Human Growth and Development - Test # 2

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Human Development
Chapters 5-7
Chapter 5, 6, and 7
Grade levels:
College: First year
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1

Sleep declines from __ - ___ hours as a newborn to about ____ - ____ hours by second birthday.

16 - 18; 12 - 13

2

Sleeping through the night can be impacted by:

Resurgence of teething ( molars); Awareness of separate sleeping arrangements

3

Gross Development: 11 months

walk without support

4

Gross Development: 15 months

stand and begin to climb

5

Gross Development: 18 months

some running

6

Gross Development: 24 months

can kick with more dexterity

7

When can children show right or left preference?

12 months

8

4 signs of readiness for toilet training:

staying dry for an hour or two; regular bowel movements at the same time each day; increased anticipation of event shown through looks or words; directly asks too use toilet or wear underwear

9

When should toilet training usually occur?

18 and 19 months of age

10

Stage 5: tertiary circular reactions (define)

intentionally try out different behaviors, action is intentional from the beginning, action performed repeatedly, little scientists

11

Stage 6: Mental Representations

think about all the possibilities and select actions that is most likely to achieve desired outcome

12

A and B not error

If child finds an object under blanket A, and then a second blanket B is added and they observe the object being hidden under blanket B, they nevertheless tend to look under blanket A, where they found the object the first time. Toddlers learn to avoid this and search for the object where it was last hidden.

13

Deferred imitation

ability to repeat actions observed at an earlier time; Begins at 18 months; Hippocampus is responsible

14

Vygotsky’s theory

Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as both a social and cultural process; Social because children learn through interaction with others; Cultural because what children need to know is determined by the culture they live in

15

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

range of skills child can perform IF guided but can’t accomplish alone

16

Scaffolding

degree on assistance provided

17

Infinite generativity

Combine symbols in infinite ways

18

4 ways humans are biologically built for uniqueness in language

Unique vocal apparatus (chimps lack this, we are able to make a wide range of sounds due the the pharynx); broca's (production and wernicke's (comprehension) area, genes, evolutionary advantage to our predecessors

19

holophrase

single word that is used to represent a whole sentence

20

over extensions

use of a single word to represent a variety of related objects "nu-nu"

21

under extensions

applying a general word to a specific object "kitty"

22

Naming explosion

begin to see the use of fast mapping and telegraphic speech

23

fast mapping

learning and remembering a word for an object after just one time of being told what the object is called

24

telegraphic speech

two word phrases that strip away connecting words such as the & and

25

During the third year...

toddler becomes more adept to language, diminished frequency of overextension and underextension, shows understanding of rules of language(past, present, future), may show over regularization (over applying of grammatical rules)

26

high income word comparison

high income families talk to their children more than low income families making the children's vocabulary stronger

27

Maternal responsiveness

affirmations, expansions and imitations correlated positively with early milestones

28

Broca's area

portion of the left frontal lobe; specialized for language production

29

Wernicke's area

portion of the left temporal lobe; specialized for language comprehension

30

Cultural differences in toddler tantrums

In the US and UK: tantrums are thought of as inevitable and a way of life
In African and Asia: toddlers can control their emotions and exercise control which questions whether or not tantrums are really inevitable or if it's just a consequence of the west's value in self expression

31

Self awareness

reflects an understanding of the distinction between self and the external world

32

self recognition

recognizing image of self "dot" on nose test

33

Self reflection

think about themselves as they would think about others "I, me, mine"

34

Sex

biological status of being male or female

35

Gender

cultural categories of male or female

36

attachment

an emotional bond that promotes protection and survival

37

secure attachment

mom is secure base, cry upom separation, return to mom upon return happily; can rely on mothers

38

insecure avoid-ant attachment

No interaction with mom, no response upon separation or return ; seek to get down upn return; unsure mother will return

39

insecure resistant attachment

less likely to return or explore, shows distress upon separation; shows ambivalence upon return; unsure mother will return

40

disorganized disoriented

extremely unusual behavior, dazed when mom leaves and fear upon return - autism/ down syndrome - usually bad mothers

41

attachment theory is influenced by

maternal sensitivity and responsiveness

42

When do children start to lose teeth?

begins at age 6 and ens at 14

43

Pre-operational stage

child begins to internalize images and use symbols; inability to perform operations; not yet able to perform mental operations, that is, cognitive procedures that follow certain logical rules

44

Children lack the abilities to handle the following operations:

Conservation, Classification, egocentric-ism, Animism

45

Conservation

Mental ability to understand that the quantity of a substance or material remains the same even if its appearance changes; Children lack the ability to understand conservation

46

Centration

focusing on aspect of a problem while excluding others

47

Reversibility

reverse an action mentally

48

Classification

ability to understand that objects can be part of more than one cognitive group, for example an object can be classified with red objects as well as round objects

49

Egocentric ism

cognitive inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and another's

50

animism

tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces

51

Symbolic function sub stage (2 to 4)

capable of representational thought and using symbols; thinking in terms of symbols; Language and play can represent this stage

52

Intuitive thought sub stage (4 to 7 years)

capable of asking questions showing curiosity but not why they know things;Thinking about cause and effect; They do not know why they know something, they just know it

53

Explain outcome of head start program

IQ of children in Head start is higher than children who did not participate in the program but had similar backgrounds. After 2 years in public school, the original gains begin to fade. (Poor, low quality public schools) Head start children are less likely to repeat a grade or enter special education.

54

Factors associated with preschool quality

Education and training of teachers; Class size and child teacher ratio; Age appropriate materials and activities; Teacher child interactions

55

Cultural variances in preschool education

China and the US: learning basic academic skills is a primary goal; In japan and most of Europe: academic skills are a low priority; instead they focus on social skills

56

Ages of gender identity:

Ages 3–4 gender identity intensifies;Ages 6–7 gender constancy is attained

57

Self-socialization

maintaining consistency between behavior and schema

58

Schema

gender based cognitive structure for organizing and processing information, compromising expectations for males and female’s appearance and behavior.

59

Constancy

understanding that maleness and femaleness are biological and cannot change

60

Factors influencing children’s increasing emotional regulation

In the brain, the frontal cortex is developing which promotes this process, because this is the part of the brain most involved in emotional self- regulation.; Children learn strategies for regulating their emotions

61

undercontrol

trait of having inadequate emotional self-regulation; no self control; can't control anger

62

Undercontrol - future problems

at risk for externalizing problems such as aggression and conflict with others in early childhood and beyond

63

Over control

trait of having excessive emotional self-regulation; holds feelings in; can't express emotions

64

over control leads to:

internalizing problems like anxiety and depression

65

Authoritative parents:

parents who are high in demandingness and high in responsiveness; clear rules and expectations yet they explain the reasons for their rules; up for compromise, loving and warm

66

authoritarian

high is demandingness; low in responsiveness; require obedience; punish without compromise; may be hostile at times

67

permissive

low in demandingness; high in responsiveness; few expectations; rarely enforce rules; love warmth and freedom

68

disengaged parents

low demandingness and responsiveness; no expectations or love

69

Authoritative outcomes:

independent, creative, self-assured, socially skilled

70

authoritarian outcomes

dependent, passive, conforming

71

permissive outcome

irresponsible, conforming, immature

72

disengaged outcome

impulsive, behavior problems, early sex and drugs

73

filial piety (asian culture)

belief that children should respect obey and revere their parents throughout life

74

respeto/familismo

culture that emphasizes love, closeness, and mutual obligations among family members

75

Middle Childhood: Physical growth

slow and steady; boys slightly taller and more muscular; lowest bmi; nearsightedness rises

76

Malnutrition effects

high nutrients = smart, determined, happy and vice versa

77

Overweight

BMI over 18

78

Obesity

BMI over 21

79

Obesity due to

diet, tv, genetics, single parent homes

80

Obesity can lead to:

ridicule; emotional and behavioral problems; diabetes; obese adults

81

Myopia

nearsightedness, 1/4 children develop it

82

myopia due to:

children reading, writing, and using computers; partly genetic

83

intelligence

capacity for acquiring knowledge, reasoning, and solving problems

84

Intelligence tests:

WISC/ WAIS

85

Eight theories of intelligence

linguistic, logical mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist

86

Spatial

ability to think 3 dimension ally

87

bodily - kinesthetic

ability to be aware of body movement - dancers and athletes

88

interpersonal

strong empathetic abilities

89

intrapersonal

self-understanding

90

naturalist

understanding of natural phenomena

91

Sternberg's theory focused on what three forms of intelligence

analytic, creative, practical

92

analytical intelligence

involves acquiring, storing, analyzing and retrieving information

93

creative intelligence

ability to combine info to produce new insights, ideas, and problem solving strategies

94

practical intelligence

apply info to everyday life; evaluation of social situations

95

Factors of intelligence

Nature and nurture;

96

flynn effect

steep rise in the median IQ score in Western countries during the 20th century

97

infantile amnesia

inability to remember anything that happened prior to age 2; due to the sense of self not being developed until about this age

98

Characteristics of middle childhood's emotional regulation

high emotional well-being, emotional self-regulation grows, new contexts demand more self-control and cooperation (do what they're told, listen and cooperate), ambivalence, empathy

99

self-concept

how we view and evaluate ourselves

100

self-esteem

a person's all around sense of worth and well-being

101

independent self

individualistic cultures; encourages self-reflection bout self; be an independent person; high self esteem

102

interdependent self

collectivist culture, encourages importance of group, family first, interest of others come first

103

In middle childhood interactions seen in opposite gender play tend to be

antagonist or quasi romantic

104

Sibling rivalry arises during:

middle childhood

105

Affects of divorce include:

externalizing behaviors: impulsive conflicts with the family; internalizing problems: depression, anxiety, phobias, and sleep disturbances

106

Family processes affected by divorce

mother's parenting becomes punitive; mother and son's relationship turn into coercive cycle; involved fathers have fewer post divorces problems


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