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A&P Exam 2 Material

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created 4 years ago by Husky_Murse
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GI/GU/Pelvis/Reproductive

updated 4 years ago by Husky_Murse

Grade levels:
College: Third year, Professional

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1

Serous membrane that houses ABD organs

Peritoneum

2

Which ABD muscle's fibers go up & down?

Rectus abdominus

3

Which ABD muscle's fibers go horizontally?

Transverse abdominus

4

Which ABD muscle's fibers go 45 degrees, towards midline?

Internal oblique

5

Which ABD muscle's fibers go 45 degrees, up & away from midline (towards lats)?

External oblique

6

What's the superficial/innermost layer of the esophagus?

Stratified squamous epithelium with goblet cells

7

What's the thick double layer of smooth muscle in the esophagus?

Muscularis externa

8

Peristalsis: What do the longitudinal muscles do ahead of a bolus?

Contract

9

What do the circular muscles do behind the bolus?

Contract

10

What nervous system controls peristalsis?

Enteric nervous system

11

When parasympathetic system triggers GI, what happens?

Rest & digest

12

When sympathetic system triggers GI, what happens?

Shut down to shunt blood away

13

What's another term for the sphincter between the esophagus & stomach?

Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

14

What attaches the small intestine to the back of the abdominal cavity?

Mesentery (yellow folds, like that of the greater omentum)

15

What are the innermost muscle fibers of the stomach?

Oblique

16

What are the middle layer of muscle fibers in the stomach?

Circular

17

What are the outermost muscle fibers of the stomach?

Longitudinal

18

What are the ridges in the stomach called? What are they for?

-Rugaue

-Allows stomach to expand

19

Volume of stomach when empty?

When full?

-50mL

-4,000mL

20

What is the partially digested food called that enters the stomach?

Chyme

21

What's the pH range of the stomach?

1.5 - 3.5

22

What does acid in stomach do?

-Kills bugs
-Denatures proteins
-Starts breakdown of plant cell walls & meat connective tissue (collagen)
-Enables pepsin to function optimally (released initially as pepsinogen - acid in stomach activates it)

23

What are 4 layers of stomach, from outside to inside?

Serosa (Peritoneum) - muscularis externa - Submucosa (gastric gland) - Mucosa (gastric pit) (infoldings)

24

The specialized epithelial cells of the stomach are located in the __1__ gland, and secrete precursor of __2__ & _____ 3 _____

1. Gastric gland
2. Pepsin
3. Hydrochloric acid

25

Yellow cells in the gastric gland secrete what?

Useful hormones & other substances

26

What type of pain will a patient experiencing a gastric ulcer experience? When will they likely experience the pain?

-Epigastric pain

-After eating

27

The small intestine is mostly hidden behind this

Greater omentum

28

Most ulcers, due to high acidity, are located where in GI system (80%)?

Duodenum

29

How would subjective report of pain differ between gastric ulcers & duodenal ulcers?

Stomach - soon after eating

Duodenal - delayed pain

30

What does duodenum require to reduce acidity of chyme? Where does it come from?

NaHCO3; from pancreas

31

What contributes to duodenal ulcers?

Acidic pH; too low for NaHCO3

32

What are some meds/dietary items that contribute to ulceration of GI system?

-NSAIDs
-Caffeine
-ETOH
-Acidic foods/drinks (OJ, V8)

33

What potential life-threatening complication arises in children with cystic fibrosis in relation to digestion/nutrition? This is similar with pancreatic cancer.

They can starve without supplemental enzymes; secretion of pancreatic juice is blocked, so digestive enzymes required for digestion/absorption aren't available

34

Necessary for fat emulsification/digestion

Bile

35

Makes bile

Liver

36

Stores bile

Gallbladder

37

What 2 juices help breakdown fat?

Bile emulsifies; pancreatic juice breaks down into even smaller droplets for absorption

38

What happens to the villi as you move into the jejunum & ileum?

Jejunum - get taller

Ileum - disappear

39

Prevent leakage of contents in duodenum

Tight junctions between epithelial cells

40

Secrete mucus w/high pH to protect epithelium from acidic chyme

Goblet cells

41

1. Where do gastric epithelial cells start?

2. How long do they live?

1. Born in crypt & ride to tip of villi

2. 3-6 days (tough environment)

42

Crypt cells (at bottom of villi) secrete this hormone when fat moves into duodenum

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

43

Triggers brain to suppress appetite; causes release of bile from gallbladder

Cholecystokinin (CCK - from crypt cells under villi)

44

Absorbed from chyme by epithelial cells; released into interstitial fluid to freely pass into capillaries that innervate the hepatic portal venous system

Nutrients (sugars, aminos, vitamins, minerals)

45
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Be able to tell where the following veins are located:

Superior mesenteric
Inferior mesenteric
Splenic vein
Hepatic portal vein

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Superior M. - Down from triple branching
Inferior M. - Down after right branching
Hepatic portal v. - Up from triple branching
Splenic v. - right from triple branching (continues with upward branching from inferior mesenteric)

46

In the portal system, blood goes through how many capillary beds?

Where are they located?

-2

-First is in villi of small intestine; 2nd is inside liver

47

Since tiny lipid/protein droplets are still too big to enter the GI capillaries, what must happen?

They enter lacteals (lymph vessels); called chyle

Flow to subclavian vein to lymph ducts

48

Lipid extracted from chyme; in lymph

Chyle

49

Reservoir where chyle can accumulate; at base of thoracic duct

Cysterna chyli

50

Most common bariatric Sx

Gastric lap band

51

Part of intestine housing large # of bacteria that can digest things that we can't (i.e. plant material)

Cecum of ascending colon

52

No enzymatic digestion - only bacterial here

Large intestine

53

What is an important job of the large intestine?

H2O absorption

54

Out-pockets in the large intestine

Diverticulum

55

Inflammation of the out-pockets in the large intestine

Diverticulitis

56

What dietary adjustment can help diverticulitis?

More fiber in diet - hydrate!

57

Which organs or part of organs aren't located in the peritoneum, but rather in the retroperitoneal region?

-Part of duodenum
-Spleen
-Kidneys

58

What's the clinical significance of having part of the duodenum, as well as the entirety of the kidneys & spleen, in the retroperitoneal space (outside of peritoneum)?

You can operate on these organs without risking peritonitis

59

Carries blood to liver from entire digestive tract; loaded with nutrients

Hepatic portal vein

60

Liver is made up of approximately 200,000 hexagonal structures (lobules). Blood enters these through a group of how many vessels? What is this group called?

-3 vessels
-Portal triad

61

What does the portal triad vasculature consist of?

1. Hepatic portal vein (branch of) BLOOD IN
2. Hepatic artery (branch of) BLOOD IN
3. Bile duct (green) BILE OUT

62

What portion of the portal triad vasculature supplies nutrients from the GI tract?

Hepatic portal vein

63

What portion of the portal triad vasculature supplies nutrients & O2 to the hepatocytes?

Hepatic artery

64

Blood leaving the liver heads where?

Inferior vena cava

65

Lipid & protein packets created by small intestine epithelial cells that absorb lipid droplets

Chylomicrons

66

Travel from thoracic duct through circulation, getting partially digested by muscle & adipose cells (extracting triglycerides & some cholesterol) before getting "gobbled up" by liver

Chylomicrons

67

Major cholesterol transporter

LDL

68

If LDL's become too abundant, __1__ swallow them & become engorged (hanging around site of endothelial injury), becoming __2__ cells, which contribute substantially to CAD

1. Macrophages

2. Foam

69

Suck cholesterol out of foam cells, reducing plaque

HDL

70

What does amino acid breakdown in the liver produce, and what is it converted into?

Ammonia; converted into urea (less toxic) to be removed from kidneys (part of BUN lab if kidney function is compromised)

71

What 2 kinds of dysfunction contribute to jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia)?

1. Liver doesn't transfer bili to bile (i.e. neonatal liver can't keep up with bili levels)

2. Obstructive jaundice: Liver works, but a blockage is preventing bili from entering bile (i.e. block in bile duct from gall stones or CA)

72

What happens to hepatocytes in cirrhosis?

Die & are replaced by fibrous tissue (& new hepatocytes)

73

Major causes of cirrhosis

1. ETOH
2. Hep B/C

74

Portal HTN, part of cirrhosis, can be defined as?

Scar tissue build-up creates more resistance, requiring anastomoses to develop for bypass of blood; waste accumulates

75

What are some of the complications r/t cirrhosis?

-Hepatomegaly (RUQ pain)
-Portal HTN
-Ascites
-Jaundice

76

Caused by abnormal collateral circulation as a result of portal HTN

Esophageal varices (swollen regions of veins)

77

What are the kidneys directly attached to?

Descending aorta & inferior vena cava

78
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Where are the kidneys?

Behind peritoneum (to left and right of L1 in picture)

79
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Where's the spleen?

Purple-blue organ on far right

80
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Where's the stomach?

Top center (to right of liver & superior to pancreas)

81

Why are the kidneys at greater risk of damage following a strong blow to the abdomen in comparison with the other abdominal organs?

The kidneys are fixed & can't move, increasing risk of damage

82

1. What makes up 50% of the nitrogenous wastes in urine?
2. What is this byproduct a result of?

1. Urea
2. Breakdown of amino acids in liver

83

How do the kidneys contribute to production of RBC's?

Erythropoietin

84
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Know these parts:

-Renal cortex & medulla
-Renal pyramids
-Minor & major calyces
-Renal pelvis
-Renal artery & vein

-Cortex is outermost; medulla is middle portion that also contains the renal pyramids
-Renal pyramids are the triangular-shaped fibrous parts included in the medulla
-Minor calyces are small extensions from pyramids; major are the larger extensions from the minor
-Renal pelvis is the large collection from the major calyces
-Renal artery is bifurcated, smaller; renal vein is larger, singular

85

What are the 2 kinds of nephrons in the kidney?

-Cortical nephron (85%)
-Juxtamedullary nephron (15%)

86

A tangled ball of capillaries within the nephron

Glomerulus

87

What forms the filter in the glomerulus?

Walls of the capillaries

88

What are the 3 layers associated with glomerular filtration?

1. Capillary walls (porous - small proteins can squeeze through)
2. "Dense layer" (basement membrane - smaller holes)
3. Feet of podocytes form slits that only allow fine particles to pass

89

Why isn't filtrate in renal tubular system red?

No RBC's

90

How does blood, which doesn't normally go into filtrate, exit the glomerulus? Where does it go from there?

Efferent arteriole to the peritubular capillaries

91

3rd leading cause of kidney failure; filtration slits of podocytes can get clogged by antigen-antibody complexes if present in high concentration; autoimmune

Glomerulonephritis

92

Glomerulonephritis is an autoimmune attack on the glomeruli. What organism/s are linked to this inflammatory immune disorder?

Strep & Lupus

Strep throat usually; lupus is autoimmune disorder

93

65% of water in filtrate gets reclaimed here; active transport occurs here; substances leave filtrate & enter interstitial fluid; everything can freely pass into peritubular capillaries

Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

94

Substances are also pumped from interstitial fluid into filtrate at this location when undesirable elements fail to filter through glomerulus

Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

95

Most of the filtrate's water is moved to the interstitial fluid at this point in the nephron

Descending loop of Henle (DLoH)

96

Much of the Na+ content in filtrate is reabsorbed into circulation at this point in the nephron

Ascending loop of Henle (ALoH)

97

After passing this point in urine filtration, only about 10% of original Na+ content & 20% of original H2O content remain

Loop of Henle

98

What is an optional step in urine formation that occurs usually at the end of filtration, and is dependent upon systemic status & needs?

Adjustment of osmolarity & pH to correct problems with either systemically

99

If, at the end of filtrate formation, either the body doesn't need any osmolarity/pH buffering, or those changes have already occurred, what happens to filtrate?

Becomes urine

100

If blood is too acidic, what enters urine filtrate to adjust pH?

Hydrogen ions

101

Is it more common for blood to be more basic or more acidic?

Acidic; rarely basic

102

If blood osmolarity (concentration) is too high, what happens in the kidneys?

H2O is reabsorbed from filtrate into interstitial fluid

103

Key measurement of kidney function (rate)

GFR

104

What is the pressure difference inside the glomerulus?

-15mm Hg

Capillaries = 50mm Hg
Filtrate inside capsule = 35mm Hg

105

What are 3 mechanisms that maintain GFR rate of 110-120mL/min?

-Local pathway (special cells in PCT)
-JG cells around afferent arteriole (renin)
-Baroreceptors in carotid

106

Specialized local cells inside the PCT do what when they detect either low rate of filtrate or low Na+?

Dilate afferent & constrict efferent

107

When JG cells around afferent arteriole detect either low BP or low Na+ in filtrate, they release what hormone?

Renin

108

Raises GFR by constricting efferent arteriole

Angiotensin II

109

Causes adrenal gland to release aldosterone

Angiotensin II

110

Released by the adrenal gland under stimulus from angiotensin II, aldosterone acts on what part of the nephron?

DCT

111

Causes vasoconstriction of arterioles & precapillary sphincters, raising systemic BP

Angiotensin II

112

Causes release of ADH from brainstem & activates SNS = vasoconstriction

Angiotensin II

113

When baroreceptors in the carotid sinus detect low BP, they send signals to the __1__, which directs the __2__ gland to release __3__. This acts on the DCT & collecting ducts.

1. Hypothalamus
2. Pituitary
3. ADH

114

Leading cause of kidney damage & eventual failure

Diabetes

115

Excess glucose builds in the __1__, causing excess __2__ to remain in filtrate, resulting in __3__.

1. PCT
2. H2O
3. Hyperfiltration

116

How does diabetes, and subsequent hyperfiltration, caused nephron damage?

Causes chronic afferent arteriole constriction, reducing blood flow to peritubular capillaries, resulting in less blood supply to nephrons, which is damaging over time

117

How does hyperfiltration lead to proteinuria?

Thickens basement membrane (filter slits), causing a leaky filter that allows proteins to pass

118

Urination requires cooperation between what 2 systems?

Autonomic (internal sphincter) & voluntary control (external sphincter)

119

Bladder infections in women are almost always caused by what organism?

E. coli

120

What are 2 treatments for kidney stones?

Lithotripsy & SX

121

What are the 4 layers of the pelvis, starting w/innermost first?

-Bony pelvis
-Pelvic diaphragm
-Subperitoneal connective tissue
-Peritoneum

122

What 2 body cavities are continuous?

Abdominal & pelvic (abdominopelvic)

123

Term for external genitalia

Perineum

124

What's the orientation of the pelvis, which is sometimes contrary to popular belief?

Tipped forwards, so anterior superior iliac spine & pubic tubercle are on same vertical plane

125

Since the pelvis is tipped forwards in orientation, what 2 landmarks are located on the same vertical plane?

Anterior superior iliac spine & pubic tuburcle

126

What components of the pelvis really help with stability, allowing the transfer of weight of the upper body to the limbs?

Pelvic ligaments

127

Besides connecting pelvic bones together, what else do the ligaments & muscles of the pelvis do?

Form openings to transmit nerves, vessels, & muscles

128

The inguinal ligament forms an opening for what?

Femoral nerve/vessels to anterior thigh

129

The greater sciatic foramen forms an opening for what?

Gluteal nerves/vessels

130

The obturator canal forms an opening for what?

Medial thigh nerves/vessels

131

How does the pudendal nerve travel through the pelvis, and where does it go to innervate?

Greater sciatic foramen - lesser sciatic foramen - perineal region beneath pelvic outlet

132

1. All pelvic muscles discussed in lecture are innervated by what type of nerves?

2. Where do the nerves come from?

1. Somatic

2. Sacral plexus along posterior wall of bony pelvis

133

The sacral plexus, which innervates the pelvis, also innervates what?

Skeletal muscle & sensory to skin of gluteal/perineal regions & leg/posterior thigh

134

Where does the sacral plexus originate from?

L4-S4

135

Does the sacral plexus innervate reproductive organs?

No (except for parts exiting pelvis)

136

On the bottom end of the pelvis (pelvic outlet), what muscles closes it off?

Pelvic diaphragm

137

Separates the pelvic cavity from the perineum & covers pelvic outlet

Pelvic diaphragm

138

What shape is the pelvic diaphragm?

Funnel-shaped

139

2 muscles that make up the pelvic diaphragm

Levator ani & coccygeus

140

Helps maintain closure of the rectum

Levator ani

141

The gap that is anterior to the anorectal junction; urethra & vagina pass thru

Urogenital hiatus (in levator ani)

142

What is the urogenital hiatus filled by?

-Perineal membrane
-Urethra
-Vagina (female)

143

What's the anal aperture filled by?

Rectum

144

Forms sling around rectum to act as a sphincter

Pelvic diaphragm

145

Supports bladder, uterus, vagina, & rectum

Pelvic diaphragm

146

What functions does the pelvic diaphragm serve?

-Organ support
-Increase intra-abdominal pressure
-Urination/defecation
-Pregnancy/labor
-Kegel exercises

147

Kegel exercises strengthen what muscle to prevent organ prolapse?

Pelvic diaphragm

148

This refers to the peritoneum's contour, draping like a sheet over furniture (organs); the pelvic peritoneal lining is continuous with the peritoneum

Peritoneal reflections

149

1. What does the peritoneal reflections form?
2. Where in women & how many?
3. Where in men & how many?

1. Pouches
2. 2 - recto-uterine & vesico-uterine pouches
3. 1 - recto-vesical pouch

150

Why was the vesico-uterine pouch particularly important for surgery pre-laparoscopy?

Provided a portal for certain procedures

151

"Packing material" for pelvic organs; between peritoneum & pelvic diaphragm

Subperitoneal fascia

152

What are thickenings in the subperitoneal fascia called?

Ligaments (support pelvic organs)

153

This ligament passively supports the uterus

Transverse cardinal ligament

154

How do blood vessels travel to the pelvic organs?

From lateral wall through subperitoneal fascia

155
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What is this picture highlighting?

Pelvic diaphragm (2nd layer of pelvis)

156
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What is this picture highlighting?

Subperitoneal connective tissue (3rd layer of pelvis)

157
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What is this picture highlighting?

Peritoneum (4th layer of pelvis)

158

Diamond-shaped region enclosed by the boundaries of the pelvic outlet & below pelvic diaphragm

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Perineum

159

1. The perineum is divided into how many triangles?

2. What are their names?

1. 2
2. Urogenital triangle (superior) & anal triangle (inferior)

160

Are the urogenital & anal triangles in one plane or a different plane?

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Almost at right angles to one another (not in one plane)

161

Key structure in the urogenital triangle; supports structures that compose external genitalia

Perineal membrane

162

The perineal membrane organizes the urogenital triangle into what 2 pouches?

Superficial & deep

163

The superficial pouch of the urogenital triangle of the perineal membrane contains what?

External genitalia

164

The deep pouch of the urogenital triangle of the perineal membrane contains what?

-Sphincters for urethra (external) & vagina (female)

-Urethra penetrates

165

What is a key difference between the urogenital & anal triangles of the perineal membrane?

The UG triangle isn't an open space between pelvic diaphragm & skin

166

The erectile tissues (clitoris, glans penis) & bartholin's glands (women) are contained in what area?

Superficial pouch of UG triangle (perineal membrane)

167

Central tendon of the perineum; "center of things" at junction of UG & anal triangles (perineum)

Perineal body

168

Anchoring point for levator ani/perineal muscles (i.e. sphincters for urethra/vagina/anus), so very important for maintaining tone & integrity for pelvic organs

Perineal body (central tendon at junction of UG & anal triangles)

169

1. Is the anal triangle open or closed?

2. Is it covered by membrane?

1. Open

2. No - no perineal membrane or pouches

170

What 2 things comprise the anal triangle?

-External anal sphincter

-Ischioanal fossae

171

This part of the anal triangle (perineal membrane) is a site of infection & may result in abscesses & these may rupture

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Ischioanal fossae (yellow part)

172

Are the superficial fascias of the abdomen & UG triangle continuous?

Yes

173

In the event of a urethral rupture, will urine collect inside the anal triangle or upper leg?

No - these are not continuous w/perineal pouches

174

What hormone permits greater rotation of the pelvis during childbirth?

Relaxin

175

What angle change in the back occurs during pregnancy?

Increased lordosis

176

What part of the pelvis permits a 10-15% diameter increase (transverse) during labor?

Pubic symphysis

177

What can cause pain in the lower limbs for a mother giving birth?

Head compresses sacral plexus

178

1. Major nerve of the perineum?

2. Origination?

3. What opening does it exit pelvis?

4. What opening does it enter pelvis?

1. Pudendal nerve (somatic)
2. Sacral plexus
3. Greater sciatic foramen
4. Lesser sciatic foramen

179

Only blocks sensation of perineum; less common with widespread use of epidural

Pudendal nerve block

180

This muscle most often torn in childbirth

Pubococcygeus (part of levator ani)

181

Why is incontinence a common risk associated with childbirth?

Weakening of levator ani & pelvic fascia from stretching/tearing may alter position of bladder neck & urethra

182

What comprises the "bony pelvis"?

2 pelvic (hip) bones & sacrum

183

What's the most amazing role of the bony pelvis?

Role as the birth canal during labor

184

What 3 bones form the hip?

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-Ilium
-Ischium (blue)
-Pubis

185

The 3 hip bones meet up to form the socket for the femur head. What's the socket's name?

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Acetabulum

186
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Know common landmarks

no data

187
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Know common landmarks

no data

188

What differentiates the false (greater) pelvis from the true (lesser) pelvis?

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False (between iliac bones) contains GI organs; true (between ischium & pubis) contains bladder/uterus

189

Important bony landmark; junction of ABD & pelvic cavities & false/true pelvis

Pelvic Brim

190

The false pelvis is considered part of what region?

Abdomen

191

"Entrance" to true pelvis & pelvic cavity proper

Pelvic Brim

192

Describe the depth & diameter of the pelvis for a male in comparison with a female

Male: Deep & narrow
Female: Shallow & wide

193

Describe the thickness & weight of pelvic bone for a male in comparison with a female

Male: Thick & heavy
Female: Thin & light

194

The sacrospinous & sacrotuberous ligaments turn the greater & lesser sciatic notches into foramen. Which is the larger & more superficial of the 2?

Sacrotuberous ligament

195

With the exception of the perineum & inferior part of vagina, which are innervated by the pudendal nerve of the sacral plexus, the reproductive organs are innervated by what type of nerves?

Autonomic nerves

196

How do the ovaries generally ovulate?

Alternate 1 egg/month

197

Part of broad ligament that suspends ovaries

Mesovarium (of broad ligament)

198

Where do ovaries receive their blood from?

Abdomen (via internal iliac)

199

Are the ovaries covered by peritoneum?

No - so that eggs are accessible to be picked up at end of uterine tube

200

Another term for uterine tubes

Oviducts

201

What lines the inside of the uterine tubes? What's the function?

Cilia - to move egg along

202

The funnel-shaped and distal end of the uterine tube is called this

Infundibulum

203

What are the projections at the distal end of the uterine tube (infundibulum) called?

Fimbria

204

Longest part of uterine tube; site of fertilization

Ampulla

205

Ampulla of uterine tube narrows to form this at the junction w/uterus

Isthmus

206

1. Why can infections spread fairly easily between uterus, vagina, and ABD organs?

2. What are some examples?

1. Oviducts (uterine tubes) open to peritoneal cavity - this is a 2-way street to abdomen

2. PID & STD's - PID can lead to peritonitis & vice versa

207

Most common site of ectopic pregnancies

Uterine tubes

208

What's the problem with ectopic pregnancies?

Rarely viable & life-threatening to mother (tubal rupture & hemorrhage)

209

Pear-shaped organ with thick wall of smooth muscle

Uterus

210

What are the 3 parts of the uterus?

Top: Fundus
Middle: Body
Bottom: Cervix

211

Grows every month in preparation for implantation; sheds if no embryo implants

Endometrial lining

212

Dome-shaped inferior part of uterus; extends into vagina

Cervix

213

As the cervix extends into the vagina, it forms gutters called

Fornices

214

Explain 3 different times the uterine muscle length changes, and give those general lengths (i.e. short, medium, long)

During menstruation - medium (80cm)

After menstruation - short (40cm)

Up to 10x longer in pregnancy (to expel fetus)

215

How would you describe the position of the uterus?

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Head - fundus
Body - body
Legs - cervix

216

What are the 2 axes for describing uterine position?

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-Angle of anteflexion (between cervix & uterine body)

-Angle of anteversion (between vagina & cervix

217

What are some abnormal uterine positions?

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-Retroflexed
-Retroverted
-Prolapsed

218

Uterus can grow __1__ times its weight & increase its muscle fiber length by __2__ times; postpartum weight loss of 50% by __3__ weeks

1. 45
2. 10
3. 4

219

What helps suppress estrogen secretion & stimulate oxytocin to contract myometrium postpartum?

Breastfeeding

220

What do the ovarian, uterine, & vaginal arteries do during pregnancy (very important)?

Anastomose

221

What do pap smears aid in screening for?

Cervical cancer

222

Cervical dysplasia isn't cancer, but it's a risk factor for developing it. What's a common cause of cervical dysplasia?

HPV

223

What site is used when doing a pap smear?

Mucosa outside and inside of cervical canal

224

What aids in reducing the risk of pathogenic growth in the vagina?

Vaginal lining cells secrete glycogen, which is fermented into acid by resident bacteria, keeping pH acidic (3.5-4)

225

What's the pH of the vagina?

3.5-4

226

What's the most common vaginal infection?

Yeast vaginitis

227

What are 2 names for the female external genitalia?

Vulva or pudendum

228

The units within the testes that produce sperm & hormones

Seminiferous tubules

229

Sperm collects in tubes that lead to what?

Epididymis

230

Where do sperm mature?

First part of epididymis - head & body

231

Once mature, sperm leave the epididymis via what tube?

Ductus deferens

232

How long does it take for sperm to mature, and thus reach the tail of the epididymis?

20 days

233

How does ejaculation cause release of sperm?

SNS innervates lower part of tail of epididymis, causing intense contractions during ejaculation

234

How long do sperm remain fertile for?

40-60 days

235

Where do testes develop?

ABD cavity & descend (inguinal canal) during fetal development

236

What does the spermatic cord descend thru, and what is contained within it?

Inguinal canal - ductus deferens & blood vessels/nerves/lymph

237

What is the anatomical equivalent of the labia majora in males? What's the major difference?

Scrotum; it holds gonads, whereas in females the labia majora doesn't

238

What are the 3 mechanisms for regulating the 35 degree temperature of the testes?

-Dartos muscle
-Cremaster muscle
-Pampiniform plexus

239

In the fascia of the skin; contracts & wrinkles skin to hold testes closer to the body & reduce heat loss

Dartos muscle

240

Covering of the spermatic cord; contracts to draw testis closer to body (warmth) or relaxes when it gets too warm

Cremaster muscle

241

Extensive web of testicular veins leaving testis that wrap around incoming testicular artery in spermatic cord; act as countercurrent heat exchanger; as testicular artery bring blood that's warmer than venous blood, that heat transfers to testicular veins

Pampiniform plexus

242

What's the most common type of hernia?

Inguinal

243

Through inguinal canal (deep ring); 2/3 of hernias

Indirect inguinal hernia

244

Medial part of inguinal canal through weakness in wall; includes peritoneal sac with intestine or fat; 1/3 of hernias

Direct inguinal hernia

245

Which type of hernia is often acquired, and what population is it more common in?

Direct - older men (hasselbach's triangle)

246

Which type of hernia is much more frequent in both males & females?

Indirect

247

How long is the ductus (vas) deferens?

18" - the spinal cord!

248

Where do the ductus (vas) deferens start, and where do they travel from there (until the end)?

Tail of epididymis - ascends in spermatic cord thru inguinal canal - crosses external iliac vessels - crosses ureter - forms ejaculatory duct w/duct of seminal vesicle - opens to prostatic urethra

249

What do the ductus deferens join with to form the ejaculatory duct?

Ducts of seminal vesicles

250

For someone who's had a vasectomy, what fluid comprises the ejaculate?

Fluid from seminal vesicles, prostate, & bulbourethral glands (no sperm)

251

Accessory glands that joins ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct

Seminal vesicles

252

Produces alkaline fluid w/fructose as an energy source for sperm; 70% of ejaculate volume

Seminal vesicles

253

Know the following locations on the picture on reverse side (listed in order of flow):

-Ampulla of ductus deferens
-Seminal vesicle
-Prostate
-Prostatic urethra
-Membranous urethra
-Spongy urethra

card image

-Ampulla is tube portion beside seminal vesicle (looks like leaf)
-Prostate is chestnut shaped gland below bladder
-Prostatic urethra is portion inside of prostate
-Membraneous urethra is between prostatic & penile spongy tissue (spongy urethra)

254

What is the connection of reproductive & urinary tracts in men?

Prostate

255

What's important in relation to the drainage of the prostate for disease determination?

Metastasis of prostate cancer

256

This gland produces thin milky fluid; 30% of semen

Prostate

257

Prostatic zones:

Which zone is r/t BPH?

Transitional zone (TZ)

258

Prostatic zones:

Which zone is r/t cancer?

Peripheral zone (PZ)

259

2nd most common cancer in men

Prostate cancer

260

Where does prostatic cancer metastasize to?

Pelvic lymph nodes (internal iliac/sacral) - then rest of body

261

Foreskin of the penis

Prepuce

262

Expanded end of penis w/urethral opening

Glans

263

Muscles of penile root; attached to ischipubic rami

card image

Crura (crus of penis)

264

Is body of penis attached to anything? If, so, what is it?

No attachment - free hanging

265

Arteries responsible for either leaking to cause erection of penis or not leaking & communicating directly w/draining veins when penis is flaccid

Helicine arteries

266

A couple of bacterial STD's which may present w/no symptoms

Gonorrhea, chlamydia

267

What's the risk of untreated STD's in women? Men?

Women: PID - infertility
Men: Infertility

*Especially chlamydia & gonorrhea

268

2 most common STD's

Chlamydia & gonorrhea

269

Trace route of sperm from testes to exiting urethra via glans penis

Epididymis - ductus (vas) deferens - ejaculatory duct - urethra (3 sections)

270

What 2 glands input approximately 90% of seminal fluid?

Seminal vesicles (60%) & prostate (30%)

271

What must happen to a sperm in order for it to fertilize an egg?

It must be capacitated (membrane alteration)

272

Term referring to fertilized egg being transported to the uterine cavity

Blastocyst


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