Chapter 7 - The Skeleton

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1

The skeletal system is composed of what?

bones, cartilages, joints, ligaments

2

What are the major parts of the skeletal system?

axial, appendicular

3

How many bones are in the axial skeleton?

80

4

What are the major regions of the axial skeleton?

skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage

5

The skull is formed by two sets of bones. They are?

Cranial bones, facial bones

6

How many cranial bones are there?

8

7

Which cranial bones are paired?

parietal bones, temporal bones

8

What cranial bones are NOT paired?

frontal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone

9

Which bone is the anterior portion of the cranium and is one of 4 bones that has a sinus?

frontal bone

10

Which bones have a sinus?

frontal bone, maxillary, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone

11

Which bone makes up the superior and lateral aspects of the cranial vault?

Parietal bones and associated sutures

12

Which bone allows tears to evaporate?

lacrimal bone

13

Which bone is your cheek?

zygomatic bone

14

Which bone is your upper jaw?

maxilla

15

Which bone is your lower jaw?

mandible

16

Which bone includes the middle nasal concha and perpendicular plate?

ethmoid bone

17

Which cranial bone is the thinnest?

temporal bone

18

What is an opening that allows blood vessels and nerves to pass through?

foramen

19

Which bone is the roof of the mouth?

palantine bone

20

What condition occurs if the palantine bone does not fuse?

cleft palette

21

Which bone forms most of the skull's posterior wall and posterior cranial fossa; is the sense of sight?

occipital bone

22

Which bone includes the sites for attachment for ligamentum nuchae and many neck and back muscles?

occipital bone

23

Which bone articulates with the 1st vertebrae?

occipital bone

24

Through which opening does the spinal cord go?

foramen magnum

25

How many temporal bones are there?

2

26

Which bone has four major regions - squamous, tympanic, mastoid and petrous?

temporal bone

27

This is a complex bat-shaped bone in the cranial vault that has a sinus.

sphenoid bone

28

This process on the sphenoid bone has muscles attached that allow for jaw movement

pterygoid processes

29

This is the deepest skull bone, is part of the cranial vault, has a sinus, and is the superior part of the nasal septum

ethmoid bone

30

How many facial bones are there?

14

31

Which facial bones are not paired?

mandible, vomer

32

Which facial bone is the lower jaw, the longest, strongest bone of the face?

mandible

33

Which bones are medially fused to form the upper jaw and central portion of the facial skeleton?

maxillary bones

34

Which facial bones are your cheekbones?

zygomatic bones

35

Which bones form the bride of the nose?

nasal bones

36

Which bones are in the medial walls of orbits?

lacrimal bones

37

Which bones are the posterior one-third of the hard palate, walls of the nasal cavity, and small part of the orbits?

palatine bones

38

Which bone is plow shaped, the inferior part of the nasal septum?

vomer

39

What are mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces that enhance the resonance of voice, warm and humidify air, and found in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones?

paranasal sinuses

40

Which bone is NOT a bone of the skull, is a horn-shaped free floating bone, movable base for the tongue, and site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech?

hyoid bone

41

How many bones does the vertebral column have?

26

42

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

43

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

44

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

45

What are the vertebrae of the neck?

cervical vertebrae

46

What are the vertebrae of the lower back?

lumbar vertebrae

47

What are the vertebrae of the thoracic cage?

thoracic vertebrae

48

What is the bone inferior to the lumber vertebrae?

sacrum

49

What is the terminus of the vertebral column?

coccyx

50

How many curvatures of the spine are there?

4

51

Curvatures are concave or convex. Cervical and lumbar curvatures are...?

concave posteriorly

52

Curvatures are concave or convex. Thoracic and sacral curvatures are...?

convex posteriorly

53

Which type of abnormal spine curvature is an abnormal lateral curve?

scoliosis

54

Which type of abnormal spine curvature is an exaggerated thoracic curvature (hunchback)?

kyphosis

55

Which type of spine curvature is an accentuated lumbar curvature (swayback)?

lordosis

56

What do ligaments do?

attach bone to bone

57

What connects adjacent vertebrae?

ligamentum flavum

58

What type of ligaments go from the neck to sacrum?

anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

59

Which type of ligaments connect each vertebra to those above and below?

short ligaments

60

What are cushion-like pads composed of two parts?

intervertebral discs

61

What are intervertebral discs composed of?

nucleus pulposus, anulus fibrosus

62

What is an inner gelatinous, gives disc it's elasticity and compressibility

nucleus pulposus

63

What is an outer collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage?

anulus fibrosus

64

What are the general structure of vertebrae?

body or centrum, vertebral arch, vertebral foramina, intervertebral formamina

65

What is the anterior weight-bearing region of the vertebrae?

body or centrum

66

What is composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with centrum, enclose vertebral foramen?

vertebral arch

67

What makes up the vertebral canal for spinal cord?

vertebral foramina

68

What are lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves?

intervertebral foramina

69

How many processes are there per vertebrae?

7

70

Which process projects posteriorly?

spinous process

71

Which processes project laterally?

transverse processes

72

Which processes protrude superiorly?

superior articular processes

73

Which process protrude inferiorly?

inferior articular processes

74

What are C1 and C2 cervical vertebrae called?

atlas, axis

75

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

76

Which vertebrae all articulate with ribs at facets and demifacets?

thoracic vertebrae

77

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

78

Which vertebrae receive the most stress, have flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes that point posteriorly?

lumbar vertebrae

79

What consists of 5 fused vertebrae?

sacrum

80

What forms the posterior wall of the pelvis?

sacrum

81

What is the tailbone, 3-5 fused vertebrae, and articulates superiorly with the sacrum?

coccyx

82

What is composed of the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly, and ribs laterally?

thoracic cage

83

What protects vital organs, supports shoulder girdles and upper limbs, and provides attachment sites for muscles of neck, back, chest and shoulders?

thoracic cage

84

The sternum is composed of three fused bones - they are?

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

85

What is the superior portion of the sternum that articulates with the clavicles and ribs 1 and 2?

manubrium

86

What is the midportion of the sternum that articulates with costal cartilage of ribs 2-7?

body

87

What is the inferior end of the sternum that is the site of muscle attachment, is sword-like, and not ossified until age 40?

xiphoid process

88

Which ribs are considered true ribs?

1-7

89

Which ribs are considered false ribs?

8-12

90

Which are the free-floating ribs?

11-12

91

How many pairs of ribs are there?

12

92

What consists of the bones of the limbs and their girdles?

appendicular skeleton

93

What attaches the upper limbs to the body trunk?

pectoral girdle

94

What attaches the lower limbs to the body trunk?

pelvic girdle

95

Which girdle consists of the clavicles and scapulae?

pectoral girdle

96

Which bones have cone-shaped sternal ends that articulate with the sternum medially, articulates laterally with the scapula, and anchors muscles?

clavicle (collarbones)

97

What bones are flat, irregular, with three borders and three angles, on the dorsal surface of the rib cage between ribs 2 and 7?

scapulae

98

How many bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb?

30

99

What is the largest, longest bone of the upper limb, that articulates inferiorly with the radius and ulna?

humerus

100

What are the forearm bones?

radius and ulna

101

What bones make up the hand?

carpal, metacarpal, phalanges

102

How many carpal bones are in the hand?

8

103

How many metacarpal bones are in the hand?

5

104

How many phalanges are in the hand?

14

105

What is the medial bone in the forearm that forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus?

ulna

106

What is the lateral bone of the forearm?

radius

107

What is the palm bone (consists of 5 bones to form the palm)?

metacarpus

108

What are the finger bones?

phalanges

109

What is the thumb bone?

pollex

110

What girdle is composed of two hip bones and sacrum?

pelvic girdle

111

What attaches lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments, transmits the weight of upper body to lower limbs?

pelvic girdle

112

What bones fuse to form the coxal bone?

ilium, ischium, pubis

113

What is the superior region of the coxal bone, and articulates with the sacrum?

ilium

114

What is the posteroinferior part of the hip bone?

ischium

115

What is the anterior portion of the hip bone?

pubis

116

What are the segments of the lower limb?

thigh, leg, foot

117

What are the bones of the thigh?

femur, patella

118

What is the largest, strongest bone in the body?

femur

119

What is the sesamoid bone in quadriceps tendon?

patella

120

What is the medial leg bone, that receives the weight of the body from the femur, transmits to foot?

tibia

121

What articulates proximally and distally with the tibia, is not weight bearing, does not articulate with the femur, and has several muscles that originate from it?

fibula

122

The tibia and fibula are connected by what?

interosseous membrane

123

What are the bones of the foot?

tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges

124

How many tarsal bones are there?

7

125

Body weight is carried primarily by what bones in the foot?

talus and calcaneus

126

What is the ankle bone?

Calcaneus

127

How many metatarsals are in the foot?

5

128

How many phalanges are in the foot?

14

129

What are the types of arches in the foot?

lateral longitudinal, medial longitudinal, transverse

130

Skulls bones are connected by what?

fontanelles

131

What abnormality of the skull results when there is no medial fusion of the right and left halves of the palate?

cleft palate

132

What are the primary curvatures of the spine at birth?

thoracic and sacral - convex posteriorly

133

What are the secondary spine curvatures after birth?

cervical and lumbar- convex anteriorly


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