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chapter 7

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Muscles of the forearm and hand

Grade levels:
College: First year

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Flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris Longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor carpi radialis:
Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon

Insertion: Anterior hand on the radial side 2nd and 3rd base of metacarpal

Action:
flexion of the hand at the wrist joint
radial deviation of the wrist

Palmaris Longus
Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon.

Insertion: Palm of the hand

Action:
Flexion of the hand at the wrist

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon.

Insertion: Styloid process of the ulna, hook of hamate and pisiform

Action
flexion of the hand at the wrist joint
ulnar deviation

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Pronator Group
Pronator Teres
Pronator Quadratus

Pronator Teres
Origin: Humeral head: Medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon
Ulnar head: Coronoid process of the ulna

Insertion: Lateral radius

Action: Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joint
Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint

Pronator Quadratus
Origin: Anterior distal ulna

Insertion: Anterior distal radius

Action
Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joints

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Brachioradialis

Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus

Insertion: Styloid process of the radius

Action
Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint
Supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joints
Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joints

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Flexor digitorum superficialis

Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon, and the anterior ulna and radius

Insertion: Anterior surfaces of fingers two through five

Actions
Flexes fingers two through five at the metacarpophalangeal joint and the proximal interphalangeal joint.
Flexes hand at the wrist joint

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Flexor digitorum profundus

Origin: Medial and anterior ulna

Insertion: Anterior surfaces of fingers two through five

Action
Flexes fingers two through five at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints
Flexes the hand at the wrist joint

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Flexor Pollicis Longus

Origin:
Anterior surface of the radius, at the ulna and medial epicondyle of the humerus

Insertion:
Tip of the thumb

Action:
Flexes the thumb at the CMC,MCP and IP joints
Flexes the hand at the wrist joint

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Wrist Extensor group
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus

Insertion: Base of the second metacarpal

Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus via the common extensor tendon

Insertion: Base of the third metacarpal

Action: Both muscles
Extend the hand at the wrist joint
Radially deviate the hand at the wrist joint

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus via the common extensor tendon, and the ulna

Insertion: Base of the fifth metacarpal

Actions:
Extends the hand at the wrist joint
Ulnar deviates the hand at the wrist joint

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Extensor digitorum

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus via the common extensor tendon

Insertion: DIP of fingers two through five

Actions
Extends fingers two through five at the MCP, PIP and DIP joints
Extends the hand at the wrist joint

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Extensor digiti minimi

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus via the common extensor tendon

Insertion: DIP of 5th digit

Action
Extends little finger at the MCP, PIP, and DIP joints
Extends hand at the wrist joint

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Supinator

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the proximal ulna

Insertion: Proximal radius

Action
Supinates the radioulnar and elbow joint

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Abductor Pollicis longus
Extensor Pollicis longus

Abductor Pollicis longus
Origin: Posterior radius and ulna

Insertion: base of the thumb

Action:
Abducts the thumb at the CMC Joint
Extends the thumb at the CMC joint

Extensor Pollicis Longus
Origin: Posterior ulna

Insertion: Tip of the thumb

Action
Extends the thumb at the CMC, MCP, and IP joints

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Extensor Pollicis brevis
Extensor Indicis

Extensor Pollicis brevis
Origin: Posterior radius

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of the thumb

Action
Extends the thumb at the CMC and MCP joints
Abducts the thumb at the CMC joint

Extensor Indicis
Origin: Posterior Ulna

Insertion: Middle phalanx of the 2nd digit

Action
Extends the index finger at the MCP, PIP, and DIP joints

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Thenar Group
Abductor Pollicis brevis
Flexor Pollicis brevis
Opponens Pollicis

Abductor Pollicis Brevis
Origin: Flexor retinaculum and the scaphoid and trapezium

Insertion: Proximal Phalanx of the thumb

Action: Abducts the thumb

Flexor Pollicis Brevis
Origin: Flexor retinaculum and trapezium

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of the thumb

Action: Flexes the thumb at the CMC and MCP joints

Opponens Pollicis
Origin: Flexor retinaculum and trapezium

Insertion: First metacarpal of the thumb

Action: Opposes the thumb at the CMC joint

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Abductor Digiti Minimi Manus
Flexor Digiti Minimi Manus

Abductor Digiti Minimi Manus
Origin: Pisiform

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of the 5th digit

Action: Abducts the 5th digit at eh MCP joint

Flexor Digiti Minimi Manus
Origin: Flexor retinaculum and the hamate

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of the 5th digit

Action: Flexes the 5th digit at the MCP joint

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Opponens Digiti Minimi

Origin: Flexor retinaculum and the hamate

Insertion: Medial edge of the fifth metacarpal

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Palmaris Brevis

Origin: Flexor retinaculum and the palmar aponeurosis

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Adductor Pollicis

Origin: Third metacarpal and capitate

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of the thumb

Action:
Adducts the thumb at the CMC joint

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Lumbricals Manus

Origin: Distal of the extensor digitorum profundus muscle

Insertion: Distal tendons of the flexor digitorum muscle.

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Palmar Interossei

Origin: The base of metacarpals of fingers two, four, and five

Insertion: Proximal phalanges of fingers two, four, and five (on the middle finger side)

Action
Adducts fingers two, four and five at the MCP joints

20
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Dorsal Interossei Manus

Origin: Metacarpals of fingers one through five

Insertion: Proximal phalanges of fingers two, three and four on the side that faces away from the center of the middle finger

Action
Abducts fingers two, through four at the MCP joints


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