by the blood

8

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are the categories of endocrine mechanism?

1. steroids
2. peptides and proteins
3. derived from
4. eicosanoids

9

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are steroids?

-lipids
-lipid soluble

10

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are steroids derived from?

cholesterol

11

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are examples of steroids?

1. estrogen
2. prodesterone
3. testosterone
4.aldosterone

12

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are peptides and proteins derived from?

chains of amino acids

13

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are examples of peptides and proteins?

1. insulin
2. oxtytocin
3. calcitonin
4. parathyroid hormone
5. growth hormone

14

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what is the simplest form of Biogenic Amines?

hormone molecules

15

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are the examples of Biogenic Amines?

1. T3/T4
2. norepniephrine/epinephrine
3. melatonin

16

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are biogenic amines derived from?

amino acids

17

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are eicosanoids derived from?

20 carbon fatty acid

18

Endocrine Mechanism/Categories
-what are examples of eicosanoids?

1. prostaglandins
2. leukotrienes

19

Endocrine Mechanism/Blood Transport
-what is able to circulate free?

water soluble hormones
ex: peptides, proteins, catecholarmines-E/NE

20

Endocrine Mechanism/Blood Transport
-what uses proteins to transport?

1. lipid soluble hormones

21

Endocrine Mechanism/Blood Transport
-what is the function of transport proteins?

1) improve transportability
2) retard filtering of small hormones
3) provide a hormone reserve
a) free fraction = .1 → 10%
b) rest bound fraction

22

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism/Gene Control
-how does gene control work?

1) lipid soluble hormone diffuse through membranes
into the cell
2) bind to & activate receptors in
a) cytosol
b) nucleus
3) receptors → influence genes
a) turn on genes
b) turn off genes
b. examples - sex hormones

23

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/2nd messenger
-what is the first messenger?

hormone

24

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/2nd messenger
-what is the 2nd messenger?

relayes the hormone message; like telling someone something

25

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/2nd messenger
-what is a chemical cascade?

chemical magnifying effect

26

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/2nd messenger
-What are the steps for the second messenger work?

card image

1) 1st messenger
a) water soluble hormone cannot diffuse into cell
b) hormone binds to a membrane protein receptor →
2) membrane protein receptor
a) found to G-protein
3) G-protein activated →
a) membrane protein
b) will link
c) to adenylate cyclase on the inner surface
4) adenylate cyclase activated →
5) ATP → cyclic AMP (cAMP) →
a) some hormones elicit increase
1) antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
2) oxytocin
3) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
4) luteinizing hormone (LH)
b) some hormones elicit decrease
1) growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
6) cAMP (2nd messenger) → activates
a) protein kinases
7) protein kinases →
a) phosphorylates proteins
(1) P comes from ATP → ADP + P
(2) activates some proteins
(3) inactivates other proteins
b) different kinases within different
(1) cells
(2) organelles of the same cell
8) cascade effect
a) each level activates many others
b) therefore low [] have a large effect
9) cAMP inactivation by
a) phosphodiesterase
b) cell response turned off

27

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/2nd messenger
-What is the function of second messenger?

1) regulation of enzymes
2) secretion
3) protein synthesis
4) change in cell permeability

28

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/2nd messenger
-What are the types of second messengers?

1) cAMP
2) cGMP
3) Ca++
4) inositol trisphosphate (IP3)

29

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/2nd messenger
-What are examples of hormones that act as 1st messengers?

1) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
2) oxytocin
3) NE/E

30

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/Hormonal Interactions
-What does the target cell respond to?

1. the concentration of hormone and receptors
2. the interaction between hormones such as

a) permissive effect
(-) when a 2nd hormone is needed
(-) 2nd hormone is permissive

b) synergistic effect
(-) results are greater than the sum of the
two individually

c) antagonistic effect
(-) when one hormone opposes the action of
a second hormone

31

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/ Control
-What affects hormones?

1. nervous system
2. chemical changes in blood
3. other hormones

32

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/ Control
-What are examples of both negative and positive feedback?

1) negative: do things to turn it on

2) positive: is when it turns on but it keeps growing like:
a) normally pathogenic

b) labor (neuroendocrine reflex)
(-) oxytocin → increases contractions
(-) contractions → increase oxytocin
c) ovulation
d) action potential
e) nerve impulse propagation

33

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/ Control
-What is Up Regulation?

a) low [hormone] →
b) target cells receptors increase →
c) ensures sufficient hormone attachment

34

Endocrine Mechanism/Mechanism of function/ Control
-What is Down Regulation?

a) excess [hormone] →
b) target cells receptors decrease →
c) limits the amount of hormone attachment

35

Endocrine Glands/Organs/Other Glands
-What are types of Hormone Glands?

1. anterior pituitary
2. posterior pituitary
3. thyroid gland
4. parathyroid
5. pancreas
6. adrenal gland
7. pineal gland
8. testes
9. ovaries
10. thymus

36

Endocrine Glands/Organs/Other Glands
-What organs produce hormones?

1. kidney
2. liver
3. stomach
4. small intestine
5. skin
6. heart
7. placenta

37

Endocrine Glands/Organs/Other Glands
-What part of the brain produces hormones?

hypothalamus

38

Endocrine Glands/Tropin
-What is the definition of Tropin?

hormones that control other hormones

39

Hormones/Hypothalamus/Produces
-What does the hypothalamus produce?

Inibiting Hormones

Releasing Hormones

Ocytocin

Antidiurectic hormone

40

Hormones/Hypothalamus/Produces
-What does the inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus do?

Inhibits release of some anterior pituitary hormones

41

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-What are the things that get inhibit?

-growth hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin)
a) decreases production of
(1) growth hormone (GH)
(2) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

-prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIF) (dopamine)
a) decrease production of
(1) prolactin

42

Hormones/Hypothalamus/Produces
-What does releasing hormones from the hypothalamus do?

1) growth hormone releasing hormone
a) increases production of
(1) growth hormone (GH)

2) thyrotropin releasing hormone
a) increases production of
(1) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

3) gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
a) increases production of
(1) luteinizing hormone (LH)
(2) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

4) prolactin releasing hormone
a) increases production of
(1) prolactin

5) corticotrophin releasing hormone
a) increases production of
(1) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
(2) melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)

43

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-What is the target of Oxytocin

smooth muscle such as the mammary glands and the uterus

44

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-what is the difference between Oxytocin and Releasing/Inhibiting Hormones?

- releasing/inhibiting hormones act upon the target while oxytocin is just stored in the posterior pituitary

45

Hormones/Hypothalamus/
-What is the function of oxytocin?

smooth muscle contraction

46

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-What are the results of Oxytocin when it gets to the smooth muscle?

1) smooth muscle contraction
a) lactation (milk letdown)
b) labor

2) unknown
a) non pregnant females
b) males

3) cuddling hormones
a) parental behavior
b) sexual pleasure during/after intercourse

47

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-Does antidiruretic hormone (ADH) act upon the anterior pituitary or stored in it?

stored

48

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-What does the ADH target?

Kidneys

Sweat Glands

Smooth muscle-walls of blood vessels

49

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-What is the function of ADH?

1. regulates water balance

2. increase water reabsorption from urine

50

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-How does ADH work?

1. decrease sweating

2. Increase water reabsorption from urine

51

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-What is the result of ADH?

1) less sweating → temperature control

2) less urine → urine more concentrated

52

Hormones/Hypothalamus
-What does the intake of alcohol do?

1) inhibits ADH →
2) increased urine production →
3) increased urination →
4) dehydration →
5) thirst & hangover

53

Hormones/Anterior Pituitary
-What does Anterior Pituitary produce?

a. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
b. growth hormone (GH) (hGH) (somatotropin)
c. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
d. melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
e. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
f. luteinizing hormone (LH)
g. prolactin

54

Hormones/Anterior Pituitary
-What does the Thyroid Stimulating (TSH) target?

thyroid

55

Hormones/Anterior Pituitary
-What is the function TSH?

controls the release of T3/T4 which control catabolic metabolsim

56

Hormones/Anterior Pituitary
-How does T3/T4 do?

Increase:

(a) basal metabolic rate
(b) glycolysis
(c) lipid breakdown
(d) protein breakdown if no (2) & (3)
(e) protein syntheis if (2) & (3)

57

Hormones/Anterior Pituitary
-How you stop the anterior pituitary do from releasing things?

Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone stops it

58

Hormones/Growth Hormone
-What does the growth hormone (GH) target?

1) liver
2) muscle
3) cartilage
4) bone
5) cells of body

59

Hormones/Growth Hormone
-What is the function of GH?

release of insulin-like growth factors (IGF)

60

Hormones
-What does IGF target?

cells of the body

61

Hormones/
-What does IGF do?

1.controls the metabolic anabolism

2. in kids is skeletal/muscle growth

62

Hormones/Growth Hormone
-What does GH do overall?

1) hGH → target →
2) insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) →
3) cells →
4) enhanced growth

63

Hormones
-What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) target?

adrenal cortex

64

Hormones/ACTH
-What is the function of the ACTH?

Increase production of glucocorticoids and androgens

65

Hormones/Growth Hormone
-What does the melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) target?

Melanophores of skin

66

SKIPPED To SLIDE 49

no data

67

Hormones/Posterior Pituitary
-What does the Posterior Pituitary do?

Stores oxytocin and antidiurectic hormone (ADH)

68

Hormones/Thyroid
-What does the Thyroid produce?

a. thyroxine (T4)
b. triiodothyronine (T3)
c. calcitonin

69

Hormones/Thyroid
-What does the Thyroxine/triiodothyronine target?

1) muscle
2) liver
3) heart
4) kidney
5) cells of the body

70

Hormones/Thyroid
-What does the Thyroxine/triiodothyronine do?

controls catabolic metabolsim

71

skipped to slide 55

skipped to slide 55

72

Hormones/Parathyroids
-What does parathyroids produce?

parathormone (parathyroid hormone, (PTH))

73

Hormones/Parathyroids
-What does parathormone target?

-bone and kidney

74

Hormones/Parathyroids
-What is the function of the parathyroids?

1) increase blood calcium/magnesium levels

2) decrease blood phosphate levels

75

Hormones/Parathyroids
-What does parathyroids do?

1) stimulate osteoclast action

2) decrease osteoblast action

3) inhibit phosphate reabsorption by kidney

4) stimulate Ca++ reasorption from urine

5) promote calcitriol (Vit D3) production
a) calcitriol
(-) hormone
(-) made by kidney
(-) stimulates intestinal uptake of
(a) calcium
(b) magnesium
(c) phosphate

76

Hormones/Parathyroids
-What stops the making of parathormone?

High (Blood Ca++)

77

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What is the anatomy of the adrenal cortex?

a. cortex – outer part subdivided into
1) zona glomerulosa – outer layer
2) zona fasiculata – middle layer
3) zona reticularis – inner layer

b. medulla – inner part

78

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What adrenal cortex produce?

a. mineralocorticoids

b. glucocorticoids

c. gonadocorticoids

79

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-Where is mineralocorticoids produced?

zona glomerulosa

80

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-Where doess mineralocorticoids target?

the kidney

81

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-Once mineralocorticoids stimulates the kidney what does it do??

Regulates
a.sodium
b.potassium
c.water

82

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete mineralocorticoids?
- What shuts down the system?

1) blood components stimulates:
a) angiotensin II
b) rising blood [K+]
c) low blood [Na+]
d) low blood volume
e) low blood pressure
2. atrail natriurectic peptide (ANP)

83

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-Where is glucocorticoids – cortisol produced?

zona fasiculata

84

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What does glucocorticoids – cortisol target?

1) liver
2) muscle
3) adipose tissue (fat)

85

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What is the function of glucocorticoids–cortisol?

Resistance to stress by:
1) increase blood sugar = increase energy (ATP)
a) protein catabolism
b) gluconeogenesis
c) lipolysis

2) anti-inflammatory effects

3) depression of immune system

86

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What is the steps for glucocorticoids–cortisol to reach the liver,muscle and adipose tissue?

A) corticotrophin releasing hormone
a) produced by
(1) hypothalamus
b) target
(1) anterior pituitary
c) function
(1) stimulate production/release of ACTH

B) ACTH
a) produced by
(1) anterior pituitary
b) target
(1) adrenal cortex
c) function
(1) stimulate production/release of
glucocorticoids (cortisol)

C) Glucocorticoids
a) negative feedback to
(1) hypothalamus – shutting down
(a) corticotrophin releasing hormone
(2) anterior pituitary – shutting down
(a) ACTH

87

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-Where is gonadocorticoids (androgens) (dehydroepiandrosterone – DHEA) produced?

zona reticularis

88

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What is the function of the body cells once it is stimulated by gonadocorticoids (androgens) (dehydroepiandrosterone – DHEA?

1) contribute to
a) onset of puberty
b) secondary sex characteristics

2) females
a. sex drive

3) other
a) males – insignificant
b) females – menopause: androgens converted to
estrogen

89

Hormones/Adrenal Cortex
-What is the steps for gonadocorticoids (androgens) (dehydroepiandrosterone – DHEA to be able to ?

1) corticotrophin releasing hormone
a) produced by
(1) hypothalamus
b) target
(1) anterior pituitary
c) function
(1) stimulate production/release of ACTH

2) ACTH
a) produced by
(1) anterior pituitary
b) target
(1) adrenal cortex
c) function
(1) stimulate production/release of
Gonadocorticoids

90

Relate adrena medulla to the marines where they quick to react but it is limited, so the blood streams act as a back up for the NE/E to be delivered to the rest of the body

slide 62

91

Hormones/Pancreas
-What is the structure of the pancreas?

A. acini cells
1) exocrine – digestive enzymes
2) digestive system

B. islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)
1) A (alpha) cells – secrete glucagon
2) B (beta) cells - secrete insulin
3) D (delta) cells – secrete somatostatin
4) F (PP) cells – secrete pancreatic polypeptide

92

Hormones/Pancreas
-What does the pancreas produce?

1. Insulin

2. Glucagon

3. Somatostatin

4. Pancreatic polypeptide

93

Hormones/Pancreas
-What does insulin stimulate?

all cells except the brain

94

Hormones/Pancreas
-What happens when insulin stimulates all cells except the brain?

Decrease blood glucose by:

1) increase glucose uptake
2) stimulates glycogenesis
3) decrease glycogenolysis
4) decrease gluconeogenesis

95

Hormones/Pancreas
-What controls the each of the parts to produce insulin?

1) blood glucose levels
a) high levels = stimulate
b) low levels = inhibit

2) somatostatin
a) produced by Pancreatic Delta cells
b) target Beta cells – blocks insulin

96

ADD slides from 66-68

skipped

97

Hormones/Pineal Gland
- What causes the pineal gland to produce Melatonin?

Darkness

98

Hormones/Pineal Gland
- What does the pineal gland produce?

melatonin

99

Hormones/Pineal Gland
- What is the function of melatonin?

1) regulate sexual cycle in animals
2) regulate puberty onset in humans ?
3) sleeping patterns
4) biorhythms
5) antioxidant
6) immunity – not well studied

100

Hormones/Pineal Gland
- What stimulates Melatonin? What does melatonin inhibit?

darkness stimulates melatonin and melatonin inhibits the sex drive.

101

Hormones/Thymus
- What does thymus produce?

Thymosin

102

Hormones/Thymus
- What does thymosin target??

T-cells (T-lymphocytes)

103

Hormones/Thymus
- What is the function of the T-cells?

t-cell differentiation

104

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does the ovaries produce?

-Estrogen
-Progesterone
-Testosterone
-Relaxin
-Inhibin

105

Hormones/Ovaries
- What is the function of Estrogen as it stimulates the body cell?

1) primary sex characteristics (reproduction body parts)
2) secondary sex characteristics (mature from immature ex. sagging breast from plump ones)
3) reproduction – uterus preparation
4) blocks milk production when pregnant
5) prepares breast for lactation
6) behavior

106

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does the Hypothalamus produce to stimulate Anterior Pituitary?

GnRH

107

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does Anterior Pituitary produce as GnRH stimulates Anterior Pituitary?

FSH and LH

108

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does the estrogen target?

Body cells

109

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does Progesterone target?

Uterus and Breast

110

Hormones/Ovaries
- What stimulates the ovaries to produce progesterone?

FSH and LH

111

Hormones/Ovaries
- When progesterone stimulates the Uterus Breast what does it do?

1) reproduction – uterus preparation

2) prepares breasts for lactation

3) block ovulation

112

Hormones/Ovaries
- What inhibits estrogen from being produced?

Estrogen will do negative feed back to stop the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus.

113

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does the ovaries secrete to stop the producing hormones?

Inhibin, it targets Anterior Pituitary and hypothalamus

114

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does Testosterone target?

Cells of the body

115

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does the cells of the body do when it is stimulated by Testosterone?

1. sex drive
2. short time right before ovulation

116

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does Relaxin target?

Symphysis Pubis and Uterus (Cervix)

117

Hormones/Ovaries
- What does Relaxin do when it stimulates the Symphysis Pubis and Uterus (Cervix)?

1) relaxes fibocartilage of symphysis pubis

2) dilates cervix

118

Hormones/Ovaries
- What produces Inhibin?

Ovaries

119

Hormones/Ovaries
- What stops the producing of GnRH?

Either Inhibin or the hormone being produced (Estrogen/Progesterone)

120

Hormones/Testes
- What does the Testes produce?

a. testosterone
b. Relaxin
c. inhibin

121

Hormones/Testes
- What stimulates the testes to produce testosterone?

LH

122

Hormones/Testes
- What testosterone stimulate?

1) primary sex characteristics
2) secondary sex characteristics
3) reproduction – sperm development
4) behavior
5) sex drive

123

Hormones/Testes
- What does testosterone target?

body cells

124

Hormones/Testes
- What happens testes need to produce sperm?

FSH and Testosterone

125

Hormones/Testes
- What does relaxin from testes target?

Spermatozoa

126

Hormones/Testes
- What is the function of Spermatozoa when it is stimulated by Relaxin?

- found in semen
- increase sperm motility

127

Hormones/Placenta
- What does the placenta produce?

a. estrogen
b. progesterone
c. relaxin
d. human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
e. human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS)

128

FILL IN FROM 87-91

fill in from 87-91

129

Hormones/Cells
-What does cells stimulate ?

other cells

130

Hormones/Cells
-What is the function of cells that are stimulated by protaglandins?

1) increase/decrease cAMP
a) smooth muscle contraction
b) secretion
c) blood flow
d) reproduction
e) platelet function
f) respiration
g) nerve impulse transmission
h) fat metabolism
i) immune response
j) inflammation
k) neoplasia
l) intensifying pain

131

Hormones/Cells
-What is the function of white blood cells that are stimulated by leukotrienes?

a) chemotaxis of white blood cells (WBC)

b) mediation of inflammation (stimulates inflamation)

132

Hormones/Cells
-What is the does white blood cells target?

same type of cells so white blood cells

133

Hormones/Stress
-What are the types of stress?

1. Alarm reaction
2. Resistance Reaction
3.Exhaustion

134

Hormones/Stress
-What does exhaustion do?

decrease in immunity, tired and etc.


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