Biology 1406 Final Review

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1

What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?

Catabolic pathways

2

The molecule that functions as a reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction

Loses electrons and loses potential energy

3

Which of the following statements describes the result of this reaction. C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced

4

Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?

Electronegativity

5

The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

Accepting electron at the end of the electron transport chain.

6

In glycolysis ATP molecules are produced by

Substrate level phosphorylation

7

During glycolysis, when each molecule of glucose is catabolized to two molecules of pyruvate, most of the potential energy contained in glucose is

Pretained in pyruvate

8

Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct?

The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle

9

Which of the following statements about the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP Is correct?

The chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP requires that the electron transport be coupled to proton transport.

10

In alcohol fermentation NAD+ is regenerated from NADH by

Reduction of acetaklehyde to ethanol

11

Cytosine makes up 42% of nucleotides, how much does thymine make up?

8% thymine

12

Because most receptors are membrane proteins, which is true about how they act?

They change their conformation after binding w/ signal polypeptides

13

Which of the following provides molecular evidence that signal transduction evolved?

The molecular of cell signaling are quite common in ancestors was a billion years ago

14

Histamine is a chemical substance released in inflammatory and allergenic responses. Histamine diffuses across the plasma membrane to bind to the H1 receptor inside the cell. When a neuron responds to a particular neurotransmitter by opening gated ion, neurotransmitter is

Signal molecule

15

One of the major categories of receptors in plasma membranes react by forming dimers.

Receptor tyrosine kinase

16

Correct association:

GTPase activity and hydrolysis of GTP to GDP

17

Most common second messenger:

Calcium & Camp

18

Best explanation for most transduction pathways have multiple steps:

Multiple steps provide greater possible amplification of a signal.

19

Function of phosphatases in signal transduction:

Inactivate protein kinase and turn off signal transduction

20

Centromere is a region:

Chromatids remain attached to 1 another

21

Starting w/ a fertilized egg (zygote) 5 cell division

32

22

Apoptosis is potentially threatening to neighboring cells because:

Lysosomal enzymes exiting dying cell would damage surrounding cells

23

Lipid - soluble signaling molecules,cross the membrane but affect only target cells because.

Intracellular receptors are present only in target cells

24

MOVEMENT of chromosomes during anaphase would be affected by a drug that.

Prevents shortening of microtubules.

25

Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis ?

To allow the chromosome to move without becoming entangled and breaking

26

´╗┐Effects on a nonsense mutation gene

It introduces a premature stop codon into the MRNA

27

Proteins involved in regulation of cell cycle and shows fluctuations in concentration is referred to as what?

Cyclins

28

Besides the ability of some cancer cells to over proliferate..

Lack of appropriate cell deaths

29

Which of the following does not occur in prokaryotic gene expression, but does in eukaryotic gene expression.

A poly tails is added to the 3 end of an MRNA and a cap is added to the 5 end.

30

What is a ribozyme?

An enzyme that catalyzes the association between the large and small ribosomal subunits

31

AAA anticodon on TRNA

AAA

32

When the function of the newly made polypeptide is to be secreted from the cell where is has been made, what must occur?

It's signal sequence must target it to the ER, from which it goes to the Golgi.

33

High levels of citric acid inhibit the enzyme phosphofructokinase, a key enzyme in glycolysis. Citric acid binds to the enzyme at a different location from the active site. This is an example of

Allosteric regulation

34

What is the importance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?

The light-independent reactions turn CO2 Into usable carbon in the form of sugars.

35

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship Btwn the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?

The light-dependent reactions produce ATP AND NADPH, which are then used by light-independent reactions.

36

Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose

Regeneration of RuBP

37

C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because

The stomata open at night and close in the day

38

Select the correct statement about the Calvin cycle.

The Calvin cycle has 3 phases: Carbon fixation, reduction,and regeneration of RuBP

39

Which of the following best describes the structure of a biological membrane?

Two layers of phospholipids with protein either crossing the layers or on the surface of the layers.

40

Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks in 0.15 M salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that the cells of the celery stalk..

Hypertonic to fresh water but hypotonic to the salt solution.

41

Which line in the graph represents the bag that contained a solution isotonic to the 0.6 M solution at the beginning of the experiment?

card image

C

42

Which line in the graph represents the bag with the highest initial concentration of sucrose?

A

43

Which line or lines in the graph represents bags that contain a solution that is still hypertonic at 50 minutes?

B

44

Which of the following would likely move through a lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly?

CO2

45

The primary function of polysaccharides attached to glycoproteins and glycolipids of animal cell membranes is....

To mediate cell to cell recognition

46

In facilitated diffusion, what is the role of the transport protein?

Transport proteins provide a hydrophilic route for the solute to cross the membrane

47

What distinguishes facilitated diffusion from simple diffusion?

Membrane proteins help move molecules across the membrane.

48

Lactose transport but membrane proteins occurs under conditions in which the concentration of lactose inside the cell is higher than the concentration outside the cell. What type of transport is used to move lactose into the cell?

Active transport

49

Endocytosis moves materials ___ a cell via __

Into......membranous vesicles

50

Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity?

A greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids

51

Which of the following statements about equilibrium of chemical reactions is correct?

A reaction that is at equilibrium is not capable of doing any work

52
card image

Which of the following terms best describes the forward reaction in figure 8.1?

Exergonic, G< 0

53

Which of the following will be the same either an enzyme catalyzed or noncatalyze reaction

D

54

Which of the following represents the difference between the free energy content of the reactants and energy content of the products in the figure?

D

55

Which of the following represents the activation energy required for the enzyme catalyzed reaction in the figure?

B

56

In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for it in or going to reaction?

ATP

57

All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell wall except

Mitochondria

58

Synthesis of oils, phospholipids,steroids?

Smooth ER

59

Why are human sex hormones categorized as lipids?

Not soluble in water

60

Light reactions of photosynthesis use __and produce ___

Water & NADPH

61

Control for an experiment

control group is matched with experiment group except for the one experimental variable

62

correctly describes equilibrium?

forward and reverse reaction continues with no effect on the concentrations of the reactants and products

63

what is the atomic number of cation formed in the illustration above?

11

64

if the ph of a solution is increased from 5 to 7 it means that the concentration of H+ is?

one-hundredth 1/100 what it was at ph 5

65

polysaccaharides, triglycerides, and proteins are similar in that they-

are synthesized from monomers by the process of hydrolysis

66

if DNA has the nitrogen base sequence 5' ATTTGC 3'

3' GCAAAT 5'

67

all of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except?

Cell wall

68

hydrolytic enzymes must be segregated and packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles contain these hydrolytic enzymes in animal cells?

lysosome

69

the volume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than the corresponding volume in animal cells. The most reasonable explanation:

plant cells contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm

70

the evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved:

endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell, the endosym. evolved into mitochondria

71

A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA,ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from

nearly any eukaryotic organism

72

All proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the cell. Some ribosomes float freely in the cytosol, while others are bound to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. Most proteins made by free ribosomes function in the cytosol. Proteins made by bound ribosomes either function within the endomembrane system or pass through it and are secreted from the cell.
Which of the following proteins are synthesized by bound ribosomes?

insulin

73

if a solution has a ph of 7, this means?

the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water

74

how many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?

4

75

A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond with other atoms?

covalent

76

the figure above shows glucose and fructose, how do they differ?

arrangement of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.

77

Fructose and Glucose

structural isomers

78

what is the chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers?

dehydration reactions

79

characteristics of alcohols?

-OH

80

which functional group shown are present in all amino acids?

-NH2

81

which group is carboxyl functional group?

O

=

-C-O-H

82

___ structure is the sequence of amino acids in a protein

primary

83

__structure is achieved when a protein folds into a compact, three-dimensional shape stabilized by interactions between side-chain "R-groups" of amino acids.

Tertiary

84

__structure is the result of 2 or more protein subunits assembling to form a larger, biologically active protein complex.

quartermary

85

__ structure describes the alpha-helices and beta-sheets that are formed by hydrogen bonding between backbone atoms located near each other in the polypeptide chain.

secondary

86

Identify a possible set of components of DNA nucleotide:

deoxyribose, phosphate group, thymine

87

what # and types of chromosomes are found in a human somatic cell?

44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes

88

Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Which do all sexual life cycles have in common?

II, III, IV Meiosis, Fertilization, and Gametes

89

If snap dragons are heterozygous for flower color, mating btwn them will result in what ratio?

1:2:1

90

Height in humans generally shows a normal (bell-shaped) distribution. What type of inheritance most likely determines height?

combination of polygenic inheritance and environmental factors

91

An obstetrician knows that one of her patients is a pregnant woman whose fetus is at risk for a serious disorder
that is detectable biochemically in fetal cells. The obstetrician would most reasonably offer which of the
following procedures to her patient

Aminocentesis

92

What is the genotype of the deceased individual in generation 2?

heterozygous for a gene for colon cancer

93

how does this trait seem to be inherited?

an autosomal dominant

94

Protein produced by a regulatory gene?

repressor

95

Transcription of structural genes in an audible operon--

starts when pathway substrate is present

96

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic have

Ribosomes in common

97

Correctly describe chemical equilibrium

Forward and reverse reactions continue with no effect on the concentrations of the reactants and products

98

if the ph of a solution is increased from ph5 to ph7 it means that

the concentration of the H+ is 1/100 than what it was at ph5

99

The volume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than the corresponding volume in animals cells the most reasonable explanation for this is that plant cells

contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm

100

The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell

the endosymbio evolved into mitochondria

101

a cell has the following molecules and structures

enzymes, dna, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria it could be a cell from nearly any eukaryotic organism.

102

All proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the cell some ribosomes float freely in the cytosol while others are bound to the surface of the ER. Which proteins are synthesized by bound ribsomes ?

Insulin

103

pathway

ER---> GOLGI-----> VESICLES THAT FUSE WITH THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

104

Which structure is common to plant and animal cells

Mitochondria

105

Which structure function pair is mismatched

Microtubule: Muscle contraction

106

Dna is composed of building blocks called

Nucleotides

107

order of hierarchy

Molecule, Organelle, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem

108

Organisms produce too many Offspring

and resources are limited

109

Not True

They must occur under carefully controlled condition found in a laboratory

110

A controlled experiment is one that tests

experimental and control groups in parallel

111

All living things share a common genetic language of Dna

because they share a common ancestry

112

Best Describes Model Organism

it is well studied, easy to grow, and results are widely applicable

113

Best description of a control for an experiment

Control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable

114

25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life: which 4 of the 25 make 96% of living matter

Carbon hydrogen nitrogen oxygen

115

atomic number of neon is 10 which is correct of neon

it has 8 electrons in its outer electron shell and is inert

116

a covalent chemical bond is one in which

outer shell electrons of 2 atoms are shared so as to fill the outer electron shells of both atoms

117

what results from unequal sharing of electron between atoms

polar covalent Bond

118

Most polar Bond

H20

119

IN A SINGLE MOLECULE OF WATER, 2 HYDROGEN ATOMS ARE BONDED TO A

SINGLE OXYGEN ATOM BY POLAR COVALENT BONDS

120

water molecules are able to form hydrogen bonds with compounds that have

polar covalent bonds

121

which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize

hydrogen bonds

122

Measurement show that ph of a particular lake is 4.0 what is the hydrogen ion concentration

10-4

123

if the ph of a solution has increased from 5 to 7 it means that the concentration of H+ is

1/100 what it was at ph5

124

Carbon shares

4 to complete valence shell

125

A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond

Covalent

126

Glucose and fructose are structural isomers meaning they are molecular differ in the

Arrangements of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms

127

True Statement

In sexual reproduction, indivudials transmit half of their nuclear genes to each of their offspring

128

what number and types are found in human somatic

44 autosomes 2 sex chromosomes

129

define genome

complete set of organisms gene

130

x and y chromosomes include genes that determine an individuals sex

...

131

meiosis, fertilization, gametes

is what we all do ?

132

if a cell has completed the 1st meoiotic divisions and is just beginning meosis 2

it has half the amount of DNA as the cell that begun meiosis

133

human somatic cells are

diploid

134

which statement best represents the connection between reproduction and revolution

sexual reproduction increases genetic variation because random mutations can be shuffled btwn organism

135

purple floweres are dom over white

cross the purple flowered plant with white

136

determined that the original plant was heterozygous

law of segregation


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