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ch 9: joints

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created 4 years ago by b_curatolo94
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updated 4 years ago by b_curatolo94

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1

fibrous joint

bones united by ligament

2

amphiarthrosis

slightly movable in syndesmosis

3

what part of the tibia bone are slightly moveable

anterior tibiofibular joint and interosseous membrane

4

gomphosis

ligament holds cone-shaped peg in bony socket

5

amphiarthrosis

immovable in gomphosis

6

what is immovable in gomphosis

teeth in alveolar processes

7

cartilaginous joints

lacks a synovial cavity

8

cartilaginous joints

allows little or no movement

9

cartilaginous joints

bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hylian cartilage

10

2 types of cartilaginous joints

synchondroses
symphyses

11

connecting material in synchondroses

hyalin cartilage

12

immovable

synchondroses

13

what is immovable in synchondroses joints

epiphyseal plate or joints between ribs and sternum

14

connecting material symphysis

fibrocartilage

15

slightly immovable in symphysis

amphiarthroses

16

what is slightly immoveable im symphysis

intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis

17

synovial cavity

separates articulating bones

18

freely moveable in synovial joints

diarthroses

19

articular cartilage

reduces fricken and absorbs shock

20

articular capsule

surrounds joint and thickenings in fibrous capsule called ligaments

21

synovial membrane

inner lining of capsule

22

synovial membrane

secretes synovial fluid containing hyaluronic acid slippery

23

synovial membrane

brings nutrients to articular cartilage

24

ex of synovial joints

joint space is synovial joint cavity
articular cartilage covering ends of bones
articular capsule

25

other specific features of synovial joints

accessory ligaments
articular discs or menisci
bursae

26

accessory ligaments- (extracapsular)

outside joint capsule

27

accessory ligaments- (intracapsular)

within capsule

28

articular discs/menisci

attached around edges to capsule
allow 2 bones of diff shape to fit tightly
increase stability of knee-torn cartilage

29

bursae

saclike structures between structures
-skin/bone or tendon/bone or ligament/bone

30

arthroscopy

examination of joint

31

arthroscopy is done with an instrument as big as

the size of a pencil

32

arthroscopy

remove torn knee cartilages & repair ligaments
small incision only

33

arthroplasty

replacement of joints

34

arthroplasty

total hip replaces acetabulum & head of femur
plastic socket & metal head
knee replacement is common

35

nerves to joints are branches

of nerves to nearby muscles

36

joint capsule and ligaments contain

pain fibers and sensory receptors

37

blood supply from the structures of a joint are branches

from nearby structures

38

blood supply nutrients to all joint tissues but?
and what supplies it?

articular cartilage which is supplied from synovial fluid

39

sprain

twisting of joint that stretches or tears ligaments
no dislocation of the bones

40

sprain

may damage nearby blood vessels, muscles, or tendons

41

swelling & hemorrhage from blood vessels if what is frequently sprained?

ankle

42

strain

less serious injury
overstretched or partially torn muscle

43

planar joint

bone surfaces are flat or slightly curved

44

planar joint

side to side movement only

45

in planar joints what is rotation prevented by

ligaments

46

examples of planar joints

intercarpal or intertarsal joints
sternoclavicular joint
vertebrocostal joints

47

hinge joint

convex surface of one bones fits into concave surface of 2nd bone

48

hinge joint

uniaxial like a door hinge

49

ex of hinge joints

knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints

50

flexion

decreasing the joint angle

51

extension

increasing the angle

52

hypertension

opening the joint beyond the anatomical position

53

pivot joint

rounded surface of bone articulates with ring formed by 2nd bone & ligament

54

pivot joint

monoaxial since it allows only rotation around longitudinal axis

55

ex of pivot joint

proximal radioulnar joint-
supination and pronation

56

ex of pivot joints

atlanto-axial joint-
turning head side to "no"

57

condyloid or ellipsoidal joint

oval-shaped projection fits into oval depression

58

condyloid/ellipsoidal joints are biaxial which means?

possibly able to flex/extend or abduct/adduct

59

ex of condyloid/ellipsoidal joints

wrist & metacarpophalangeal joints for digits 2-5

60

Abduction and adduction deal with what 2 joints

condyloid joints
ball and socket joints

61

saddle joint

one bone saddled-shaped; other bone fits as a person would be sitting on a saddle

62

saddle joints are biaxial which

CIRCUMDUCTION allows tip of thumb to travel in a circle
OPPOSITION allows tip of thumb to touch tip of other figures

63

ex of saddle joint

trapesium or carpus and metacarpal of thumb

64

ball & socket joint

ball fitting into a cuplike depression

65

ball & socket joint are multiaxial which mean

flexion/extension
abduction/adduction
rotation

66

ex of ball & socket joints

shoulder joint
hip joint

67

Bursae sheaths

fluid-filled sac-like extensions of the joint capsule
reduce friction between moving structures

68

tendon sheaths

tube-like bursae that wrap around tendons at wrist and ankle where many tendons come together in a confineds space

69

bursitis

chronic inflammation of bursa

70

gliding

no change in angle of joints

71

angular movements

increase or decrease in angle between articulating bones

72

rotation

bone revolves around its own axis

73

circumduction

movement of distal end of a body part in a circle

74

circumduction

combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction
-occurs at ball & socket, saddle & condyloid joints

75

rotation

bone revolves around its longitudinal axis

76

rotation accurs

at ball & socket and pivot types of joints

77

special movements of mandiable

elevation
depression
protraction
retraction

78

elevation

upward

79

depression

downwards

80

protraction

forward

81

retraction

backward

82

special hand & foot movement

inversion
eversion
dorsiflexion
pronation
supination

83

shoulder joint

head of humerus & glenoid cavity of scapula
-ball & socket and all types of movement

84

glenohumeral (shoulder) joint

articular capsule from glenoid cavity to anatomical neck
many nearby bursa (subacromial)

85

glenoid labrum deeps what

socket

86

supporting structures at shoulder

associated ligaments strengthen joint capsule
transverse humeral ligament holds biceps tendon in place

87

rotator cuff muscles

attach humerus to scapula
encircle the joint supporting the capsule
hold head of humerus in socket

88

elbow joint - HINGE JOINT

trochlea notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus
flexion and extension of elbow

89

elbow joint- PIVOT JOINT

head of radius and capitulum of humerus
supination & pronation of forearm

90

articular capsule of the elbow joint

radial annular ligament hold head of radius in place
collateral ligaments maintain integrity of joint

91

hip joint

head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone
-ball & socket type of joint and all types of movement possible

92

hip joint STUTURES

acetabular labrum
ligament of the head of femur
articular capsule

93

hip joint CAPSULE

dense, strong capsule reinforced by ligaments
-one of the strongest in the body

94

what ligaments are the hip joint capsule reinforced by?

iliofemoral ligament
ischiofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament

95

tibiofemoral joint

between femur, tibia & patella
-flexion, extension & slight rotation of tibia on femur when knee is flexed

96

tibiofemoral joint

articular capsule
lateral & medial menisci
many bursa
vulnerable joint

97

why do knee injuries damage ligaments & tendons?

because bones do not fit well together

98

ex of external view of knee joint

patella

99

intracapsular structures of knee

medial meniscus
lateral meniscus
posterior cruciate
anterior cruciate

100

medial meniscus

C-shaped fibrocartilage

101

lateral meniscus

nearly circular

102

temporomandibular joint

synovial joint
articular disc
gliding above disc
hinge below disc

103

movements of temporomandibular joint

depression
elevation
protraction
retraction

104

atlanto-occipital joints

atlas & occipital condyles
condyloid joint

105

atlanto-occipital joints

flexion, extension, & slight lateral tilting

106

intervertebral joints (symphysis)

between bodies and intervertebral discs

107

intervertebral joints (synovial)

between vertebral articular processes

108

intervertebral joints

flexion
extension
lateral flexion

109

elbow joint

trochlea of humerus, trochlea notch of ulna & head of radius

110

elbow joint

pivot and hinge types
flexion, extension, pronation & supination

111

radiocarpal joint

articular disc
condyloid type
flexion, extension, adduction & abduction

112

talocrural joint

tibia & fibula with talus
hinge
inversion, eversion, plantarflexion & dorsiflexion

113

range of motion in synovial joint

shape of articulating bones
tension & strength of joint ligaments

114

range of motion in synovial joints

arrangements of muscles around joints
apposition (coming together) of soft parts

115

range of motion in synovial joints (HORMONES)

relaxin from placenta loosens pubic symphysis

116

range of motion in synovial (DISUSE)

decreased synovial fluid, decreased flexibility of ligaments, reduced size of muscles

117

rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune disorder
cartilage attacked
inflammation, swelling, & pain
final step is fusion of joint

118

osteoarthritis

degenerative joint disease (aging, wear & tear)
noninflammatory--no swelling

119

osteoarthritis

deterioration of cartilage produces bone spurs
-restrict movement
pain upon awakening--disappears with movement

120

gouty arthritis

urate build up in joints--pain
bones fuse
middle-aged men with abnormal gene


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