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3 Radreview Extremies (181)

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created 4 years ago by QWERTY
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1

Which of the following fracture classifications describes a small bony fragment pulled from a bony process?
A.
Avulsion fracture
B.
Torus fracture
C.
Comminuted fracture
D.
Compound fracture

A.
Avulsion fracture

2

To demonstrate the glenoid fossa in profile, the patient is positioned
A.
45 degrees oblique, affected side up.
B.
45 degrees oblique, affected side down.
C.
25 degrees oblique, affected side up.
D.
25 degrees oblique, affected side down.

B.
45 degrees oblique, affected side down.

3
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Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the radiograph shown in Figure 2–26?

The acromion process is seen partially superimposed on the third rib.

This projection is performed to evaluate the scapula.

This projection is performed to evaluate the acromioclavicular articulation.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
2 and 3 only
Figure 2–26.

B.
2 only

4

Impingement on the wrist's median nerve causing pain and disability of the affected hand and wrist is known as
A.
carpal boss syndrome
B.
carpal tunnel syndrome
C.
carpopedal syndrome
D.
radioulnar syndrome

B.
carpal tunnel syndrome

5

Which of the following shoulder projections can be used to evaluate the lesser tubercle in profile?
A.
External rotation position
B.
Internal rotation position
C.
Neutral rotation position
D.
Inferosuperior axial position

B.
Internal rotation position

6

Knee arthrography may be performed to demonstrate a
1. torn meniscus.
2. Baker's cyst.
3. torn rotator cuff.

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 and 2 only

7

For the AP projection of the scapula, the

patient's arm is abducted at right angles to the body.

patient's elbow is flexed.

exposure is made during quiet breathing.

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

8

Muscles that contribute to the formation of the rotator cuff include the

1. subscapularis.

2. infraspinatus.

3. teres minor.
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

9

In the AP projection of an asthenic patient whose knee measures less than 19 cm from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to tabletop, the CR should be directed
A.
perpendicularly
B.
5 degrees medially
C.
5 degrees cephalad
D.
5 degrees caudad

D.
5 degrees caudad

10

Which of the following statements regarding the Norgaard method, "Ball-Catcher's position," is (are) correct?

Bilateral AP oblique hands are obtained.

It is used for early detection of rheumatoid arthritis.

The hands are obliqued about 45 degrees, palm up.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

11

Which of the following is (are) located on the proximal aspect of the humerus?

Intertubercular groove

Capitulum

Coronoid fossa

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

12

The first carpometacarpal joint is formed by the articulation of the base of the first metacarpal and the
A.
distal radius.
B.
distal ulna.
C.
scaphoid.
D.
trapezium.

D.
trapezium.

13

A compression fracture of the posterolateral humeral head and associated with an anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint is called a(an)
A.
Hill-Sachs defect.
B.
Bankart lesion.
C.
rotator cuff tear.
D.
adhesive capsulitis.

A.
Hill-Sachs defect.

14

Use your mouse to drag the following bony parts into order (A–D) from most proximal to most distal

A. Linea aspera

B. Intertrochanteric crest

C. Popliteal surface

D. Fovea capitis

D. Fovea capitis
B. Intertrochanteric crest
A. Linea aspera
C. Popliteal surface

15

In the lateral projection of the knee, the central ray is angled 5° cephalad to prevent superimposition of which of the following structures on the joint space?
A.
Lateral femoral condyle
B.
Medial femoral condyle
C.
Patella
D.
Tibial eminence

B.
Medial femoral condyle

16

Which of the following is (are) valid evaluation criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm?

The radius and the ulna should be superimposed distally.

The coronoid process and the radial head should be partially superimposed.

The humeral epicondyles should be superimposed.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

17
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n Figure 2–29, which of the following is represented by the number 7?

Figure 2–29.

A.
Medial border
B.
Lateral border
C.
Inferior angle
D.
Superior angle

B.
Lateral border

18

To demonstrate a profile view of the glenoid fossa, the patient is AP recumbent and obliqued 45 degrees
A.
toward the affected side
B.
away from the affected side
C.
with the arm at the side in the anatomic position
D.
with the arm in external rotation

A.
toward the affected side

19

Which projection of the foot will best demonstrate the longitudinal arch?
A.
Mediolateral
B.
Lateromedial
C.
Lateral weight-bearing
D.
30-degree medial oblique

C.
Lateral weight-bearing

20

Which of the following views would best demonstrate arthritic changes in the knees?
A.
AP recumbent
B.
Lateral recumbent
C.
AP erect
D.
Medial oblique

C.
AP erect

21

The intertrochanteric crest is located on the
A.
proximal posterior femur.
B.
proximal anterior femur.
C.
distal posterior femur.
D.
distal anterior femur.

A.
proximal posterior femur.

22
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What projection was used to obtain the image seen in Figure 2–41?

Figure 2–41.
A.
AP, internal rotation
B.
AP, external rotation
C.
AP, neutral position
D.
AP axial

B.
AP, external rotation

23

Which of the following is (are) located on the anterior aspect of the femur?

Patellar surface

Intertrochanteric crest

Linea aspera

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

24
card image

What does the number 8 in Figure 6–14 identify?

Figure 6–14.
A.
Medial malleolus
B.
Lateral malleolus
C.
Medial cuneiform
D.
Talus

A.
Medial malleolus

25

In which of the following tangential axial projections of the patella is complete relaxation of the quadriceps femoris required for an accurate diagnosis?

Supine flexion 45 degrees (Merchant)

Prone flexion 90 degrees (Settegast)

Prone flexion 55 degrees (Hughston)

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3 only

A.
1 only

26
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With the patient positioned as shown in Figure 6–13, how should the CR be directed to best demonstrate the intercondyloid fossa?

Figure 6–13.
A.
Perpendicular to the popliteal depression
B.
40 degrees caudad to the popliteal depression
C.
Perpendicular to the long axis of the femur
D.
40 degrees cephalad to the popliteal depression

B.
40 degrees caudad to the popliteal depression

27
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To better visualize the knee-joint space in the radiograph in Figure 2–31, the radiographer should

Figure 2–31.

A.
flex the knee more acutely
B.
flex the knee less acutely
C.
angle the CR 5 to 7 degrees cephalad
D.
angle the CR 5 to 7 degrees caudad

C.
angle the CR 5 to 7 degrees cephalad

28

AP stress studies of the ankle may be performed

to demonstrate fractures of the distal tibia and fibula

following inversion or eversion injuries

to demonstrate a ligament tear

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

29

Which position of the shoulder demonstrates the lesser tubercle in profile medially?
A.
AP
B.
External rotation
C.
Internal rotation
D.
Neutral position

C.
Internal rotation

30

Which of the following is recommended to better demonstrate the tarsometatarsal joints in a dorsoplantar projection of the foot?
A.
Invert the foot.
B.
Evert the foot.
C.
Angle the CR 10 degrees posteriorly.
D.
Angle the CR 10 degrees anteriorly.

C.
Angle the CR 10 degrees posteriorly.

31
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What is the structure labeled number 5 in Figure 2–37?

Figure 2–37.
A.
Trapezium
B.
Scaphoid
C.
Ulnar styloid

D.
Radial styloid

32

Which of the following is (are) located on the distal aspect of the humerus?
1. Capitulum
2. Intertubercular groove
3. Coronoid fossa

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

33

Which of the following is (are) valid criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm?
1. The radius and ulna should be superimposed proximally and distally.
2. The coronoid process and radial head should be superimposed.
3. The radial tuberosity should face anteriorly.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

34

Which of the following is (are) distal to the tibial plateau?

Intercondyloid fossa

Tibial condyles

Tibial tuberosity

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

35

Which of the following may be used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint?
1. Scapular Y projection
2. Inferosuperior axial
3. Transthoracic lateral

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

36

All the following can be associated with the elbow joint except
A.
the capitulum.
B.
the trochlea.
C.
the tubercles.
D.
the epicondyles.

C.
the tubercles.

37
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Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the radiograph in Figure 2–12?

Figure 2–12.

The patient is placed in an RAO position.

The midcoronal plane is about 60 degrees to the IR.

The acromion process is free of superimposition.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

38

The tarsals and metatarsals are arranged to form the
1. transverse arch.
2. longitudinal arch.
3. oblique arch.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

39
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In Figure 2–29, which of the following is represented by the number 3?

Figure 2–29.
A.
Acromion process
B.
Scapular spine
C.
Coracoid process
D.
Acromioclavicular joint

A.
Acromion process

40

Movement of a part toward the midline of the body is termed
A.
eversion
B.
inversion
C.
abduction
D.
adduction

D.
adduction

41

The following procedure can be employed to better demonstrate the carpal scaphoid:
1. elevate hand and wrist 20°.
2. place wrist in ulnar deviation.
3. angle CR 20° distally (toward fingers).

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

42
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Which of the following correctly identifies the radial styloid process in the illustration in Figure A?
Figure A. Reproduced with permission from Saia DA. Radiography: Program Review and Examination Preparation, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.
A.
Number 1
B.
Number 4
C.
Number 10
D.
Number 11

D.
Number 11

43

Which of the following is an important consideration to avoid excessive metacarpal joint overlap in the oblique projection of the hand?
A.
Oblique the hand no more than 45 degrees.
B.
Use a support sponge for the phalanges.
C.
Clench the fist to bring the carpals closer to the IR.
D.
Use ulnar flexion.

A.
Oblique the hand no more than 45 degrees.

44

Standard radiographic protocols may be reduced to include two views, at right angles to each other, in which of the following situations?
A.
Barium examinations
B.
Spine radiography
C.
Skull radiography
D.
Emergency and trauma radiography

D.
Emergency and trauma radiography

45

Which of the following is used to obtain a lateral projection of the upper humerus on patients who are unable to abduct their arm?
A.
Bicipital groove projection
B.
Superoinferior lateral
C.
Inferosuperior axial
D.
Transthoracic lateral

D.
Transthoracic lateral

46

Examples of synovial pivot articulations include the

atlantoaxial joint

radioulnar joint

temporomandibular joint

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3 only

B.
1 and 2 only

47

The best projection to demonstrate the articular surfaces of the femoropatellar articulation is the
A.
AP knee.
B.
PA knee.
C.
tangential ("sunrise") projection.
D.
tunnel view.

C.
tangential ("sunrise") projection.

48

Which of the following anatomic structures is indicated by the number 2 in Figure 2–7?

Figure 2–7.
A.
medial epicondyle
B.
trochlea
C.
capitulum
D.
olecranon process

D.
olecranon process

49
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What is the structure labeled number 2 in Figure 2–37?

Figure 2–37.

A.
Base of the 2nd metacarpal
B.
Pisiform
C.
Trapezium
D.
Trapezoid

C.
Trapezium

50

Which surface of the forearm must be adjacent to the IR to obtain a lateral projection of the fourth finger with optimal recorded detail?
A.
Anterior
B.
Posterior
C.
Medial
D.
Lateral

C.
Medial

51
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The structure labeled number 4 in Figure 2–41 is the

Figure 2–41.
A.
acromion process
B.
coracoid process
C.
coronoid process
D.
glenoid process

B.
coracoid process

52

In the lateral projection of the scapula, the

vertebral and axillary borders are superimposed.

acromion and coracoid processes are superimposed.

inferior angle is superimposed on the ribs.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

53

The term that refers to parts away from the source or beginning is
A.
cephalad
B.
proximal
C.
distal
D.
lateral

C.
distal

54

Which of the following positions would best demonstrate the proximal tibiofibular articulation?
A.
AP
B.
90 degrees mediolateral
C.
45-degree internal rotation
D.
45-degree external rotation

C.
45-degree internal rotation

55

Ulnar deviation will best demonstrate which carpal(s)?

Medial carpals

Lateral carpals

Scaphoid

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

56

All the following can be associated with the distal radius except
A.
head.
B.
styloid process.
C.
ulnar notch.
D.
radioulnar joint.

A.
head.

57

What is the best position/projection to demonstrate the longitudinal arch of the foot?
A.
Mediolateral
B.
Lateromedial
C.
Mediolateral weight-bearing lateral
D.
Lateromedial weight-bearing lateral

D.
Lateromedial weight-bearing lateral

58

Tangential axial projections of the patella can be obtained in which of the following positions?
1. supine flexion 45° (Merchant)
2. prone flexion 90° (Settegast)
3. prone flexion 55° (Hughston)

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3 only

D.
1, 2, and 3 only

59

The term varus refers to
A.
turned outward
B.
turned inward
C.
rotated medially
D.
rotated laterally

B.
turned inward

60

All the following structures are associated with the posterior femur except
A.
popliteal surface
B.
intercondyloid fossa
C.
intertrochanteric line
D.
linea aspera

C.
intertrochanteric line

61

Which of the following articulates with the base of the first metatarsal?
A.
First cuneiform
B.
Third cuneiform
C.
Navicular
D.
Cuboid

A.
First cuneiform

62
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Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the images shown in Figure 2–33?

Figure 2–33A&B.

Image A is positioned in internal rotation.

Image B is positioned in internal rotation.

The greater tubercle is better demonstrated in image A.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
2 and 3 only

D.
2 and 3 only

63

Which of the following projection(s) require(s) that the shoulder be placed in internal rotation?
1. AP humerus
2. Lateral forearm
3. Lateral humerus

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
3 only

64

Which of the following articulations may be described as diarthrotic?

Knee

Intervertebral joints

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

65
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Which of the labeled bones in Figure 6–14 identifies the tarsal navicular?

Figure 6–14.
A.
Number 2
B.
Number 3
C.
Number 6
D.
Number 7

C.
Number 6

66

Valid evaluation criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm requires that

the epicondyles be parallel to the IR.

the radius and ulna be superimposed distally.

the radial tuberosity should face anteriorly.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

67

To demonstrate the entire circumference of the radial head, the required exposure(s) must include

epicondyles perpendicular to the IP

hand pronated

hand supinated as much as possible

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

68
card image

Which of the following correctly identifies the head of the ulna in the illustration in Figure 6–22?

Figure 6–22.
A.
Number 3
B.
Number 4
C.
Number 5
D.
Number 9

D.
Number 9

69

Demonstration of the posterior fat pad on the lateral projection of the adult elbow can be caused by

trauma or other pathology

greater than 90-degree flexion

less than 90-degree flexion

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1 and 3 only

D.
1 and 3 only

70

All the following are posterior structures except
A.
the linea aspera.
B.
the intertrochanteric line.
C.
the popliteal surface.
D.
the intercondyloid fossa.

B.
the intertrochanteric line.

71

With which of the following does the trapezium articulate?
A.
Fifth metacarpal
B.
First metacarpal
C.
Distal radius
D.
Distal ulna

B.
First metacarpal

72

Which of the following is proximal to the carpal bones?
A.
Distal interphalangeal joints
B.
Proximal interphalangeal joints
C.
Metacarpals
D.
Radial styloid process

D.
Radial styloid process

73

Which of the following projections of the elbow should demonstrate the coronoid process free of superimposition and the olecranon process within the olecranon fossa?
A.
AP
B.
Lateral
C.
Medial oblique
D.
Lateral oblique

C.
Medial oblique

74

Which of the following are components of a trimalleolar fracture?

Fractured lateral malleolus

Fractured medial malleolus

Fractured posterior tibia

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

75

Which of the following projections require(s) that the humeral epicondyles be perpendicular to the IR?

AP humerus

Lateral forearm

Internal rotation shoulder

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

76

In the AP projection of the ankle, the

plantar surface of the foot is vertical.

fibula projects more distally than the tibia.

calcaneus is well visualized.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

77
card image

Which of the following correctly identifies the letter T in the radiograph shown in Figure 7–13?

Figure 7–13.
A.
Gliding joint
B.
Pivot joint
C.
Diarthrotic joint
D.
Amphiarthrotic joint

C.
Diarthrotic joint

78

The fifth metacarpal is located on which aspect of the hand?
A.
Medial
B.
Lateral
C.
Radial
D.
Volar

A.
Medial

79
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Identify the structure labeled 1 in the AP projection of the knee shown in Figure 2–16.

Figure 2–16

A.
Lateral condyle
B.
Lateral epicondyle
C.
Medial condyle
D.
Medial epicondyle

D.
Medial epicondyle

80

Which of the following should be demonstrated in a true AP projection of the clavicle?

Clavicular body

Acromioclavicular joint

Sternocostal joint

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

81

Which of the following is most useful for bone age evaluation?
A.
Lateral skull
B.
PA chest
C.
AP pelvis
D.
PA hand

D.
PA hand

82
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answer

D.
Radial notch

83

All the following can be associated with the distal ulna except
A.
head.
B.
radioulnar joint.
C.
styloid process.
D.
trochlear notch.

D.
trochlear notch.

84

When examining a patient whose elbow is in partial flexion,
A.
the AP projection requires two separate positions and exposures.
B.
the AP projection is made through the partially flexed elbow, resting on the olecranon process, CR perpendicular to IR.
C.
the AP projection is made through the partially flexed elbow, resting on the olecranon process, CR parallel to the humerus.
D.
the AP projection is eliminated from the routine.

A.
the AP projection requires two separate positions and exposures.

85

A patient unable to extend his or her arm is seated at the end of the x-ray table, elbow flexed 90 degrees. The CR is directed 45 degrees medially. Which of the following structures will be demonstrated best?

Radial head

Capitulum

Coronoid process

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

86
card image

Which of the following projections/positions would best demonstrate structure number 6 seen in Figure 7–7?

Figure 7–7.
A.
PA projection
B.
Lateral projection
C.
AP external oblique
D.
AP internal oblique

B.
Lateral projection

87

The AP oblique projection (medial rotation) of the elbow demonstrates which of the following?
1. Radial head free of superimposition
2. Olecranon process within the olecranon fossa
3. Coronoid process free of superimposition

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

88

Evaluation criteria for a lateral projection of the humerus include

epicondyles parallel to the IR

lesser tubercle in profile

superimposed epicondyles

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

89

In which of the following projections is the talofibular joint best demonstrated?
A.
AP
B.
Lateral oblique
C.
Medial oblique
D.
Lateral

C.
Medial oblique

90

In the 45-degree medial oblique projection of the ankle, the

talotibial joint is visualized

tibiofibular joint is visualized

plantar surface should be vertical

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

91
card image

What is the structure indicated by the letter A in Figure 7–3?

Figure 7–3.
A.
greater tubercle
B.
coronoid process
C.
coracoid process
D.
acromion process

D.
acromion process

92

The secondary center of ossification in long bones is the
A.
diaphysis
B.
epiphysis
C.
metaphysis
D.
apophysis

B.
epiphysis

93

Posterior displacement of a tibial fracture would be best demonstrated in the
A.
AP projection.
B.
lateral projection.
C.
medial oblique projection.
D.
lateral oblique projection.

B.
lateral projection.

94
card image

What could be done to improve the mediolateral projection of the knee seen in Figure 2–3?

Figure 2–3.
A.
Rotate the pelvis slightly forward/anteriorly.
B.
Rotate the pelvis slightly backward/posteriorly.
C.
Angle the x-ray tube 5 degrees cephalad.
D.
Angle the x-ray tube 5 degrees caudad.

B.
Rotate the pelvis slightly backward/posteriorly.

95

Synovial fluid is associated with the
A.
brain.
B.
spinal canal.
C.
peritoneal cavity.
D.
bony articulations.

D.
bony articulations.

96

Adult orthoroentgenography, or radiographic measurement of long bones of an upper or lower extremity, requires which of the following accessories?

Bell-Thompson scale

Bucky tray

Cannula

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

97
card image

What is the anatomic structure indicated by number 3 in the radiograph in Figure 6–20?

Figure 6–20.
A.
Mandibular angle
B.
Coronoid process
C.
Zygomatic arch
D.
Maxillary sinus

B.
Coronoid process

98

Which of the following articulations participate(s) in formation of the ankle mortise?

Talotibial

Talocalcaneal

Talofibular

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
3 only

B.
1 and 3 only

99

In a lateral projection of the normal knee, the

fibular head should be somewhat superimposed on the proximal tibia.

patellofemoral joint should be visualized.

femoral condyles should be superimposed.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

100

A lateral projection of the hand in extension is often recommended to evaluate

a fracture

a foreign body

soft tissue

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1 and 3 only

C.
2 and 3 only

101

Which of the following positions will separate the radial head, neck, and tuberosity from superimposition on the ulna?
A.
AP
B.
Lateral
C.
Medial oblique
D.
Lateral oblique

D.
Lateral oblique

102

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the tarsal navicular free of superimposition?
A.
AP oblique, medial rotation
B.
AP oblique, lateral rotation
C.
Mediolateral
D.
Lateral weight-bearing

A.
AP oblique, medial rotation

103

The primary center of ossification in long bones is the
A.
diaphysis.
B.
epiphysis.
C.
metaphysis.
D.
apophysis

A.
diaphysis

104

What is the most superior structure of the scapula?
A.
Apex
B.
Acromion process
C.
Coracoid process
D.
Superior angle

B.
Acromion process

105

Which of the following projections is most likely to demonstrate the carpal pisiform free of superimposition?
A.
Radial flexion/deviation
B.
Ulnar flexion/deviation
C.
AP (medial) oblique
D.
AP (lateral) oblique

C.
AP (medial) oblique

106

In which projection of the foot are the sinus tarsi, cuboid, and tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal best demonstrated?
A.
Lateral oblique foot
B.
Medial oblique foot
C.
Lateral foot
D.
Weight-bearing foot

B.
Medial oblique foot

107

Which of the following statements regarding the scapular Y projection of the shoulder is (are) true?

The midsagittal plane should be about 60 degrees to the IR.

The scapular borders should be superimposed on the humeral shaft.

An oblique projection of the shoulder is obtained.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

108

When examining a patient whose elbow is in partial flexion, how should an AP projection be obtained?

With humerus parallel to IR, CR perpendicular

With forearm parallel to IR, CR perpendicular

Through the partially flexed elbow, resting on the olecranon process, CR perpendicular

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

109

Which of the following projections require(s) that the shoulder be placed in external rotation?

AP humerus

Lateral forearm

Lateral humerus

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

110

The secondary center of ossification in long bones is the
A.
periosteum.
B.
endosteum.
C.
epiphysis.
D.
diaphysis.

C.
epiphysis.

111

With the patient seated at the end of the x-ray table, elbow flexed 80 degrees, and the CR directed 45 degrees laterally from the shoulder to the elbow joint, which of the following structures will be demonstrated best?
A.
Radial head
B.
Ulnar head
C.
Coronoid process
D.
Olecranon process

C.
Coronoid process

112
card image

Figure A was made in which of the following positions?
Figure A. Reproduced with permission from Saia DA. Radiography: Program Review and Examination Preparation, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.
A.
AP
B.
Medial oblique
C.
Lateral oblique
D.
Partial flexion

C.
Lateral oblique

113

To evaluate the interphalangeal joints in the oblique and lateral positions, the fingers
A.
rest on the cassette for immobilization
B.
must be supported parallel to the IR
C.
are radiographed in natural flexion
D.
are radiographed in palmar flexion

B.
must be supported parallel to the IR

114

What process is best seen using a perpendicular CR with the elbow in acute flexion and with the posterior aspect of the humerus adjacent to the image receptor?
A.
Coracoid
B.
Coronoid
C.
Olecranon
D.
Glenoid

C.
Olecranon

115

In which of the following positions/projections will the talocalcaneal joint be visualized?
A.
Dorsoplantar projection of the foot
B.
Plantodorsal projection of the os calcis
C.
Medial oblique position of the foot
D.
Lateral foot

B.
Plantodorsal projection of the os calcis

116

Which of the following articulate(s) with the bases of the metatarsals?

The heads of the first row of phalanges

The cuboid

The cuneiforms

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

117

All elbow fat pads are best demonstrated in which position?
A.
AP
B.
Lateral
C.
Acute flexion
D.
AP partial flexion

B.
Lateral

118

Which of the following criteria is (are) required for visualization of the greater tubercle in profile?
1. Epicondyles parallel to the IR
2. Arm in external rotation
3. Humerus in AP position

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

119

The tissue that occupies the central cavity within the shaft of a long bone in an adult is
A.
red marrow
B.
yellow marrow
C.
cortical tissue
D.
cancellous tissue

B.
yellow marrow

120

Which of the following articulates with the base of the fifth metatarsal?
A.
First cuneiform
B.
Third cuneiform
C.
Navicular
D.
Cuboid

D.
Cuboid

121
card image

In which of the following projections was the image in Figure 2–7 made?

Figure 2–7.

A.
AP
B.
medial oblique
C.
lateral oblique
D.
acute flexion

B.
medial oblique

122

Which of the following positions would be the best choice for a right shoulder examination to rule out fracture?
A.
Internal and external rotation
B.
AP and tangential
C.
AP and AP axial
D.
AP and scapular Y

D.
AP and scapular Y

123
card image

What should be done to better demonstrate the coracoid process shown in Figure 2–22?

Figure 2–22.
A.
Use a perpendicular CR.
B.
Angle the CR about 30 degrees cephalad.
C.
Angle the CR about 30 degrees caudad.
D.
Angle the MSP 15 degrees toward the affected side.

B.
Angle the CR about 30 degrees cephalad.

124

In which type of fracture are the splintered ends of bone forced through the skin?
A.
Closed
B.
Compound
C.
Compression
D.
Depressed

B.
Compound

125

Which of the following projections of the ankle would best demonstrate the distal tibiofibular joint?
A.
Medial oblique 15° to 20°
B.
Lateral oblique 15° to 20°
C.
Medial oblique 45°
D.
Lateral oblique 45°

C.
Medial oblique 45°

126

Which of the following projections of the elbow should demonstrate the radial head free of ulnar superimposition?
A.
AP
B.
Lateral
C.
Medial oblique
D.
Lateral oblique

D.
Lateral oblique

127
card image

The radiograph shown in Figure 7–12 can be produced with the

Figure 7–12.
long axis of the plantar surface perpendicular to the IR

CR 40 degrees cephalad to the base of the third metatarsal

CR 20 degrees cephalad to the talotibial joint

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1 and 3 only

C.
1 and 2 only

128

Which of the following is (are) true regarding radiographic examination of the acromioclavicular joints?

The procedure is performed in the erect position.

Use of weights can improve demonstration of the joints.

The procedure should be avoided if dislocation or separation is suspected.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
2 and 3 only

B.
1 and 2 only

129

All of the following statements regarding the inferosuperior axial (nontrauma, Lawrence method) projection of the shoulder are true, except
A.
the coracoid process and lesser tubercle are seen in profile.
B.
the arm is abducted about 90° from the body.
C.
the arm should be in internal rotation.
D.
the CR is directed medially 25° to 30° through the axilla.

C.
the arm should be in internal rotation.

130
card image

The scapula shown in Figure 2–29 demonstrates

Figure 2–29.
its posterior aspect

its costal surface

its sternal articular surface

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

131

A spontaneous fracture most likely would be associated with
A.
pathology.
B.
crepitus.
C.
trauma.
D.
metabolism.

A.
pathology.

132

Use your mouse to drag the following structures into order (A–D) from medial to lateral.

A. Coracoid process

B. Scapular notch

C. Acromion process

D. Vertebral border

D. Vertebral border
B. Scapular notch
A. Coracoid process
C. Acromion process

133

All of the following bones are associated with condyles except the
A.
femur.
B.
tibia.
C.
fibula.
D.
mandible.

C.
fibula.

134

Which of the following can be used to demonstrate the intercondyloid fossa?

Prone, knee flexed 40 degrees, CR directed caudad 40 degrees to the popliteal fossa

Supine, IR under flexed knee, CR directed cephalad to knee, perpendicular to tibia

Prone, patella parallel to IR, heel rotated 5 to 10 degrees lateral, CR perpendicular to knee joint

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

135

Cells concerned with the formation and repair of bone are
A.
osteoblasts.
B.
osteoclasts.
C.
osteomas.
D.
osteons.

A.
osteoblasts.

136

An axiolateral inferosuperior projection of the femoral neck is particularly useful
1. when the "cross-table" axiolateral is contraindicated.
2. for patients with bilateral hip fractures.
3. for patients with limited movement of the unaffected leg.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

137
card image

Which of the following indicates the scapular costal surface seen in Figure 7–3?

Figure 7–3.
A.
D
B.
H
C.
K
D.
M

C.
K

138

In which position of the shoulder is the greater tubercle seen superimposed on the humeral head?
A.
AP
B.
External rotation
C.
Internal rotation
D.
Neutral position

C.
Internal rotation

139
card image

The radiograph shown in Figure 2–15 demonstrates the articulation between the

Figure 2–15.
talus and the calcaneus

calcaneus and the cuboid

talus and the navicular

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

140

Which of the following is (are) accurate positioning or evaluation criteria for an AP projection of the normal knee?

Femorotibial interspaces equal bilaterally.

Patella superimposed on distal tibia.

CR enters 1/2 in. distal to base of patella.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

141

In the lateral projection of the ankle, the

talotibial joint is visualized.

talofibular joint is visualized.

tibia and fibula are superimposed.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

142

Medial displacement of a tibial fracture would be best demonstrated in the
A.
AP projection
B.
lateral projection
C.
medial oblique projection
D.
lateral oblique projection

A.
AP projection

143

Which of the following projections or positions will best demonstrate subacromial or subcoracoid dislocation?
A.
Tangential
B.
AP axial
C.
Transthoracic lateral
D.
PA oblique scapular Y

D.
PA oblique scapular Y

144

Which of the following conditions is limited specifically to the tibial tuberosity?
A.
Ewing sarcoma
B.
Osgood–Schlatter disease
C.
Gout
D.
Exostosis

B.
Osgood–Schlatter disease

145
card image

Which of the following correctly identifies the letter L in the radiograph shown in Figure 7–13?

Figure 7–13.
A.
Hamate
B.
Lunate
C.
Scaphoid
D.
Trapezium

B.
Lunate

146

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate acromioclavicular separation?
A.
AP recumbent, affected shoulder
B.
AP recumbent, both shoulders
C.
AP erect, affected shoulder
D.
AP erect, both shoulders

D.
AP erect, both shoulders

147

Which of the following positions is used to demonstrate vertical patellar fractures and the patellofemoral articulation?
A.
AP knee
B.
Lateral knee
C.
Tangential patella
D.
Tunnel view

C.
Tangential patella

148

Important considerations for radiographic examinations of traumatic injuries to the upper extremity include

the joint closest to the injured site should be supported during movement of the limb.

both joints must be included in long bone studies.

two views, at 90 degrees to each other, are required.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

149

Which of the following projections of the ankle would best demonstrate the mortise?
A.
Medial oblique 15 to 20 degrees
B.
Lateral oblique 15 to 20 degrees
C.
Medial oblique 45 degrees
D.
Lateral oblique 45 degrees

A.
Medial oblique 15 to 20 degrees

150

In the 15° medial oblique projection of the ankle, the
1. tibiofibular joint is visualized.
2. talotibial joint is visualized.
3. malleoli demonstrated in profile.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

151

With which of the following does the lateral extremity of the clavicle articulate?
A.
Manubrium
B.
Coracoid process
C.
Coronoid process
D.
Acromion process

D.
Acromion process

152

How can OID be reduced for a PA projection of the wrist?
A.
Extend the fingers.
B.
Flex the metacarpophalangeal joints.
C.
Extend the forearm.
D.
Oblique the metacarpals 45 degrees.

B.
Flex the metacarpophalangeal joints.

153
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Which of the labeled bones in Figure A identifies the tarsal navicular?
A.
Number 2
B.
Number 3
C.
Number 6
D.
Number 7

C.
Number 6

154
card image

The structure labeled number 5 in Figure 2–41 is the

Figure 2–41.
A.
sternoclavicular joint
B.
acromioclavicular joint
C.
glenohumeral joint
D.
acromiohumeral joint

C.
glenohumeral joint

155

Which of the following articulations participate in the formation of the elbow joint?

1. Between the humeral trochlea and the semilunar/trochlear notch

2. Between the capitulum and the radial head

3. The proximal radioulnar joint
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

156
card image

With the patient and the x-ray tube positioned as illustrated in Figure 2–2, which of the following will be visualized?

Figure 2–2.
Intercondyloid fossa

Patellofemoral articulation

Tangential patella

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

157

For an AP projection of the knee on a patient whose measurement from ASIS to tabletop is 21 cm, which CR direction will best demonstrate the knee joint?
A.
5 degrees caudad
B.
10 degrees caudad
C.
5 degrees cephalad
D.
0 degrees (perpendicular)

D.
0 degrees (perpendicular)

158
card image

What is the name of the structure indicated as number 5 in Figure 7–7?

Figure 7–7.
A.
Coronoid fossa
B.
Coracoid fossa
C.
Olecranon fossa
D.
Trochlear/semilunar notch

C.
Olecranon fossa

159

Which of the following bones participate(s) in the formation of the knee joint?

Femur

Tibia

Patella

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 and 2 only

160
card image

The bone labeled number 3 in Figure 7–15 is the

Figure 7–15.
A.
talus
B.
cuboid
C.
navicular
D.
lateral cuneiform

B.
cuboid

161

The functions of which body system include mineral homeostasis, protection, and triglyceride storage?
A.
Endocrine
B.
Integumentary
C.
Skeletal
D.
Muscular

C.
Skeletal

162

The greater tubercle should be visualized in profile in which of the following?
A.
AP shoulder, external rotation
B.
AP shoulder, internal rotation
C.
AP elbow
D.
Lateral elbow

A.
AP shoulder, external rotation

163

Skeletal conditions characterized by faulty bone calcification include
1. osteoarthritis.
2. osteomalacia.
3. rickets.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

164
card image

The mediolateral projection of the knee shown in Figure 6–1 could best be improved by

Figure 6–1.
A.
rotating the patient forward
B.
rotating the patient backward
C.
angling the central ray (CR) about 5 degrees caudad
D.
angling the CR about 5 degrees cephalad

D.
angling the CR about 5 degrees cephalad

165

Use your mouse to drag the following bony structures into order (A–D) from lateral to medial.

A. Trapezoid

B. Capitate

C. Hamate

D. Trapezium

D. Trapezium
A. Trapezoid
B. Capitate
C. Hamate

166

Which of the following may be used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint?

Scapular Y projection

Inferosuperior axial

Transthoracic lateral

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

167

The carpal scaphoid can be demonstrated in which of the following projection(s) of the wrist?

PA oblique

PA with radial flexion

PA with elbow elevated 20 degrees

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

168

In the lateral projection of the foot, the

plantar surface should be perpendicular to the IR.

metatarsals are superimposed.

talofibular joint should be visualized.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

169

Which of the following is (are) associated with a Colles' fracture?

Transverse fracture of the radial head

Chip fracture of the ulnar styloid

Posterior or backward displacement

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

170

To obtain an exact axial projection of the clavicle, place the patient
A.
supine and angle the central ray 30° caudally.
B.
prone and angle the central ray 30° cephalad.
C.
supine and angle the central ray 15° cephalad.
D.
in a lordotic position and direct the central ray at right angles to the coronal plane of the clavicle

D.
in a lordotic position and direct the central ray at right angles to the coronal plane of the clavicle.

171

In which projection of the foot are the interspaces between the first and second cuneiforms best demonstrated?
A.
Lateral oblique foot
B.
Medial oblique foot
C.
Lateral foot
D.
Weight-bearing foot

A.
Lateral oblique foot

172

The coronoid process should be visualized in profile in which of the following positions?
A.
Scapular Y
B.
AP scapula
C.
Medial oblique elbow
D.
Lateral oblique elbow

C.
Medial oblique elbow

173
card image

Which of the following statements regarding the radiograph in Figure A is (are) true?
1. The tibial eminences are well visualized.
2. The intercondyloid fossa is demonstrated between the femoral condyles.
3. The femorotibial articulation is well demonstrated.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
2 and 3 only

C.
1 and 3 only

174

What projection of the os calsis is obtained with the leg extended, the plantar surface of the foot vertical and perpendicular to the IR, and the CR directed 40 degrees cephalad?
A.
Axial plantodorsal projection
B.
Axial dorsoplantar projection
C.
Lateral projection
D.
Weight-bearing lateral projection

A.
Axial plantodorsal projection

175

Which of the following projections is most likely to demonstrate the carpal pisiform free of superimposition?
A.
Radial flexion/deviation
B.
Ulnar flexion/deviation
C.
AP (medial) oblique
D.
AP (lateral) oblique

C.
AP (medial) oblique

176

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the carpal scaphoid?
A.
Lateral wrist
B.
Ulnar flexion/deviation
C.
Radial flexion/deviation
D.
Carpal tunnel

B.
Ulnar flexion/deviation

177
card image

With the patient positioned as illustrated in Figure 2–20, which of the following structures is best demonstrated?

Figure 2–20.
A.
Patella
B.
Patellofemoral articulation
C.
Intercondyloid fossa
D.
Tibial tuberosity

C.
Intercondyloid fossa

178

In which of the following positions can the sesamoid bones of the foot be demonstrated to be free of superimposition with the metatarsals or phalanges?
A.
Dorsoplantar metatarsals/toes
B.
Tangential metatarsals/toes
C.
30-degree medial oblique foot
D.
30-degree lateral oblique foot

B.
Tangential metatarsals/toes

179

What portion of the humerus articulates with the ulna to help form the elbow joint?
A.
Semilunar/trochlear notch
B.
Radial head
C.
Capitulum
D.
Trochlea

D.
Trochlea

180

Which of the following is most likely to be the correct routine for a radiographic examination of the forearm?
A.
PA and medial oblique
B.
AP and lateral oblique
C.
PA and lateral
D.
AP and lateral

D.
AP and lateral

181

An AP oblique (lateral rotation) of the elbow demonstrates which of the following?

Radial head free of superimposition

Capitulum of the humerus

Olecranon process within the olecranon fossa

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only


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