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Peripheral Nervous System (Chapter 12)

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created 4 years ago by Jamess0830
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Neuroscience

updated 4 years ago by Jamess0830

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1

Dorsal Ramus

Paravertebral muscles and skin

2

Ventral Ramus

Skeletal, muscular and cutaneous areas of limb and anterolateral trunk

3

Rami Communicantes

ANS

4

What are the characteristics of PNS Dysfunction?

1. S/S in a peripheral nerve pattern
2. Decreased NCV and absent DTRs
3. Hypotonia and fast muscle atrophy

5

What are the characteristics of CNS dysfunction?

1. S/S in dermatomal or myotomal pattern
2. Normal NCV and increased DTRS
3. Hypertonia and slow muscle atrophy

6

What is the path of the Brachial Plexus?

Spinal Nerve Root Rami->Trunks->Divisions->Cords->Branches

7

What are the types of Afferent Peripheral Axons?

1. 1a,1b, II
2. A-Delta
3. C

8

Describe Large-Myelinated Afferent Peripheral Axons

1a, 1b, and II axons. Examples: Spindles, GTO, and touch receptors

9

Describe small-myelinated afferent peripheral axons

A-delta axons. Fast pain and temperature

10

Describe small-unmyelinated afferent peripheral axons

C axons. Slow pain and temperature

11

What are the types of Efferent Peripheral Axons

A-alpha, A-gamma, B, and C

12

Describe Large myelinated Efferent Peripheral Axons

A-alpha axons. Extrafusal muscle fibers

13

Desribe medium myelinated efferent peripheral axons

A-gamma axons. Intrafusal muscle fibers

14

Describe small efferent peripheral axons

Myelinated: B (preganglionic ANS)
Unmyelinated: C (Postsynaptic ANS)

15

What are the three types of Peripheral Neuropathies?

Mononeuropathy, Multiple mononeuropathy, and Polyneuropathy

16

What is Myelinopathy and its prognosis?

compression injury and Schwann cell death. Fast and good recovery

17

What is Axonopathy and its prognosis?

The axon is crushed (Wallerian degeneration). Slow and good recovery.

18

What is Severance and its prognosis?

Injury that involves BOTH the axon and myelin sheath. Recovery is both slow and poor.

19

Describe the characteristics of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (Pathology Box).

1. PNS only
2. S/S are BOTH Sensory and Motor
3. Etiology: Due to compression of medial nerve in tunnel

20

What are the characteristics of Multiple Mononeuropathy?

1. 2+ nerves involved
2. Slow, good recovery
3. Random/ asymmetrical pattern of S/S
4. Due to ischemia, such as blood vessel inflammation

21

What are the characteristics of Polyneuropathy?

1. 2+ nerves involved
2. Symmetrical pattern of S/S
3. Due to generalized destruction of myelin
4. Causes: GB,DM, Toxins, Poor diet

22

Describe the characteristics of Diabetic Polyneuropathy (Pathology Box)

1. PNS only
2. S/S are both Sensory and Motor
3. Etiology: Demyelination and axon damage due to dysfunction in glucose metabolism

23

What are two examples of Myoneural Junction Dysfuction?

Myasthenia Gravis (Decrease in # of Ach receptors in skeletal muscle membrane)

Botulism (Interferes with release of Ach from Alpha motor neurons)

24

What is Myopathy?

Disorders that are intrinsic to muscle; muscular dysfunction that has an intact nerve supply
(Muscular Dystrophy and disuse atrophy)

25

True or False: Myelinopathy is the first of three classes of polyneuropathy.

False

26

True or False: Muscular Dystrophy has a neurogenic etiology.

False

27

True or False: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is due to the compression of the median nerve and causes only motor symptoms

False

28

True or False: In the brachial plexus, divisions are more proximal than cords

True

29

True or False: Diabetic polyneuropathy involves both CNS and the PNS

False

30

True or False: Multiple mononeuropathy can be caused by blood vessel inflammation

True

31

True or False: The signs and symptoms for CTS are both sensory and motor, and are due to compression of the ulnar nerve

False

32

True or False: Traumatic axonopathy is a mononeuropathy that occurs because of Schwann cell death.

False

33

True or False: The signs and symptoms of CNS dysfunction are in a dermatomal or myotomal pattern

True

34

True or False: Ventral rami innervate paravertebral muscle and skin

False

35

True or False: Multiple mononeuropathy has symmetrical patterns of signs and symptoms

False

36

True or False:Hypotonia is seen in PNS dysfunction

True

37

True or False: The correct order from proximal to distal in the brachial plexus is as follows: Spinal Nerve Root Rami->Division-> Trunks-> Cords-> Branches

False

38

True or False: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is due to compression of the medial nerve in the tunnel

False

39

True or False: Gower's Sign is seen in individuals with diabetic polyneuropathy.

False

40

True or False: Botulism interferes with the release of Ach from alpha motor neurons

True


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