Lymphatic System

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Detailed cards covering the Lymphatic System as it pertains to Mr. Bob's Fall 2014 A&P course
updated 4 years ago by mckyla
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1

General Functions of the Lymphatic System

1. Help maintain H20/electrolyte balance
2. Help defend body tissues from infections
3. Absorb fats

2

How does the lymphatic system help maintain water/electrolyte balance?

By moving excess interstitial fluid (ISF) from interstitial spaces (ISS) into lymph, and back into blood.

3

How does the lymphatic system help defend body tissues from infections?

1. "Filtering" pathogens from lymph
2. Supporting immune activities of lymphocytes & macrophages

4

Where/how does the lymphatic system absorb fats?

From intestines via lacteals to reduce blood vicosity

5

Lymph Formation

1. Hydrostatic pressure forces plasma from blood capillaries into ISS, where it becomes ISF
2. Some ISF becomes ICF, transcellular fluid (TCF) or blood via osmotic pressure
3. Remaining ISF is moved by hydrostatic pressure into highly permeable ends of lymphatic capillaries and become "lymph"

6

How many liters of water and plasma protein enter the interstitial spaces each day?

2-4 liters of water
1/4 to 1/2 of plasma protein

7

Interstitial

extra-cellular spaces in tissues

8

What does transcellular fluid (TCF) include?

1. Cerebral Spinal fluid (CSF)
2. Synovial fluids
3. Peritoneal fluid
4. Plural fluid
5. Pericardial fluid
6. Fluids in the eye
7. Fluids in the digestive system
8. Fluids in the urinary system
9. Fluids in the respiratory tract

9

What is lymph?

It is essentially ISF that has entered the lymphatic pathway

10

What ions does lymph contain high concentrations of?

Na+
Cl-
HCO3-

11

What ions does lymph contain low concentrations of?

K+
CA 2+
MG 2+
PO4 3-
SO4 2-

12

What are the major lymphatic organs?

1. Lymph Nodes
2. Thymus
3. Spleen
4. Mucosa/Gut - Associated Lymphatic Tissue (MALT or GALT)

13
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Cervical lymph nodes

14
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Axillary lymph nodes

15
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Inguinal lymph nodes

16

Lymph Nodes - Structure

Bean-shaped
Encapsulated by dense fibrous connective tissue containing many nodules within many sinuses

17

Nodules

Dense masses of lymphocytes and macrophages

18

Lymph Nodes - Function

Produce lymphocytes

19

Lymphocytes

Help macrophages "filter" lymph by removing pathogens and foreign substances from lymph before it enters venous blood.

20
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Thymus

21

Thymus - location

Anterior surface of mediastinum
Anterior to aortic arch
Inferior to manubrium

22

Thymus - Structure

Soft bi-lobed immune organ composed of lymphatic tissue and subdivided into lobules containing large numbers of lymphocytes

23

Thymus - Function

Produce & Secrete hormone Thymosin
-Very large in fetus & grows slightly during childhood
-After age 14 begins to undergo involution & becomes quite small in adults
-In the elderly, has been replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue. Is barely distinguishable

24

Thymosin

Stimulatees "undedicated" lymphocytes to develop into "dedicated" T-cells

25

What is the largest lymphatic organ?

Spleen

26
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Spleen

27

Spleen - location

Left hypochondriac region

28

Spleen - Structure

Similar to a large lymph node
Encapsulated and subdivided into lobules with blood filled spaces and nodules containing lymphocytes

29

What are the four MAJOR functions of the spleen?

1. Serves as a blood reservoir at prolonged periods of inactivity
2. Storage site for thrombocytes and hemoglobin breakdown products
3. Site for lymphocytic proliferation. (multiplication of lymphocytes)
4. One of the sites for destruction of aged/defective RBCs and pathogens

30

Why is the spleen known as the erythrocyte graveyard?

That is where it recycles/destroys red blood cells and other pathogens

31

Other functions/characteristics of the spleen

1. Produce blood cells in fetus & sometimes resumes this role in adulthood in extreme cases of anemia
2. help activate defensive immune response
3. Highly vascular - vulnerable to trauma and infection
4. relatively dispensable organ

32

What body parts can take over the function of the spleen if it is removed?

Liver
Bone marrow

33

What lymphatic tissues are associated with the mucosa/gut and where are they located?

1. Tonsils - mouth/throat
2. Peyer's patches - small intestine
3. Vermiform appendix - large intestine

34

What are the three sets of tonsils and where are they located?

1. Palatine - post. oral cavity
2. Lingual - base of tongue
3. Pharyngeal (adenoids when inflamed) - post. wall of nasopharynx

35
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Palatine tonsils

36
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Lingual tonsils

37
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Pharyngeal tonsils

38

Tonsils - Structure

Partially encapsulated lymph nodules containing lymphocytes

39

Tonsils - Function

Gather/remove pathogens from ingested food and inhaled air

40

Peyer's patches - location

Scattered throughout mucosal lining of ileum

41

Peyer's patches - Structure

Large isolated

42

Peyer's patches - Function

Trap and destroy bacteria in small intestine

43

Vermiform Appendix - location

Post./Medial surface of cecum

44

Vermiform Appendix - Structure

"Wormlike" tubular structure containing lymphatic tissue

45

Vermiform Appendix - Function

Breeding ground for intestinal flora and lymphatic tissue much like the tonsils

46
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Lymphatic capillaries

47
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Lymphatic vessels

48

Lymph capillaries - location

Throughout body in ISS parallel to blood capillaries

49

Lymph capillaries - Structure

Very permeable close-ended tube composed of simple squamous e.

50

Lymph capillaries - Function

Receive excess ISF moved into lymph pathway via osmotic pressure

51

Lymph Vessels - location

Between lymph capillaries/lymph nodes and lymph nodes/lymph trunks

52

Lymph Vessels - Structure

3 layers similar to veins

53

What are the three layers of lymph vessels & what makes them up?

1. Inner = endothelium with valves
2. Middle = smooth muscle
3. Outer = connective tissue

54

How to lymph vessels move lymph?

By using the milking action of skeletal muscles similar to veins (known as ******)

55

Lymph Vessels - Function

Transport lymph to lymph nodes and lymphatic trunks

56

Lymphatic Trunks - location

Throughout trunk of body where larger lymphatic vessels merge

57

Lymphatic Trunks - Structure

Similar to veins

58

Lymphatic Trunks - Function

Drain lymph from relatively large regions of the body

59

What are the 5 regions of the body where lymphatic trunks train lymph from? (Each lymphatic trunk is named after the region it drains from)

1. Lumbar
2. Intestinal
3. Bronchomediastinal
4. Subclavian
5. Jugular

60
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Identify the 5 lymphatic trunks

1. Intestinal
2. Subclavian
3. Lumbar
4. Jugular
5. Bronchomediastinal

61

How many collecting ducts are there and where to they drain?

2 collecting ducts
Drain into the subclavian vein on its respective side

62

Collecting Ducts - location

Where groups of lymphatic trunks merge at two locations

63

Collecting Ducts - Function

Receive lymph from lymphatic trunks and empty the collected lymph into venous circulation at junction of Jugular and Subclavian Veins

64
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Identify the 2 collecting ducts

1. Right lymphatic duct
2. Thoracic duct

65

Right Lymphatic Duct - location and Function

-Upper right side of thorax and head. At union of R jugular, subclavian and bronchomdediastinal trunks
-Recieves lymphatic drainage from right arm and right side of thorax and head

66

Thoracic Duct - location and Function

-Drains L. head/neck, arm, thorax, entire abdomen and both legs.
-Larger and longer with cisterni chyli (expanded upper region in upper abdominal cavity)


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