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A&P Lab

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created 4 years ago by morgan_sullivan
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Assignments 8 and 9

updated 4 years ago by morgan_sullivan

Grade levels:
College: Second year

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1

These support cells are found in the central nervous system.

astrocytes and ependymal cells

2

The formation of myelin in the peripheral nervous system is accomplished by these cells.

Schwann cells

3

You have lost the sensation, but not movement, in one of your hands due to a problem with your neurons. Based upon these symptoms, what type of neuron was most likely affected?

afferent neuron

4

Oligodendrocytes form myelin around ________.

several axons

5

Vesicles in the axon terminal contain ________.

neurotransmitters

6

Cardiac muscle is found in the ________.

heart

7

The function of the neuromuscular junction is to ________.

convey an impulse from the nervous system to skeletal muscle

8

These nervous system cells are highly specialized to transmit messages throughout the body.

neurons

9

A cluster of neurons in the peripheral nervous system is called a ________.

ganglion

10

You are examining a neuron under the microscope. It appears as a round cell without visible processes. What is true of this neuron?

It is likely to be a unipolar neuron, it is located in the PNS (peripheral nervous system), and it is most likely to be a sensory neuron.

11

The ________ forms synapses, or junctions, with other neurons or effector cells.

axon terminal

12

Of the basic muscle types, this is the "meat" of the body, attached to the skeleton, which moves the limbs and other body parts.

skeletal muscle

13

This part of the neuron generates and conducts action potentials.

axon

14

Sensory or afferent neurons are typically of this type.

unipolar

15

What is true of a mixed nerve?

It contains both afferent and efferent nerve fibers.

16

This strong, cord-like structure attaches muscles to bones.

tendon

17

This indentation of the sarcolemma carries electrical signals deep into the muscle cells.

T tubule

18

The support cells found in nervous tissue are called ________.

neuroglia

19

The actual contractile units of muscles extend from Z disc to Z disc. They are ________.

sarcomeres

20

Which muscle tissue type is controlled voluntarily?

skeletal

21

This is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue type in the body.

connective

22

A demyelinating disease affects ________.

Schwann cells

23

What is true about tracts and nerves?

Tracts lack connective tissue coverings.

24

A neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates is called a ________.

motor unit

25

Muscle cells ________.

are long, can have many nuclei, and can have striations

26

At the neuromuscular junction, the electrical signal of the nerve ________.

causes the axon terminal to release acetylcholine (Ach)

27

Tendons differ from ligaments in that ________.

tendons bind muscle to bone and ligaments bind bone to bone

28

Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter of axon terminals at the neuromuscular junction. It ________.

diffuses across the synaptic cleft, binds to receptors on the muscle membrane, and ultimately causes the muscle to depolarize and contract

29

This type of sensory neuron is quite rare.

bipolar

30

Each of the elements that make up a skeletal muscle is surrounded by connective tissue. Which words below correctly pair the connective tissue layer with the corresponding muscle structure?

fascicle: perimysium

31

Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by a coarse connective tissue called ________.

perineurium

32

The gaps in the sheath that insulates axons are called ________.

nodes of Ranvier

33

Nervous tissue contains neurons that ________.

have long processes extending from their cell bodies

34

An aponeurosis is ________.

similar to a tendon in function

35

The space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber is called the ________.

synaptic cleft

36

Multipolar neurons in the brain are likely to be ________.

interneurons

37

Commonly referred to as the ________, this muscle group on the posterior thigh extends the hip.

hamstrings

38

The articular cartilage in synovial joints best resembles ________.

hyaline cartilage

39

Ligaments reinforce joints by holding the bones together. What tissue type are ligaments?

dense regular connective tissue

40

Muscles are named based on all the criteria below except ________.

weight of the muscle

41

This muscle fixes the shoulder as you attempt to lift a heavy table with your forearm.

deltoid

42

The ________ joint is an immovable joint that holds bones of the axial skeleton tightly together to protect the ________.

suture, brain

43

Flexion and extension are usually movements in the ________ plane(s) of the body.

sagittal

44

This pair of muscles includes the prime mover of inspiration, and its synergist.

diaphragm and external intercostals

45

This name reveals the number of the muscle's origins.

triceps brachii

46

This special type of joint holds the teeth in place.

gomphosis

47

When both muscles of this pair are contracted simultaneously, they flex the neck forward.

sternocleidomastoid

48

A superficial muscle of the leg, this one dorsiflexes the foot.

tibialis anterior

49

Which joint can move in only two planes?

metacarpophalangeal

50

Using the structural classification of joints, the shoulder is a ________ joint.

synovial

51

The quadriceps are the prime movers of knee extension. Which muscle group is an antagonist to knee extension?

hamstrings

52

This structure contributes to stability of the hip joint.

acetabular labrum

53

This forearm muscle is a powerful wrist flexor.

flexor carpi radialis

54

Like the deltoid muscle that lies over and abducts the shoulder, these two muscles lie over the hip and are prime movers of hip abduction. Neither muscle extends the hip.

gluteus medius and gluteus minimus

55

This muscle is named for the direction of its fibers.

external oblique

56

This joint of the body has the greatest range of movement.

shoulder

57

This muscle's name tells you what it does.

adductor magnus, extensor digitorum, and flexor carpi radialis

58

What is true about the movement properties of the following joints?

All synovial joints are freely movable.

59

Which statement is true about synovial joints?

Ball and socket joints are multiaxial.

60

The shape of this muscle gives it its name.

trapezius

61

The biceps brachii muscle flexes the elbow. What could you do to make the elbow extend?

contract a muscle on the posterior side of the elbow

62

This large, fan-shaped muscle of the upper chest is the prime mover of arm flexion.

pectoralis major

63

Muscles are strung across joints and can therefore move them. The insertion of a muscle ________.

moves toward the origin during contraction

64

This muscle is used in smiling.

zygomaticus

65

This superficial muscle covers a large part of the posterior thorax.

trapezius

66

A joint can only perform these movements: flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. It is therefore a ________ joint.

biaxial

67

Located over the mandibular ramus, this muscle closes the jaw.

masseter

68

Which of the following will reduce friction in synovial joints?

articular cartilage, bursae, and synovial fluid

69

Using the functional classification of joints, the intervertebral joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae is a(n) ________ joint.

amphiarthrotic (slightly movable)

70

A synergist to zygomaticus, this muscle aids in smiling.

risorius

71

You are asked to demonstrate plantar flexion. To do this, you must move your ________.

ankle

72

Pronation and supination are movements of the ________.

forearm

73

SKELETAL MUSCLE

long, cylindrical multinucleate cells and obvious striations.

74

CARDIAC MUSCLE

branching, striated cells with single nuclei and intercalated discs

75

SMOOTH MUSCLE

spindle shaped cells with central, single nuclei. Cells are arranged to form sheets and there are NO striations.

76

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

the axon terminals and the muscle fibers.

77

ORIGIN

stationary or immovable attachment of a skeletal muscle to a bone.

78

INSERTION

movable attachment of a skeletal muscle to a bone.

79

FLEXION

decreases the angle of a joint the distance between 2 bones.

80

EXTENSION

increases the angle of a joint and the distance between 2 bones.

81

ABDUCTION

movement of a limb away from the midline or spreading apart of the digits.

82

ADDUCTION

movement of a limb toward the midline or bringing the digits together.

83

ROTATION

movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis.

84

CIRCUMDUCTION

movement of the distal end of a limb in a circle, describing a cone.

85

PRONATION

movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward-facing position.

86

SUPINATION

movement of the palm of the hand from a posterior-facing position to an anterior- facing position.

87

INVERSION

movement resulting in the medial turning of the sole of the foot.

88

EVERSION

movement resulting in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot.

89

DORSIFLEXION

movement of the ankle in a dorsal direction or standing on one’s heels.

90

PLANTAR FLEXION

movement of the ankle flexing the foot downward or standing on or pointing the toes.


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