A) Occipital lobe
C) Temporal lobe
D) Parietal lobe
E) Frontal lobe
13) Auditory area
14) Primary sensory cortex
15) Somatic motor cortex
16) Motor speech area
17) Premotor area
18) Visual area
19) Taste (gustatory) area
20) Seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning
A) Primary motor cortex
D) Prefrontal area
21) A major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei.
22) This brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgement, and conscience.
23) The axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts.
24) This area is the main visceral control center of the body.
Match the following stages of sleep with their description:
A) Stage 4
B) Stage 1
C) Stage 2
D) Stage 3
25) The stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal levels.
26) Indicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs.
27) Theta and delta waves begin to appear.
28) Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep.
29) Typified by sleep spindles.
30) Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep.
31) Necessary for emotional health, may be neural "debugging."
D) Brain stem
32) Gateway to the cerebrum
33) Motor command center
34) Survival center
35) Executive suite
36) Visceral command center
A) Cauda equine
B) Conus medullaris
C) Filum terminale
D) Cervical enlargement
37) Where nerves serving the upper limbs arise.
38) Anchors the spinal cord in place.
39) Collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal.
40) Point of termination of the spinal cord in an adult.
43) Nuclei relating to the startle reflex are located in the corpora quadrigemina of the midbrain.
44) Specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific areas called domains, whereas memory and language have overlapping domains.
46) The three basic regions of the cerebrum are the cerebral cortical gray matter, internal white matter, and the superior and inferior colliculi.
47) Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
50) Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space.
54) The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate.
57) The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro.
59) A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei.
61) Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other.
63) One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.
64) Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus.
65) Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain.
66) Which statement about coma is true?
A) Coma may be caused by widespread cerebral or brain stem trauma.
B) During coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state.
C) Coma is a form of deep sleep.
D) Coma is neurologically identical to syncope.
67) Which brain nucleus is the body's "biological clock"?
A) Subthalamic nucleus
B) Dorsomedical nucleus
C) Lentiform nucleus
D) Suprschiastmatic nucleus
68) Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ___________.
69) The arbor vitae refers to ___________.
A) Flocculonodular nodes
B) Cerebellar gray matter
C) The pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum
D) Cerebellar white matter
70) The brain stem consists of the ____________.
A) cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla
B) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain
C) midbrain, medulla, and pons
D) midbrain only
71) The primary auditory cortex is located in the ___________.
A) Partietal lobe
B) Prefrontal lobe
C) Temporal lobe
D) Frontal lobe
72) Spinocerebellar tracts _______________.
A) are found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord.
B) give rise to conscious experience of perception
C) terminate in the spinal cord
D) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
73) What cells line ventricles of the brain?
A) ependymal cell
D) epithelial cells
74) The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
A) arachnoid and dura
B) arachnoid and pia
C) arachnoid and epidura
D) dura and epidura
75) The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ____________.
76) Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ___________.
A) the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord
B) sympathetic ganglia
C) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
D) the thalamus
77) Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?
A) central fissure
B) lateral fissure
C) longitudinal fissure
D) parieto-occipital fissure
78) Which of the following best describes the cerebrum?
A) decussation center
B) executive suite
C) motor command center
D) visceral command center
79) A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.
80) Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?
A) Each hemisphere is chiefly concerned with sensory and motor functions of the contralateral side of the body.
B) No functional area of the cortex works alone.
C) The hemispheres are exactly equal in function.
D) The cerebral cortex contains three kinds of functional areas.
81) If the caudal portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly the ___________.
A) hindbrain would not be present
B) telencephalon would cease development
C) cranial nerves would not form
D) spinal cord may be affected
82) The central sulcus separates which lobes?
A) parietal from occipital
B) frontal from parietal
C) temporal from parietal
D) frontal from temporal
83) Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ___________.
A) lateral spinothalamic
B) posterior spinothalamic
C) anterior spinothalamic
84) Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
A) fiber tracts
B) unmyelinated axons
C) cell bodies
85) The white matter of the spinal cord contains ____________.
A) unmyelinated nerve fibers only
B) myelinated nerve fibers only
C) myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
D) soma that have both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
86) Which of the following is not a role of the basal nuclei?
A) controlling starting and stopping movements
B) regulating attention and cognition
C) inhibiting unnecessary or antagonistic movements
D) initiating protective reflex actions
87) An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ___________.
D) spinal shock only
88) Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the _____________.
A) neuromotor junction
B) upper motor neurons
C) lower motor neurons
D) spinal nerve roots
89) Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ______________.
90) The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.
A) cranial fossa
B) longitudinal fissue
C) central sulcus
D) lateral sulcus
91) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
A) Damage to the premotor cortex results in loss of motor skills programmed in that area but movement is still possible.
B) Damage to the primary auditory cortex results in the inability to interpret pitch, loudness, and location.
C) Damage to the primary motor cortex results only in the loss of both voluntary muscle control and reflexes.
D) Damage to the visual association area can result in blindness.
92) Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movements are___________.
A) segmental and nigrostriatal
B) pyramidal and corticospinal
C) extrapyramidal and rubrospinal
D) supplementary and cerebellar-pontine
93) An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ______________.
A) calcarine cortex
B) primary visual area
C) lateral geniculate body
D) visual association area
94) Broca's area ___________.
A) is usually found in the right hemisphere
B) is considered a motor speech area
C) serves the recognition of complex objects
D) corresponds to Brodmann's area 8
95) Which part of the cerebral cortex in involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?
A) posterior association area
B) combined primary somatomsensory cortex and somatosensory association cortex.
C) prefrontal cortex
D) limbic association area
96) The blood-brain barrier is effective against _____________.
A) nutrients such as glucose
B) metabolic waste such as urea
97) All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ___________.
B) caudate nucleus
C) amygdaloid nucleus
D) cingulate gyrus
98) The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called _____________.
B) long-term memory
D) automatic memory
99) Which category of memory is involved when playing a piano?
100) The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ______________.
B) limbic system
C) reticular formation
101) Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
C) red blood cells
102) REM sleep is associated with _____________.
A) temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for ocular muscles and diaphragm
B) decreased oxygen use, especially in the cerebral cortex
C) decreased vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure
D) decreased activity of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex
103) Which of the following is not a function of the CSF?
A) reduction of brain weight
B) nourishment of the brain
C) protection from blows
D) initiation of some nerve impulses
104) Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except__________.
A) loss of body temperature control
B) loss of proprioception
C) pathologic sleep
D) production of excessive quantities of urine
105) Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the __________.
A) reticular nuclei
B) superior colliculi
C) vestibular nuclei
D) red nuclei
106) Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
C) prefrontal cortex
107) The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ____________.
A) gustatory cortex
B) visceral sensory area
C) vestibule cortex
D) olfactory cortex
108) Which statement about coma is true?
A) Coma may be caused by widespread cerebral or brain stem trauma
B) Coma is a form of deep sleep
C) Coma is neurologically identical to syncope
D) During coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state.
109) Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ______________.
A) spinal cord disease
B) Parkinson's disease
C) cerebellar disease
D) Huntington's disease
110) Which of the following is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?
111) Declarative memory
A) usually involves motor skills
B) is hard to unlearn when learned once
C) is best remembered in the doing
D) is the ability to learn specific information
112) Which of the following is (are) involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?
A) red nuclei
B) Wernicke's area
C) postcentral gyrus
D) gustatory cortex
113) Which statement is not true?
A) Ten year olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.
B) Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep
C) Stage 4 sleep increase in old age.
D) Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.
114) Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
A) Absence seizures typically begin in adolescence and is often severely disabling.
B) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.
C) During seizures, sensory messages are precessed normally but responses are blocked.
D) The aura in tonic-clonic seizures typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness.
115) White matter is found in all of the following locations except the
A) Outer portion of the spinal cord
B) Corpus callosum
C) Corticospinal tracts
D) Cerebral cortex
116) Second order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ____________.
C) somatosensory cortex
D) spinal cord
117) Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the _______________________.
A) Primary motor cortex
B) rubrospinal tracts
C) spinal cord
D) premotor cortex
118) Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?