Biology 191 Final Review - Midterm Exam I
The fundamental unit of life is:
The order of events in scientific inquiry are:
Observations => Predictions => Test Predictions by Experiment => New Observations
The change of populations of organisms over many generations is:
The ultimate source of energy in the biosphere is:
What is the right hierarchical order for biological organization?
Biosphere > Ecosystem > Community > Species > Individual
How many elements are essential for life?
Most of the volume of an atom is made up of:
An atom is generally the most chemically stable when:
Its entire valence shell is filled.
A bond between Bromine (electronegativity: 2.96) and Titanium (electronegativity: 1.54) would be expected to be:
A Polar Covalent Bond
The attraction between the negatively-charged atom on one water molecule and a positively-charged atom on another is a:
Why is helium (a noble gas) chemically unreactive?
A solitary helium atom already has its valence shell filled with electrons.
What determines what kind of element an atom is?
The number of protons in the nucleus.
A water molecule can have how many hydrogen bonds with adjacent water molecules?
Ionic solids like salts readily dissolve in water because water forms:
Hydration shells around each ion.
Why does evaporating sweat cool us off?
The hydrogen bonds in water take a lot of energy to break, water has a high heat of vaporization, the evaporating water molecules carry away thermal energy from the liquid, and evaporation absorbs thermal energy while condensation releases it.
(test answer: all of the above)
A food calorie is defined as:
The energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 L of water by 1 degree Celsius.
When water freezes, the hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules:
Get locked into place, pushing the water molecules further apart.
Nonpolar substances prefer to associate with other nonpolar substances and are:
The concentration of Hydroxide(OH-) in a solution with a pH of 3 is:
A solution with a pH of 3 is:
What is produced when HCl and NaOH are combined?
Water, salt, and heat.
HCl + NaOH -> H2O + NaCl + energy(heat)
Stanley Miller put simple compounds like carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen gas, and water in a closed system, then subjected it to electricity. What did he find?
He found that simple organic molecules could be formed.
This functional group can absorb a H+ ion from water and become positively charged:
This functional group can release a H+ ion into water and become negatively charged:
This functional group is found in alcohols:
This functional group forms disulfide bridges:
This functional group only has carbon-hydrogen bonds:
Two molecules with the same chemical formula, but different ways of connecting their atoms, are called:
Which kind of covalent bond allows the bonded atoms to stably pivot around the bond:
The formula for a phosphate functional group is:
What is the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fat?
A saturated fat has no double bonds, while an unsaturated fat has at least one or more.
Enantiomers are molecules that:
Are identical except that they are mirror images of each other.
Which of these molecules is a cis configuration?
The one on the left.
What functional group is not a part of this molecule?
The above molecule is a monomer that could be used to form a:
The formula of the side (R) group of the above monomer is:
Suppose the above monomer were being added to a growing polymer. Which side of the central carbon would have the bond connecting to the polymer?
The right (Amino terminal)
The connections between two sugar monomers in a polysaccharide are called:
This polysaccharide is made up of alternating alpha-glucose and beta-glucose molecules:
A fat molecule is made up of:
One glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules.
This part of the phospholipids are contacting each other in the middle of a phospholipid bilayer:
Lipid molecules consisting of four fused carbon rings are called:
This type of protein structure includes alpha helices and beta sheets:
The side chain of lysine is -CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH2. Lysine is what class of amino acids?
When you fry an egg white and it changes from clear to solid...
...the proteins in the egg are denaturing.
This nitrogenous base is only found in DNA and not in RNA
Which DNA sequence would correctly pair with the sequence 5'-C-A-T-G-A-G-3'?
This type of cell structure is found in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes:
Membrane Bound Organelle
This organelle is where most biosynthesis occurs in your cells:
The space contained inside the inner membrane of a mitochondria is called:
The mitochondrial matrix
The cellular compartment used for storage of water or other compounds is:
Which of these is not found in chloroplasts: thylakoids, chlorophyll, DNA molecules, cristae, grana?
Which compartment connected to the extracellular matrix is embedded in the plasma membrane?
Which cytoskeletal protein does myosin interact with to make muscle fibers contract?
Which cytoskeletal protein is in the core of motile cilia and flagella?
True or false: Plant cells have both mitochondria and chloroplasts.
The ___ is the microtubule organizing center, and contains the ___.
To transport materials and vesicles within the cell, the cytoskeleton is "walked along by:
Which of the following enables tissues of cells to form fluid-impermeable sheets?
In plants, plasmodesmata are equivalent to what structure in animal cells?