Chapter 7 - The Skeleton
The skeletal system is composed of what?
bones, cartilages, joints, ligaments
What are the major parts of the skeletal system?
How many bones are in the axial skeleton?
What are the major regions of the axial skeleton?
skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage
The skull is formed by two sets of bones. They are?
Cranial bones, facial bones
How many cranial bones are there?
Which cranial bones are paired?
parietal bones, temporal bones
What cranial bones are NOT paired?
frontal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone
Which bone is the anterior portion of the cranium and is one of 4 bones that has a sinus?
Which bones have a sinus?
frontal bone, maxillary, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone
Which bone makes up the superior and lateral aspects of the cranial vault?
Parietal bones and associated sutures
Which bone allows tears to evaporate?
Which bone is your cheek?
Which bone is your upper jaw?
Which bone is your lower jaw?
Which bone includes the middle nasal concha and perpendicular plate?
Which cranial bone is the thinnest?
What is an opening that allows blood vessels and nerves to pass through?
Which bone is the roof of the mouth?
What condition occurs if the palantine bone does not fuse?
Which bone forms most of the skull's posterior wall and posterior cranial fossa; is the sense of sight?
Which bone includes the sites for attachment for ligamentum nuchae and many neck and back muscles?
Which bone articulates with the 1st vertebrae?
Through which opening does the spinal cord go?
How many temporal bones are there?
Which bone has four major regions - squamous, tympanic, mastoid and petrous?
This is a complex bat-shaped bone in the cranial vault that has a sinus.
This process on the sphenoid bone has muscles attached that allow for jaw movement
This is the deepest skull bone, is part of the cranial vault, has a sinus, and is the superior part of the nasal septum
How many facial bones are there?
Which facial bones are not paired?
Which facial bone is the lower jaw, the longest, strongest bone of the face?
Which bones are medially fused to form the upper jaw and central portion of the facial skeleton?
Which facial bones are your cheekbones?
Which bones form the bride of the nose?
Which bones are in the medial walls of orbits?
Which bones are the posterior one-third of the hard palate, walls of the nasal cavity, and small part of the orbits?
Which bone is plow shaped, the inferior part of the nasal septum?
What are mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces that enhance the resonance of voice, warm and humidify air, and found in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones?
Which bone is NOT a bone of the skull, is a horn-shaped free floating bone, movable base for the tongue, and site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech?
How many bones does the vertebral column have?
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
What are the vertebrae of the neck?
What are the vertebrae of the lower back?
What are the vertebrae of the thoracic cage?
What is the bone inferior to the lumber vertebrae?
What is the terminus of the vertebral column?
How many curvatures of the spine are there?
Curvatures are concave or convex. Cervical and lumbar curvatures are...?
Curvatures are concave or convex. Thoracic and sacral curvatures are...?
Which type of abnormal spine curvature is an abnormal lateral curve?
Which type of abnormal spine curvature is an exaggerated thoracic curvature (hunchback)?
Which type of spine curvature is an accentuated lumbar curvature (swayback)?
What do ligaments do?
attach bone to bone
What connects adjacent vertebrae?
What type of ligaments go from the neck to sacrum?
anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
Which type of ligaments connect each vertebra to those above and below?
What are cushion-like pads composed of two parts?
What are intervertebral discs composed of?
nucleus pulposus, anulus fibrosus
What is an inner gelatinous, gives disc it's elasticity and compressibility
What is an outer collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage?
What are the general structure of vertebrae?
body or centrum, vertebral arch, vertebral foramina, intervertebral formamina
What is the anterior weight-bearing region of the vertebrae?
body or centrum
What is composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with centrum, enclose vertebral foramen?
What makes up the vertebral canal for spinal cord?
What are lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves?
How many processes are there per vertebrae?
Which process projects posteriorly?
Which processes project laterally?
Which processes protrude superiorly?
superior articular processes
Which process protrude inferiorly?
inferior articular processes
What are C1 and C2 cervical vertebrae called?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
Which vertebrae all articulate with ribs at facets and demifacets?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
Which vertebrae receive the most stress, have flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes that point posteriorly?
What consists of 5 fused vertebrae?
What forms the posterior wall of the pelvis?
What is the tailbone, 3-5 fused vertebrae, and articulates superiorly with the sacrum?
What is composed of the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly, and ribs laterally?
What protects vital organs, supports shoulder girdles and upper limbs, and provides attachment sites for muscles of neck, back, chest and shoulders?
The sternum is composed of three fused bones - they are?
manubrium, body, xiphoid process
What is the superior portion of the sternum that articulates with the clavicles and ribs 1 and 2?
What is the midportion of the sternum that articulates with costal cartilage of ribs 2-7?
What is the inferior end of the sternum that is the site of muscle attachment, is sword-like, and not ossified until age 40?
Which ribs are considered true ribs?
Which ribs are considered false ribs?
Which are the free-floating ribs?
How many pairs of ribs are there?
What consists of the bones of the limbs and their girdles?
What attaches the upper limbs to the body trunk?
What attaches the lower limbs to the body trunk?
Which girdle consists of the clavicles and scapulae?
Which bones have cone-shaped sternal ends that articulate with the sternum medially, articulates laterally with the scapula, and anchors muscles?
What bones are flat, irregular, with three borders and three angles, on the dorsal surface of the rib cage between ribs 2 and 7?
How many bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb?
What is the largest, longest bone of the upper limb, that articulates inferiorly with the radius and ulna?
What are the forearm bones?
radius and ulna
What bones make up the hand?
carpal, metacarpal, phalanges
How many carpal bones are in the hand?
How many metacarpal bones are in the hand?
How many phalanges are in the hand?
What is the medial bone in the forearm that forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus?
What is the lateral bone of the forearm?
What is the palm bone (consists of 5 bones to form the palm)?
What are the finger bones?
What is the thumb bone?
What girdle is composed of two hip bones and sacrum?
What attaches lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments, transmits the weight of upper body to lower limbs?
What bones fuse to form the coxal bone?
ilium, ischium, pubis
What is the superior region of the coxal bone, and articulates with the sacrum?
What is the posteroinferior part of the hip bone?
What is the anterior portion of the hip bone?
What are the segments of the lower limb?
thigh, leg, foot
What are the bones of the thigh?
What is the largest, strongest bone in the body?
What is the sesamoid bone in quadriceps tendon?
What is the medial leg bone, that receives the weight of the body from the femur, transmits to foot?
What articulates proximally and distally with the tibia, is not weight bearing, does not articulate with the femur, and has several muscles that originate from it?
The tibia and fibula are connected by what?
What are the bones of the foot?
tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges
How many tarsal bones are there?
Body weight is carried primarily by what bones in the foot?
talus and calcaneus
What is the ankle bone?
How many metatarsals are in the foot?
How many phalanges are in the foot?
What are the types of arches in the foot?
lateral longitudinal, medial longitudinal, transverse
Skulls bones are connected by what?
What abnormality of the skull results when there is no medial fusion of the right and left halves of the palate?
What are the primary curvatures of the spine at birth?
thoracic and sacral - convex posteriorly
What are the secondary spine curvatures after birth?
cervical and lumbar- convex anteriorly