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Central nervous system

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created 3 years ago by JSchacher
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1

The hindbrain of the embryo develops into the pons, the medulla oblongata, part of the spinal cord, and what other structure?

A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

C

2

12) The telencephalon develops into what adult brain structure?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

B

3

The diencephalon develops into the thalamus, the epithalamus, and what other structure?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

A

4

During the human embryonic and fetal periods, the brain grows rapidly, most noticeably the growth of what structure?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

B

5

Which of these regions of the brain regulates body temperature, hunger, and thirst?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum

D) thalamus

A

6

Which of these regions of the brain, besides the cerebrum, has an outer cortical layer of gray
matter?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

C

7

Which of these regions has two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

B

8

Which of these regions superior-most aspect is found in close proximity to the fourth ventricle and lies just posterior to the pons?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

C

9

Which of these regions of the brain has frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, as well as the insula?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

B

10

The insula is considered to be part of the ________.
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

B

11

Which of these regions of the brain contains the basal forebrain nuclei in the deep gray matter?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

B

12

Which of these regions is the largest part of the diencephalon and forms the upper and lateral walls of the third ventricle?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

D

13

Which of these regions functions to direct nearly all sensory input, except olfactory impulses, to the cerebral cortex?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

D

14

Which of these regions of the brain regulates hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland (hypophysis)?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

A

15

Which of these regions lies between the optic chiasma and the posterior border of the mammillary bodies?
A) hypothalamus
B) cerebrum
C) cerebellum
D) thalamus

A

16

A "motor homunculus" can be visualized as an overlay on the precentral gyrus. The reason why the facial region of this homunculus covers such a large surface area is because
A) our ears are large for hearing.
B) our eyes are large for seeing.
C) we have very expressive faces.
D) we have very sensitive lips.

C

17

It is easy to confuse the terms sulcus and gyrus (on the cerebral cortex). The difference between these two terms is that
A) a sulcus corresponds to a folia on the cerebellum, whereas a gyrus corresponds to a fissure.
B) a sulcus is the same as a fissure on the cerebral cortex, whereas a gyrus is a lobe.
C) a sulcus is a groove, and a gyrus is a deeper groove.
D) a gyrus is a ridge, and a sulcus is a groove.

D

18

The cell bodies located in the anteriormost region of the spinal cord's gray matter belong to this group.
A) somatic motor
B) somatic sensory
C) visceral motor
D) visceral sensory

A

19

The axons in the inferior olivary nuclei relay sensory impulses for
A) vision.
B) proprioception.
C) sound.
D) smell.

B

20

The visual association area of the cerebral cortex is located in the
A) frontal lobe.
B) insula.
C) parietal lobe.
D) occipital lobe.

D

21

The fluid-filled ventricles within the cerebrum are similar in function to the ________ of the spinal cord.
A) subarachnoid space
B) central canal
C) pia mater
D) dura mater

B

22

The function of the blood-brain barrier is to
A) keep neurons from innervating blood vessels.
B) prevent all contact between bloodborne molecules and brain tissue.
C) help protect the central nervous system.
D) provide an impenetrable barrier between blood and brain, because the brain gets all its
nourishment from the cerebrospinal fluid.

C

23

Three "seeing/vision" nuclei that occupy the midbrain of humans are the
A) red nucleus, substantia nigra, and cerebral peduncle.
B) inferior colliculi, reticular formation, and periaqueductal gray.
C) lateral geniculate, red nucleus, and visual association area.
D) superior colliculi, motor nucleus for oculomotor nerve, and motor nucleus for trochlear nerve.

D

24

Shearing of axons in a diffuse axonal injury causes such widespread disruptions because such an injury involves
A) association fibers.
B) commissural fibers.
C) projection fibers.
D) pyramidal tract fibers.

C

25

Which of the following is a descending motor spinal tract?
A) dorsal column pathway
B) pyramidal pathway
C) spinocerebellar pathway
D) spinothalamic pathway

B

26

What types of sensory information are conveyed toward the brain in the lateral spinothalamic tracts?
A) discriminative touch
B) equilibrium
C) pain and temperature
D) visual senses

C

27

Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by choroid plexuses in all the following locations except the
A) central canal.
B) fourth ventricle.
C) lateral ventricle.
D) third ventricle.

A

28

Which of these lobes of the cerebrum lies anterior to the central sulcus?
A) occipital lobe
B) cerebellum
C) temporal lobe
D) frontal lobe

D

29

Which region of the cerebellum functionally sequences complex voluntary muscle contractions to adjust posture as body position changes?
A) the deep cerebellar nuclei
B) white matter
C) the cortex
D) the flocculonodular lobes

D

30

The second largest region of the brain is the
A) cerebrum.
B) brain stem.
C) diencephalon.
D) cerebellum.

D

31

The sheet of dura mater that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is the
A) falx cerebri.
B) tentorium cerebri.
C) falx cerebelli.
D) superior sagittal sinus.

A

32

At what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate (inferiorly) in the average adult?
A) S5
B) between L1 and L2
C) between L5 and S1
D) C3

B

33

The cell bodies located in the posteriormost region of the spinal cord's gray matter belong to this group.
A) somatic motor
B) somatic sensory
C) visceral motor
D) visceral sensory

B

34

All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the
A) hippocampus.
B) cingulate gyrus.
C) amygdaloid nucleus.
D) caudate nucleus.

D

35

Which of the following is not a hindbrain structure?
A) fourth ventricle
B) pons
C) medulla
D) basal nuclei

D

36

Which of the following is not a function of nuclei within the reticular formation?
A) adjust respiratory and cardiovascular functions
B) consolidate and store memories
C) coordinate cranial nerve reflexes
D) maintain consciousness and alertness

B

37

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
A) arachnoid and pia
B) arachnoid and bone of skull
C) arachnoid and dura
D) dura and epidura

A

38

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in
A) the dorsal root ganglia external to the spinal cord.
B) the posterior gray horn of the spinal cord.
C) the thalamus.
D) nuclei of the cranial nerves.

A

39

The tough, dense fibrous connective tissue meningeal layer is the
A) dura mater.
B) subarachnoid.
C) arachnoid.
D) pia mater.

A

40

Cutting the corpus callosum would lead to which of the following?
A) The right cerebral hemisphere cannot communicate directly with the left hemisphere.
B) Visual reflexes are lost.
C) Emotional problems develop.
D) One-half of the body is paralyzed.

A

41

What is the anatomical distinction between the basal ganglia and the basal forebrain nuclei?
A) The basal forebrain nuclei are located in the prefrontal cortex, whereas the basal ganglia are
within the midbrain.
B) The basal forebrain nuclei are located closer to the hypothalamus, whereas the basal ganglia
lie near the internal capsule.
C) The basal ganglia are located in the brain stem, whereas the basal forebrain nuclei are located
within the cerebrum.
D) The basal ganglia are located outside the CNS, whereas the basal forebrain nuclei are located
within the cerebrum.

B

42

The abstract representation of the homunculus overlaid on the somatosensory cerebral cortex has the
A) head and face proximal to the longitudinal fissure.
B) feet and ankles distal to the longitudinal fissure.
C) thumbs and fingers proximal to the longitudinal fissure.
D) genitals proximal to the longitudinal fissure.

D

43

Which of the following is a motor area for vision?
A) frontal eye field
B) premotor cortex
C) primary visual cortex
D) visual association area

A

44

Posterior gray horns of the spinal cord consist of
A) cell bodies of interneurons.
B) dorsal roots.
C) sensory ganglia.
D) motor neurons.

A

45

The cauda equina
A) consists of hair like the tail of a horse.
B) describes the radiating patterns of projection fibers.
C) is a series of nerve roots in the lumbar and sacral region.
D) is confined to the thoracic and cervical segments of the spinal cord.

C

46

The calcarine sulcus contains which functional area?
A) primary somatosensory
B) auditory association
C) frontal eye field
D) primary visual

D

47

A lesion to the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla would interfere with the function of which other structure(s)?
A) spinal motor neurons
B) the limbic system
C) the reticular formation
D) the cerebellum

D

48

One of the distinctions between the cerebrum and cerebellum is that
A) gray matter is found superficially and deep in the cerebrum but is present only superficially in
the cerebellum.
B) fibers of the cerebellum enter and leave ipsilaterally, whereas those of the cerebrum enter and
leave contralateraly.
C) the cerebrum is folded into gyri and lobes, whereas the cerebellum is only folded into folia
but lacks lobes.
D) the cerebellum is involved only in refining motor responses, whereas the cerebrum is
involved in both motor function and cognition.

B

49

Cerebrospinal fluid is located within the
A) subarachnoid space.
B) orbits.
C) cerebral cortex.
D) superior sagittal sinus.

A

50

The only one of the meninges that follows the brain surface into a cerebral sulcus is the
A) dura mater.
B) arachnoid mater.
C) pia mater.
D) alma mater.

C

51

Which areas of the brain are most likely to process and store motor skill memories?
A) the ependymal cells and ventricles
B) the amygdala and cingulate gyrus
C) the thalamus and hypothalamus
D) the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

D

52

Which of the following grooves separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
A) lateral sulcus
B) central sulcus
C) longitudinal fissure
D) transverse cerebral fissure

D

53

After someone faints, smelling salts of ammonia may be placed under the person's nose. The person breathes the ammonia vapors, which deliver a sharp jolt to the nasal membranes, and the person wakes up. This illustrates
A) how smells bring about emotions.
B) the function of the hypothalamus in controlling sleep.
C) the function of sensory input to the reticular activating system.
D) how smells elicit memories of being awake, causing the person to awaken.

C

54

Two parts of the brain that are most involved in emotions are the
A) medulla and cerebellum.
B) cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus.
C) superior and inferior colliculi.
D) red nucleus and substantia nigra.

B

55

A cerebrovascular accident patient who is unable to recognize faces and objects but can still visually perceive spatial arrangement of objects most likely has damage to
A) the primary visual cortex.
B) the occipital lobe.
C) the posterior association area.
D) the temporal lobe.

D

56

The main visceral control center of the brain is the
A) cerebral cortex.
B) thalamus.
C) reticular formation.
D) hypothalamus.

D

57

Sleep-wake cycles are controlled by the pineal gland and the
A) hypothalamus.
B) medulla oblongata.
C) thalamus.
D) visual cortex.

A

58

If the most caudal part of the CNS is the conus medullaris, then the most rostral part is/are the
A) prefrontal lobes.
B) hypothalamus.
C) precentral and postcentral gyri.
D) cauda equina.

A

59

Which of the following is not part of the basal ganglia?
A) putamen
B) Wernicke's area
C) globus pallidus
D) caudate nucleus

B

60

Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?
A) third ventricle
B) cerebral peduncles
C) corpora quadrigemina
D) red nucleus

A

61

The brain stem consists of the
A) cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla.
B) midbrain, medulla, and pons.
C) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain.
D) midbrain only.

B

62

Neural centers that control heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the
A) thalamus.
B) medulla.
C) midbrain.
D) cerebrum.

B

63

A shallow groove on the surface of the cerebral cortex is called a
A) sulcus.
B) fissure.
C) gyrus.
D) furrow.

A

64

The hypothalamus, in addition to the cerebral cortex, is in control of emotional responses.

A) True

B) False

A

65

The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is connected to the hypothalamus and receives regulatory impulses that control the secretion of hormones.

A) True

B) False

A

66

The ventral portion of the cerebral peduncles connect the midbrain to the cerebellum and contain the pyramidal (corticospinal) motor tracts descending to the spinal cord.

A) True

B) False

B

67

The vasomotor center of the medulla regulates blood pressure.

A) True

B) False

A

68

In the olivary nuclei in the medulla, mostly proprioceptive sensory impulses are relayed to the cerebellum.

A) True

B) False

A

69

The medullary respiratory center controls the rhythm and rate of breathing.

A) True

B) False

A

70

Spinal nerve pairs in the cervical region of the spinal cord are found inferior to the vertebral bodies of the same number.

A) True

B) False

B

71

The cerebellum has an outer cortex, internal white matter, and areas of gray matter buried deep in the white matter.

A) True

B) False

A

72

Cerebrospinal fluid passes through choroidal villi to enter the superior sagittal sinus.

A) True

B) False

B

73

The reticular activating system (RAS) contains structures that regulate and cause emotional
responses.

A) True

B) False

B

74

The amygdala is part of the limbic system and has neurons that process the emotions and reactions to fear.

A) True

B) False

A

75

The limbic system has neural ties to the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamus, and the reticular formation.

A) True

B) False

A

76

The meninges of the brain differ from those of the spinal cord in that the dura mater of the brain splits into two layers and that there is no epidural space.

A) True

B) False

A

77

The white matter of the spinal cord contains ascending and descending pathways known as tracts.

A) True

B) False

A


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