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Chapter 4 Part 2: Connective, Muscle, Nervous Tissue

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1

What are the classes of connective tissue?

Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone and blood

2

What are the characteristics of connective tissue that make it different from other primary tissues?

It has mesenchyme as the common tissue of origin, has varying degrees of vascularity, and has extracellular mix

3

What are the structural elements of connective tissue?

Ground substance, fibers and cells.

4

What are the components of ground substance?

Interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins ("glue"), and proteoglycans

5

What are the types of fibers that provide support to connective tissue?

Collagen, elastic, and reticular

6

True or False: "blast" cells are the mature forms of cells

False.

7

True or False: Fibroblasts are located in connective tissue proper.

True.

8

What types of cells are in connective tissue?

Fat cells, white blood cells, mast cells, macrophages.

9

What is the role of mast cells?

To initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganisms they detect.

10

What is the role of macrophages?

To "eat" dead cells

11

What are the two subclasses of connective tissue proper?

Loose connective tissues and dense (or fibrous) connective tissues.

12

What are the types of loose connective tissues?

Areolar, Adipose, Reticular.

13

What are the types of dense connective tissue?

Dense regular, Dense irregular, Elastic

14

Which type of connective tissue is associate with edema?

Areolar

15

Brown fat uses lipid fuels to heat the bloodstream, not to produce ______.

ATP.

16

The cells in adipose tissue are called ________.

Adipocyte.

17

The cells in reticular connective tissue is called _________.

Fibroblasts.

18

Reticular connective tissue is located where?

Lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow.

19

Dense regular connective tissue is located where?

Tendons and ligaments.

20

Dense irregular connective tissue is located where?

The dermis, fibrous joint capsules, and fibrous coverings of some organs.

21

Elastic connective tissue is located where?

Ligaments (connecting adjacent vertebrae), within the walls of bronchial tubes

22

Cartilage consists of what types of cells?

Chondroblasts and chondrocytes

23

True or False: Cartilage is avascular.

True.

24

What are the types of cartilage?

Hyaline, elastic, and fibro-

25

Where is hyaline cartilage located?

Ends of long bones, in joint cavities

26

Where is elastic cartilage located?

External ear

27

Where is fibrocartilage located?

Intervertebral discs, discs of knee joint

28

Bone is also known as __________.

Osseous tissue.

29

Bone is made up of more ________ than _________.

Collagen, cartilage

30

True or False: Bone is richly vascularized

True.

31

__________ is the only fluid tissue.

Blood.

32

What are the types of muscular tissue?

Skeletal, cardiac, smooth

33

Which type(s) of muscular tissue are involuntary?

Cardiac, smooth

34

Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system. It is composed of __________.

Brain, spinal cord, nerves

35

__________ are supporting cells in nerve tissue that support, insulate, and protect neurons.

Neuroglia

36

Covering and lining membranes are composed of how many tissue types?

At least two.

37

What are the types of covering and lining membranes?

Cutaneous, mucous, serous

38

Cutaneous membrane is also known as __________.

Skin

39

In the cutaneous membrane, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (_______), is attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (___________).

Epidermis, dermis

40

Mucosa indicates __________, not cell _________.

location, composition

41

In mucous membranes, an epithelial sheet lies over a layer of connective tissue called ___________.

Lamina proper

42

Mucus membranes line ______ ________ that are _______ to the exterior

Body cavities, open.

43

Serous membranes are found in __________ ________ body cavities.

Closed ventral.

44

In serous membranes, a simple squamous epithelium, also known as _________, rests on a thin layer of ___________ connective tissue.

Mesothelium, areolar

45

Serous membranes are located where?

Pleurae, pericardium, peritoneum

46

Tissue repair occurs in these major ways.

Regeneration, fibrosis

47

During this type of tissue repair, the same type of tissue replaces the destroyed tissue, and the original function is restored.

Regeneration.

48

In this type of tissue repair, connective tissue replaces the destroyed tissue, and the original function is lost.

Fibrosis

49

What is the first step in tissue repair?

Inflammation, clotting occurs

50

What is the second step of tissue repair?

Organization which restores blood supply, blood clot is replaced with granulation tissue, fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to bridge the gap

51

What is the third step of tissue repair?

Regeneration and fibrosis, the scab detaches, epithelium thickens and begins to resemble adjacent tissue, results in fully regenerated epithelium with underling scar tissue.

52

What types of tissues regenerate very well?

Epithelial, bone, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, blood-forming tissue.

53

What types of tissues have moderate regenerating capacity?

Smooth muscle, dense regular connective tissue.

54

What types of tissues have virtually no functional regenerative capacity?

Cardiac muscle, nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord

55

What are the primary germ layers?

Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

56

From what primary germ layer does nerve tissue arise?

Ectoderm

57

From what primary germ layer does muscle tissue and connective tissues arise?

Mesoderm

58

From what primary germ layer does epithelial tissues arise?

All three germ layers.


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