psych exam 3

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A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior


What are the 4 major ideas of motivation?

1. Drive- reduction (behaviorist)

2. Psychoanalytic
3. Maslow

4. Stages of Change


Drive reduction theory

  • The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need (food, water, sex, etc)
  • Need for something--->Drive for (hunger, thirst, etc)-->Drive reducing behaviors(drinking,eating, etc)

Complex Motivations

Pychoanalytic perspective: 2 ideas explain complicated motivations and associated behavior-

  • We have both conscious and unconscious motivations
  • Motivational conflict

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

  • the unconscious
  • According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories

Explicit Motivation

Consciously stated goals


Implicit Motivation

  • Unconscious goals
  • 3 types:





Maslow's Model

Psychological needs-->Safety needs-->belongingness and love needs-->esteem needs-->self-actualization needs


Stages of Change

  • 5 Stages of Change:







Thematic Apperception Test

Proponents of this technique assert that a person's responses reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.


Eating Disorders

  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Anorexia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa

  • Disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

Anorexia Nervosa

  • when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve:

usually an adolescent female


Cultural influences over motivation

Two conditions:

1.Mother chooses or child chooses which type of game will be Played;

2.Free Play: Child allowed to play alone in the room.

When kids are playing with their mothers choice of toy but then given a choice later to play with whatever toy they want, the asian american kids play with the things they were told to play with by their mothers unlike the anglo american kids who had more time playing with the toys they wanted so they continue to play with those



Emotion- the basic pure emotional experiences

The average emotion Lasts 90seconds

You can keep having a series of negative emotion experience that were kept in motion by your thoughts and reaction to feeling sad or mad or whatever.

Your emotion keeps you suffering but really it was over within 90secs

We think emotion is going to last until we do something about it but really its brief.


What do emotions reveal?

The function of emotion..

It orients us to things we value. We feel excited, happy, pleased when we obtain something we valued. But the feeling seems very short lived. We create a reaction to our emotional lives that make things spiral out of control.

  • Sadness: Loss of something valuable
  • Anxiety: Anticipation of loss of something valuable
  • Anger: Hostility towards object that has caused loss of something valuable

Emotion Model: Cannon-Bard

Your fear is instant and there’s two things happening after the scary image appears.

1.Your heart racing

2.And scary conscious of fear

(with this theory you're shaking and feeling afraid at the same time)


Emotion Model: James-Lange

You see the scary zombie man and your heart races and then it’s after that that you start to think your afraid and your shaking. This is the conscious fear.

According to James, during your first reaction you’re not actually scared yet. Not until your second response.

(Just forcing you to smile is enough to make you feel happy)

(with this theory you're thinking "I'm afraid because I'm shaking")


A Cognitive Appraisal Theory: Schachter-singer cognitive arousal theory

If you see scary zombie man, you still get that automatic physiological arousal in your body but the only way to have a conscious state of fear is by saying “he’s dangerous” and then get scared. (it has to be cognitive and appraisal)

(with this theory you think "this snarling dog is dangerous and that makes me feel afraid")


A Cognitive Appraisal Theory: Lazarus's cognitive-mediational theory

The only way to have emotion is for you to have an immediate cognitive reaction before the bodily response


Different ratings of happiness around the world

There are 6 basic universal expressions. Also, it seems that the number of expectations ppl have, depending on their life styles in certain countries, has a lot to do with the rating of well-being(happiness) there.


2 routes to emotion: 1 -Cognitive Therapy

  • Emotions (sadness, anger, fear) result primarily from one’s appraisals (cognitions) of the environment.

2 routes to emotion: 2-Emotion focused therapy

  • The emotion system is a unique and distinct system from the cognitive system.
  • Example: You begin to feel angry but then you feel scared about being angry so you become more angry. This is called "emotion chaining" which leads to "affect storms".

Cognitive Therapy Example

SITUATION: you get an F on a test

FEELING: sadness

THOUGHT:I will never succeed

My family will hate me


Cognitive Distortions

  1. Dichotomous thinking
  • “All or nothing thinking”

2.Mind-reading: “They think I’m a _____

3.Emotional Reasoning: Because I feel____, I am ______

4.Catastrophizing : If I do this, something awful will happen”



  • Enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation, and behavior that are expressed in different circumstances


  • A personality marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion, such as fear, anger, elation

What are the three theories of personality?

1. Trait Perspectives

2. Psychoanalytic

3. Social Cognitive


Big 5 theory!


  • Openness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Extraversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Neuroticism

Trait Theory

-reliable across cultures

-reliable over time

-fairly high genetic loadings

Problem: doesn't explain how personality develops(Walter Mischel claims that behavior is determined by the situations you face and the situation determines whether you're an introvert or extrovert.)


Psychoanalytic (Freud's version)

  • Oral
  • Anal
  • Phallic
  • Latency
  • Genital

Social cognitive theory

  • We learn from others
  • We develop thoughts that are consistent with those expectations
  • We find future environments that support our thoughts, expectations and behaviors
    • Reciprocal Determinism

What are psychological disorders and how are they defined?

-A harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be:

  • Atypical
  • Disturbing
  • Maladaptive

How to use the diagnotic and statistical manual..

To meet criteria for a condition, the individual must..

  • Have several issues out of a large list of issues
  • For a specified amount of time
  • Must interfere with basic life functions(family, work, health, etc)

What are the 3 types of psychological disorders?

1. Neurotic Disorder

2. Psychotic disorder

3. Personality Disorder


Neurotic Disorder

  • Distressing disorders typically involving intense emotions or risky behavior:
  • Mood disorders, sexual disorders,

Psychotic disorder

  • Loss of contact with reality and typically includes irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

Personality Disorder

  • Chronically maladaptive personality style leading to severe impairments in social and occupational functioning
  • Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective
  • Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders

Try to memorize rates of psychological disorders by race/gender

Look at powerpoint!


Psychoactive Drugs

  • A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

Physical Dependence

  • Physiological need for a drug
  • Marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

Psychological Dependence

  • A psychological need to use a drug
  • For example, to relieve negative emotions

What is Alcoholism

  • A maladaptive pattern of substance abuse, leading to impairment over at least 12 months, marked by at least 3 of the following:
    • Tolerance
    • Withdrawal
    • Drinking in larger amounts than intended
    • Inability to cut-down
    • Large amount of time obtaining or using alcohol
    • Important life duties/activities are given up for alcohol
    • Use continues despite health, social, occupational problems

Cognitive-behavioral model

  • The cognitive model states that the way people perceive or interpret situations predicts how they feel. In turn, how people feel predicts how they behave.
    • think of cube example

Psychoanalytic Model

  • According to this view, alcohol is seen as a “self-medication” related to:
    • Id-superego tensions
    • Conflict between the unconscious and the conscious
    • Identification
    • Past dynamics between parents playing out in current relationships
  • Model helps understand that there can be "underlying" reasons for alcohol use

Family Systems Model

  • This model sees all members of a family involved in the development and maintenance of problems with alcohol.

What roles are there in the family systems model?

  • The “enabler”
  • The “savior”
  • The “scapegoat”
  • The “lost child”
  • The “mascot” or “jester”
  • The “alcohol problem”

Depression: Bio-Psycho-Social

  • Psycho-analytic: Depression is anger turned inward; Depression is a “role”; Depression is vengeance
  • Cognitive: Depressed people have negative views of themselves and the world
  • Behaviorist/Learning: Life has become less reinforcing. We cope like our parents cope.

Anxiety Disorders

  • Distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

Panic Disorder

  • Marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation


refers to a profound disturbance in human function including:

Thought- delusions

Perception- presence of hallucinations

Language- word salad, disconnected ideas

  • Risk of schizophrenia is 48% in monozygotic, 17% in dizygotic twins, and 9% in siblings

Major types of Schizophrenia

  • paranoid
  • catatonic
  • disorganized
  • undifferentiated
  • residual


  • The analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight


  • The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
  • e.g. love or hatred for a parent
    • Transference refers to the process by which clients relate to their psychoanalysts as they would to important figures in their past. Psychoanalysts usually encourage transference because it helps them to uncover the client’s hidden conflicts and helps the client to work through such conflicts.
    Example: A client who is resentful about her mother’s authority over her might show angry, rebellious behavior toward the psychoanalyst.


  • Resistance refers to the client’s efforts to block the progress of treatment. These efforts are usually unconscious. Resistance occurs because the client experiences anxiety when unconscious conflicts begin to be uncovered.

Example: Resistance can take many different forms, such as coming late to sessions, forgetting to pay for sessions, and expressing hostility toward the psychoanalyst.


Systematic Desensitization

Uses Classical Conditioning to treat Anxiety Disorders.

This therapy works on the assumption that anxiety arises through classical conditioning. That is, a neutral stimulus begins to arouse anxiety when it is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that evokes anxiety.

Example: A person might develop a fear of high places after experiencing an avalanche on a mountain trail. The avalanche is the unconditioned stimulus, and any high place becomes the conditioned stimulus, producing anxiety similar to that evoked by the avalanche.

Systematic desensitization aims to replace the conditioned stimulus with a response, such as relaxation, that is incompatible with anxiety. If psychotherapists can teach their clients to relax whenever they encounter an anxiety-producing stimulus, the anxiety will gradually decrease.



  • more extreme type of exposure therapy than systematic desensitization. In flooding, exposure to anxiety-producing stimuli is sudden rather than gradual. For example, the person with the fear of heights would be taken to a mountain trail. No avalanche happens, so the person’s anxiety is extinguished.

Exposure Therapy

  • These therapies recognize the fact that people maintain phobias by avoiding anxiety-producing situations, and they involve eliminating anxiety responses by having clients face a real or imagined version of the feared stimulus.

Family systems therapy

  • Therapist sees two or more members of a family at the same time. Family therapies work on the assumption that people do not live in isolation but as interconnected members of families. A problem that affects one person in the family must necessarily affect the whole family, and any change a person makes will inevitably affect the whole family. Family therapists help people to identify the roles they play in their families and to resolve conflicts within families.

Cognitive Therapy Techniques

  • Teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting
  • Based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
    • Situation (F on test)
    • Feeling (sadness)
    • Thought (I will never succeed, OR my family will hate me)

Behavioral Hierarchy

Is rating certain stimuli to phobia from least fearful to most fearful


Drugs like Prozac and how they work

  • Prozac blocks normal reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin, excess serotonin in synapse enhances its mood-lifting effect

Electroconvulsive Therapy

  • Therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

Fundamental Attribution Error

We are influenced more by our environment/situation than we think .

  • Tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
  • Example: The Game Show Study!

Fidel Castro Study

  • experiment-2 groups:
    • Write a flattering paper about Fidel Castro. Pay subject $1.00
    • Write a flattering paper about Fidel Castro. Pay subject $20.00
  • The group paid $1 wrote a more flattering paper to reduce the dissonance between 2 thoughts of Castro and the money?

Cult Study

  • Cult which believed that the earth was going to be destroyed by a flood, and what happened to its members — particularly the really committed ones who had given up their homes and jobs to work for the cult — when the flood did not happen
    • there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.

Stanford Prison Study

  • Stanford researchers randomly selected 2 groups of men to be either prisoners or guards. They were normal college students. The researchers told the guards to watch the prisoners.
    • power got overwhelming for the guards, they started to truly play the role and even inflict pain on the prisoners
    • prisoners were psychologically becoming disfunctional

Milgram's Obedience Study

They were trying to measure the willingness of participants to obey an authority figure even if it was causing harm to someone else. It seemed as though as long as someone else was taking the blame for hurting the person they were okay with obeying orders and followed through with the experiment.


Bystander Effect

If a bystander sees other bystanders around they're less likely to help the person in need because they assume that someone else will do it. Fewer people help if others seem available.


Social Loafing

  • Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

Injunctive Norms

  • Beliefs about the approval of others

Descriptive Norms

  • Beliefs about the actual behavior of others

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