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Chapter 6 Tour of the Cell Mastering AP Biology

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created 3 years ago by rachel_m16
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Chapter 6 Tour of the Cell Mastering AP Biology

updated 2 years ago by rachel_m16

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1

Match

Definitions:

Across

Two

Water

Body

Little, Small

Color

Between

Pre/fix, Root words:

Aqu- (or Aqua-)

-Elle

Chrom-

Bi-

-Some (or Soma-)

Trans-

Inter-

Across: trans-

Two: Bi-

Water: Aqu- (or Aqua-)

Body: -Some (or Soma-)

Little, Small: -Elle

Color: Chrom-

Between: Inter-

2

Matching

Definition:

Inside, Inner

Thread

Cell

Green

Out of

True, good

Without, lack of, not

Pre/fix, Root words:

Chloro-

Ex-

Endo-

-Cyte (or cyto-)

A- (or An-)

Eu-

Mito-

Inside, Inner: Endo-

Thread: Mito-

Cell: -Cyte (or cyto-)

Green: Chloro-

Out of: Ex-

True, good: Eu-

Without, lack of, not: A- (or An-)

3

Matching

Definition:

Below, less than

Same

Eat

Above, greater than

Formed substance

Small

Leaf

Pre/fix, Root words:

Hyper-

Phyll-

Sym-

Phago-

- Plasm

Hypo-

Micro-

Below, less than: Hypo-

Same: Sym-

Eat: Phago-

Above, greater than: Hyper-

Formed substance: -Plasm

Small: Micro-

Leaf: -Phyll

4

Beginning within the nucleus, the first step leading to the synthesis of a polypeptide is _____.

A. Translation of an RNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids

B. Transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA

C. Removal of introns from RNA and the stitching together of exons

D. Linking of nucleotides to form a polypeptide

E. Translation of a DNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids

B. Transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA

5

Pancreatic cells, which secrete a large amount of digestive enzymes, are labeled with radioactive leucine and then chased for several hours with nonradioactive leucine. Photographic emulsions are prepared at different times during the chase. Where would the black spots appear on an emulsion prepared 3 hours after the pulse?

A. Golgi apparatus

B. Secretory vesicles

C. Exterior of the cell

D. Rough ER

C. Exterior of the cell

6

What path does a protein in the secretory pathway take, starting from its site of synthesis?

A. Rough ER, Golgi apparatus, secretory vesicles, plasma membrane

B. Plasma membrane, secretory vesicles, Golgi apparatus, rough ER

C. Rough ER, secretory vesicles, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane

D. Golgi apparatus, rough ER, secretory vesicles, plasma membrane

A. Rough ER, Golgi apparatus, secretory vesicles, plasma membrane

7

During a pulse-chase experiment, photographic emulsions were prepared at different times during the chase, and radioactive spots were detected at the following times and locations: 5 minutes: rough ER; 10 minutes: Golgi apparatus; 40 minutes: endosomes; 70 minutes: lysosomes; 140 minutes: lysosomes. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these results?

A. The final destination of the proteins was the lysosome.

B. The proteins were secreted.

C. The proteins traveled from lysosomes to endosomes.

D. The proteins did not travel through the Golgi apparatus.

A. The final destination of the proteins was the lysosome.

8

What scientific hypotheses can be tested by a pulse-chase experiment?

A. Movement of molecules through a cell over time

B. Molecular zip code of a protein

C. Solubility of a molecule

D. The steady-state amount of protein in a cell

A. Movement of molecules through a cell over time

9

True or false? Proteins produced during the "chase" phase of a pulse–chase experiment are labeled with radioactive material.

True or False

False

10

What is the first step in a pulse-chase experiment?

A. Preparing cells for electron microscopy

B. Examining cells for the location of the labeled molecules

C. Incubating cells with an unlabeled molecule

D. Incubating cells with a labeled molecule

D. Incubating cells with a labeled molecule

11

_____ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.

A. Flagella

B. Ribosomes

C. Cell walls

D. Fimbriae

E. Mitochondria

D. Fimbriae

12

What is the function of a bacterium's capsule?

A. Protein synthesis

B. Adhesion

C. DNA storage

D. Protection

E. Propulsion

D. Protection

13
card image

The DNA-containing region of this bacterial cell is indicated by the letter _____.

A. A

B. B

C. C

E. E

D. D

14

Where is a bacterial cell's DNA found?

A. Ribosomes

B. Nucleus

C. Peroxisome

D. Nucleoid region

E. Capsule

D. Nucleoid region

15

In a bacterium, where are proteins synthesized?

A. Ribosomes

B. Nucleus

C. Peroxisome

D. Nucleoid region

E. Capsule

A. Ribosomes

16

What name is given to the rigid structure, found outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds and supports the bacterial cell?

A. Capsule

B. Pili

C. Cell wall

D. Flagella

E. Nucleoid region

C. Cell wall

17

The _____ is the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell.

A. Plasma membrane

B. Nucleoid region

C. Ribosome

D. Pili

E. Cell wall

A. Plasma membrane

18
card image

The structure that regulates the passage of material into and out of this bacterial cell is indicated by the letter _____.

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

E. E

C. C

19

Categories:

Plant cell only

Animal cell only

Both

Options:

Central vacuole

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Centriole

Nucleus

Chloroplasts

Plasma membrane

Cytoskeleton

Cellulose cell wall

Mitochondria

Plant cell only:

Central vacuole

Cellulose cell wall

Chloroplasts

Animal cell only:

Centriole

Both:

Endoplasmic reticulum

Plasma membrane

Nucleus

Cytoskeleton

Golgi apparatus

Mitochondria

20
card image

Categories:

Plant cell wall

Central vacuole

Chloroplast

Mitochondrion

Golgi apparatus

Options:

Produces chemical energy (ATP) that can power the cell

Makes sugar by converting light energy into chemical energy

Strong, protective structure made from cellulose fibrils

Modifies and packages proteins

Regulates cytoplasm, creates internal pressure, and stores cell compounds

Plant cell wall: Strong, protective structure made from cellulose fibrils

Central vacuole: Regulates cytoplasm, creates internal pressure, and stores cell compounds

Chloroplast: Makes sugar by converting light energy into chemical energy

Mitochondrion: Produces chemical energy (ATP) that can power the cell

Golgi apparatus: Modifies and packages proteins

21
card image

Which statements are true for chloroplasts? Select the three that apply.

Their inner membrane has infoldings called cristae.

They are the sites of reactions that convert solar energy into chemical energy.

They have membranous sacs called thylakoids that are surrounded by a fluid called stroma.

Their matrix contains enzymes that function in cellular respiration.

They are the sites of reactions that convert chemical energy to ATP.

They contain the green pigment chlorophyll.

They are the sites of reactions that convert solar energy into chemical energy.

They have membranous sacs called thylakoids that are surrounded by a fluid called stroma.

They contain the green pigment chlorophyll.

22

Where do scientists obtain adult stem cells?

A. Pancreas

B. Skin

C. Saliva

D. Bone marrow

D. Bone marrow

23

Ideally, the best scaffold for growing a replacement tissue or organ would be made of what?

A. Cotton

B. Extracellular matrix

C. Plastic

D. Silicon

B. Extracellular matrix

24

In order to best eliminate the chance for rejection, a tissue or organ should be made from cells obtained from which of the following?

A. A sibling

B. The patient

C. A cadaver

D. A donor pig

B. The patient

25

If a fabricated windpipe is not receiving proper oxygen and nutrients, which of the following failed to properly regenerate?

A. White blood cells

B. Blood vessels

C. Keratin

D. Mucus producing cells

B. Blood vessels

26

Which of the following is most likely to receive a fabricated organ made from his own cells?

A. Lung cancer patient

B. Pancreatic cancer patient

C. Bladder cancer patient

D. Thyroid cancer patient

C. Bladder cancer patient

27

Organelles:

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Nucleolous

Lysosomes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus

Cytoskeleton

Mitochondria

Roles:

Generates ATP

Modefies and sorts proteins

Assembles ribosomes

Digests proteins

Produces secretory proteins

Synthesizes lipids

Defines cell shape

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Synthesizes lipids

Nucleolous: Assembles ribosomes

Lysosomes: Digests proteins

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Produces secretory proteins

Golgi Apparatus: Modefies and sorts proteins

Cytoskeleton: Defines cell shape

Mitochondria: Generates ATP

28

Categories:

Prokaryotic only

Eukaryotic only

Both

Options:

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

Plasma membrane

Nucleoid

Lysosome

Nucleolus

Flagella

Prokaryotic only:

Nucleoid

Eukaryotic only:

Mitochondria

Nucleolus

Lysosome

Both:

Flagella

Ribosomes

Plasma membrane

29

1. In eukaryotic flagella, the fibers that slide past one another due to the activity of dynein proteins are ___.

2. Many cell organelles, most notably the nucleus, are anchored by ___ which are assembled from a diverse class of proteins.

3. Centrosomes are sites where protein dimers assemble into ___.

4. The extension of psuedopodia in amoeba is due to the regulated assembly and destruction of ___.

5. The only cytoskeletal fibers not associated with intracellular movement or whole cell locomotion are the ___.

6. During muscle contractions, myosin motor proteins move across tracks of ___.

Options:

Intermediate filaments

Microtubules

Microfilaments

1. In eukaryotic flagella, the fibers that slide past one another due to the activity of dynein proteins are microtubules.

2. Many cell organelles, most notably the nucleus, are anchored by intermediate filaments which are assembled from a diverse class of proteins.

3. Centrosomes are sites where protein dimers assemble into microtubules.

4. The extension of psuedopodia in amoeba is due to the regulated assembly and destruction of microfilaments.

5. The only cytoskeletal fibers not associated with intracellular movement or whole cell locomotion are the intermediate filaments.

6. During muscle contractions, myosin motor proteins move across tracks of microfilaments.

30

Which molecules do not normally cross the nuclear membrane?

A. DNA

B. mRNA

C. Proteins

D. Nucleotide triphosphates

A. DNA

31

Which of the following statements about the nuclear envelope is false?

A. The nuclear envelope is composed of two lipid bilayers.

B. Molecules pass into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pores.

C. The nuclear envelope is continuous with the Golgi apparatus.

D .Nuclear pores are made up of a group of proteins that are collectively called the nuclear pore complex.

C. The nuclear envelope is continuous with the Golgi apparatus.

32

True or false? Large proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) bind to the nuclear pore and enter the nucleus without any expenditure of energy.

False

33

A small protein (molecular weight = 25,000 daltons) is injected into a cell and observed in the nucleus a short time later. What type of transport has taken place?

A. Passive transport

B. Active transport

C. Osmosis

A. Passive transport

34

In experiments to test whether a protein can enter the nucleus, why would proteins be labeled with fluorescent molecules?

A. To make the proteins easy to see

B. To give the protein molecules energy

C. To make the proteins bigger

D. To target the proteins to the nucleus

A. To make the proteins easy to see

35

Nucleoplasmin is a nuclear protein. This protein was divided into two segments and linked to the same large cytoplasmic protein, generating two fusion proteins. After injecting these fusion proteins into a cell, one of the proteins was found in the nucleus and the other in the cytoplasm. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these results?

A. One of the fusion proteins entered the nucleus by passive transport.

B. The cytoplasmic protein contains a nuclear localization signal.

C. Nucleoplasmin does not have a nuclear localization signal.

D. Only one of the two fusion proteins possesses a nuclear localization signal.

D. Only one of the two fusion proteins possesses a nuclear localization signal.

36

Which of these cell junctions form a barrier to the passage of materials?

A. Desmosomes (anchoring junctions)

B. Tight junctions

C. Keratin fibers

D. Gap (communicating) junctions

E. Plasmodesmata

B. Tight junctions

37

The primary role of _____ is to bind animal cells together.

A. The cytoskeleton

B. Plasmodesmata

C. Gap (communicating) junctions

D. Desmosomes

E. Tight junctions

D. Desmosomes

38

_____ aid in the coordination of the activities of adjacent animal cells.

A. Desmosomes

B. Plasmodesmata

C. Tight junctions

D. Gap (communicating) junctions

E. Keratin fibers

D. Gap (communicating) junctions


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