Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

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Human Anatomy
Chapter 22
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1
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the layer common to all blood vessels regardless of their size.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

2
card image

Identify the letter that is indicating endothelial cells.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

3
card image

Identify the letter that indicates a connective tissue layer consisting of longitudinal collagen
fibers.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

4
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the blood vessel layer that is comprised of circular and
longitudinal smooth muscle.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

5
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Identify the letter that indicates the subendothelial layer associated with larger blood vessels.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

6
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Identify the letter that indicates the common carotid arteries.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

7
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dentify the letter that indicates the common iliac artery.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

8
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the brachial artery.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

9
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the renal artery as it branches from the Abdominal aorta.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

10
card image

Identify the letter that indicates one of the primary arteries that contributes to the superficial
palmar arch-the ulnar artery.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

11
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the vessel that is easy to find in most people and is used to
obtain blood.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

12
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the longest vein in the body.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

13
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the vessel that arises from the union of the left and right
brachiocephalic veins.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

14
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the cephalic vein.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

15
card image

Identify the letter that indicates the internal jugular vein.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

16

Layer of blood vessels innervated by sympathetic vasomotor fibers.
A) tunica intima
B) subendothelial layer
C) tunica media
D) tunica externa
E) vasa vasorum

C

17

Capillaries consist of only this layer.
A) tunica intima
B) subendothelial layer
C) tunica media
D) tunica externa
E) vasa vasorum

A

18

Structure that regulates blood flow into true capillaries.
A) metarteriole
B) thoroughfare channel
C) precapillary sphincter
D) sinusoids
E) fenestrations

C

19

Wide leaky capillaries found in bone marrow and spleen.
A) sinusoids
B) fenestrated capillaries
C) continuous capillaries
D) metarterioles
E) none of the above

A

20

A "coming together" of alternate pathways of blood vessels.
A) thoroughfare channel
B) vasa vasorum
C) metarterioles
D) vascular anastomosis
E) converging veins

D

21

Precapillary sphincters allow blood to leave this structure and enter true capillaries.
A) sinusoids
B) fenestrated capillaries
C) continuous capillaries
D) metarterioles
E) none of the above

D

22

Collective name for the structures that drain the cranium.
A) vascular anastomosis
B) dural sinuses
C) internal jugular vein
D) cavernous sinuses
E) inferior vena cava

B

23

Present in most capillaries, these structures are absent in those of the blood-brain barrier.
A) tight junctions
B) endothelial cells
C) basement membrane
D) intercellular clefts
E) pericytes

D

24

Vessels of the small intestines, renal glomerulus, and synovial membranes that allow passage
of fluid and solutes through "windows" in the endothelium.
A) sinusoids
B) fenestrated capillaries
C) continuous capillaries
D) metarterioles
E) none of the above

B

25

Microvasculature that provides nourishment to the outer walls of the aorta.
A) tunica intima
B) subendothelial layer
C) tunica media
D) tunica externa
E) vasa vasorum

E

26

Which layer of blood vessels contains smooth muscle tissue?
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) tunica adventitia

B

27

Most small molecules pass through a capillary wall through which route?
A) via direct diffusion through the endothelium
B) via pinocytotic vesicles
C) through intercellular clefts
D) through tight junctions

C

28

Functionally, there are no valves in arteries (as opposed to in veins) because
A) valves direct blood only toward the heart and arterial blood passes away from the heart.
B) valves would tear apart from the high arterial pressure.
C) arteries get more atherosclerosis, so valves would cause lethal blood clotting.
D) the blood pressure in arteries is high enough that there is no backflow of blood.

D

29

29) Blood pressure is highest in the
A) elastic arteries.
B) arterioles.
C) veins.
D) capillaries.

A

30

The hepatic portal system has two distinct capillary beds separated by a portal vein. What are
the functions of these two capillary beds?
A) The first picks up digested nutrients, and the second delivers these nutrients to liver cells.
B) The first nourishes the digestive tube, and the second picks up nutrients from the digestive
tube.
C) The first provides oxygen to the liver, and the second picks up nutrients from the liver.
D) The first picks up toxins from the liver, and the second delivers them to the digestive tube for
detoxification.

A

31

The pulse of the facial artery is palpated
A) anterior to the auricle of the ear near the temple.
B) anterior to the masseter muscle at the inferior margin of the mandible.
C) anterior to the sternocleidomastoid.
D) in the anterior triangle of the neck.

B

32

A blood vessel that ranges from 0.3 mm to about 1 cm in diameter and has a large tunica
media relative to the size of the lumen is
A) an elastic artery.
B) a muscular artery.
C) an arteriole.
D) a capillary.

B

33

In a capillary bed, relaxation of the precapillary sphincters causes more blood to flow
A) into the thoroughfare channels.
B) into the arterioles.
C) through the true capillaries.
D) through the metarterioles.

C

34

The dorsalis pedis artery is located by
A) finding the head of the fibula and palpating inferior to its neck.
B) palpating between the first and second metatarsal.
C) placing the fingers behind the knee.
D) placing a finger behind the medial malleolus.

B

35

What artery enters the skull through the foramen spinosum and supplies the inner surface of
the parietal bone, dura mater, and parts of the temporal bone?
A) internal carotid artery
B) middle cerebral artery
C) middle meningeal artery
D) basilar artery

C

36

Two large (wide) arteries that have relatively superficial locations and are often wounded are
the
A) aorta and the popliteal artery.
B) right and left coronary arteries.
C) brachial artery and posterior intercostal arteries.
D) common carotid artery and the femoral artery (in the superior thigh).

D

37

If a physician cannot feel a pulse in the popliteal fossa, the ________ artery is most likely
narrowed by atherosclerosis.
A) dorsalis pedis
B) femoral
C) fibular
D) greater saphenous

B

38

Of the following, the only unpaired dural sinus is the
A) cavernous sinus.
B) superior sagittal sinus.
C) transverse sinus.
D) carotid sinus.

B

39

Which vessel is missing in the following statement? "Tracing venous blood from the inferior
left side of the posterior abdominal wall to the heart, we find that blood enters the posterior
intercostal veins, the hemiazygos vein, the superior vena cava, and the right atrium."
A) the azygos vein
B) the hepatic portal vein
C) the inferior vena cava
D) the right brachiocephalic vein

A

40

The foramen ovale in the heart normally closes
A) in the 2-month fetus.
B) in the 7-month fetus.
C) shortly after birth.
D) never.

C

41

Which vessel is most commonly used to bypass a damaged coronary artery in coronary
bypass surgery?
A) azygos vein
B) great saphenous vein
C) femoral artery
D) internal carotid artery

B

42

What vessel in the fetus connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch so that most of the
blood bypasses the immature lungs?
A) ductus venosus
B) foramen ovale
C) ductus arteriosus
D) umbilical vein

C

43

Which of the following statements about arteries is false?
A) Arterial walls are thicker than venous walls.
B) Arteries have a smaller lumen than veins of similar size.
C) Arteries carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
D) Arteries have more elastin than veins.

C

44

Which branch (or branches) of the abdominal aorta supplies the stomach?
A) celiac trunk
B) superior mesenteric artery
C) inferior phrenic arteries
D) suprarenal arteries

A

45

The cerebral arterial circle forms a loop around which structures?
A) the great vessels at the base of the heart
B) the internal and external carotid arteries
C) the cerebellum
D) the pituitary gland and the optic chiasma

D

46

The abdominal aorta divides at its distal end into which arteries?
A) the femoral arteries
B) the internal iliac arteries
C) the external iliac arteries
D) the common iliac arteries

D

47

Which of the following is most likely to become a varicose vein?
A) the femoral vein
B) the saphenous vein
C) the popliteal vein
D) the fibular (peroneal) vein

B

48

Fenestrated capillaries
A) are located in the central nervous system.
B) have pores in their walls.
C) permit the movement of very few molecules.
D) occur in most of the organs of the body.

B

49

The correct proximal to distal sequence of the three vessels branching from the aortic arch is
A) brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian.
B) brachiocephalic, left subclavian, left common carotid.
C) left common carotid, left subclavian, brachiocephalic.
D) left subclavian, left common carotid, brachiocephalic.

A

50

What prevents the backflow of blood in veins?
A) valves
B) the narrowed lumen
C) thick smooth muscle and elastic layers
D) increased blood pressure

A

51

The largest molecules that pass through the walls of typical capillaries are thought to use
which route?
A) direct diffusion through the endothelium
B) pinocytotic vesicles
C) intercellular clefts
D) tight junctions

B

52

The internal carotid artery branches to form the
A) anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, and ophthalmic arteries.
B) facial, maxillary, and superficial temporal arteries.
C) middle meningeal and middle cerebral arteries.
D) posterior cerebral and posterior communicating arteries.

A

53

Most systemic venous blood is both oxygen-poor and nutrient-poor. However, systemic
venous blood that is not oxygen-poor and is nutrient-rich occurs in
A) the renal vein.
B) superficial veins of the limbs.
C) the hepatic portal vein.
D) the pulmonary veins.

C

54

The ________ delivers arterial blood to the rotator cuff muscles and thyroid gland.
A) axillary artery
B) costocervical trunk
C) thyrocervical trunk
D) vertebral artery

C

55

The diameter of a typical capillary is similar to that of
A) a venule.
B) a sinusoid.
C) an erythrocyte.
D) a fat cell.

C

56

Which of the following statements about arterioles is false?
A) They regulate the flow of blood to capillary beds through contraction and relaxation of the
tunica media.
B) They redirect blood flow in a sympathetic response to skeletal muscle.
C) They can lead into metarterioles.
D) They have the largest content of smooth muscle in their tunica media.

D

57

Systemic venous blood that is oxygen-poor but contains the lowest concentration of
nitrogenous wastes occurs in the
A) renal veins.
B) hepatic portal vein.
C) pulmonary veins.
D) umbilical veins of the fetus.

A

58

A preferred site to insert intravenous catheters is into the
A) brachial vein.
B) dorsal venous network of the hand.
C) great saphenous vein.
D) superficial palmar venous arch of the hand.

B

59

Which artery arises from the inferior part of the abdominal aorta and supplies the distal half
of the large intestine?
A) gonadal artery
B) median sacral artery
C) superior phrenic artery
D) inferior mesenteric artery

D

60

The main arteries of the sole of the foot—the medial and lateral plantar arteries—arise
behind the ankle from which artery?
A) posterior tibial
B) fibular
C) saphenous
D) dorsalis pedis

A

61

A dural sinus that contains a major artery and some cranial nerves within it is the
A) superior sagittal.
B) inferior sagittal.
C) cavernous.
D) transverse.

C

62

Which vessel is missing from the following statement? "Tracing blood that drains from the
large intestine, we find that blood drains from the distal colon is collected in the inferior
mesenteric vein, merges with the splenic vein then directed to the hepatic portal vein, the liver
sinusoids, and the inferior vena cava."
A) celiac vein
B) umbilical vein
C) hepatic vein
D) azygos vein

C

63

In the adult, the hepatic portal system carries nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract to
the liver. In the fetus, nutrients are absorbed at the placenta, and the vessel that carries these
nutrients to the liver is the
A) hepatic portal vein.
B) placental vein.
C) umbilical vein.
D) internal iliac vein.

C

64

The right suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the inferior vena cava, whereas the left
suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the
A) superior vena cava.
B) other side of the inferior vena cava.
C) hepatic portal system.
D) left renal vein.

D

65

By definition, veins are
A) vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
B) vessels that always carry nutrient-poor blood.
C) the only vessels that lead from capillaries.
D) vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood.

A

66

Which body tissues lack capillaries?
A) the myocardium and epicardium of the heart
B) tendons and ligaments
C) the lens and the cornea
D) bones

C

67

Which arteries connect the basilar artery and the internal carotid artery forming the posterior
aspect of the cerebral arterial circle?
A) genicular arteries that encircle the knee
B) posterior communicating arteries
C) ulnar artery that encircles the elbow joint
D) anterior communicating arteries

B

68

The extensor muscles of the forearm are supplied by which artery?
A) radial
B) posterior interosseous
C) ulnar
D) deep palmar arch

B

69

The lumbar veins drain the inferior posterior abdominal wall and direct oxygen-poor blood
into the
A) superior vena cava.
B) internal iliac vein.
C) external iliac vein.
D) inferior vena cava.

D

70

Which of the following is not a branch of the celiac trunk?
A) left gastric artery
B) common hepatic artery
C) sigmoidal artery
D) splenic artery

C

71

The right gonadal vein drains into the
A) inferior vena cava.
B) internal iliac vein.
C) lumbar vein.
D) renal vein.

A

72

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called
A) coronary circulation.
B) pulmonary circulation.
C) hepatic portal circulation.
D) cerebral circulation.

C

73

Blood passing through the fetal ductus arteriosus bypasses the
A) lungs, left atrium, and ventricle.
B) pulmonary trunk and lungs.
C) right atrium and ventricle.
D) right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, and lungs.

A

74

All types of blood vessels contain a tunica intima.

A) True

B) False

A

75

All arteries carry oxygen-rich blood, whereas veins carry oxygen-poor blood.

A) True

B) False

B

76

Systemic blood pressure is regulated by adjusting the diameter of arterioles.

A) True

B) False

A

77

In metabolically active tissues, blood is present in metarterioles, and precapillary sphincters
are constricted.

A) True

B) False

B

78

Postcapillary venules function much like true capillaries.

A) True

B) False

A

79

The pulse of the posterior tibial artery is palpated behind the knee.

A) True

B) False

B

80

Veins have less elastin in their walls than do arteries.

A) True

B) False

A

81

Arterioles and venules have a vasa vasorum to provide nutrients to their outer walls, whereas
the inner walls receive nutrients from blood in the lumen.

A) True

B) False

B

82

The middle and posterior cerebral arteries are connected by the posterior communicating
arteries.

A) True

B) False

A

83

The internal iliac arteries supply blood both to the pelvic organs and to the lower limbs.

A) True

B) False

A

84

The inferior vena cava ascends on the left side of the vertebral bodies and to the left of the
abdominal aorta.

A) True

B) False

B

85

Muscular arteries regulate blood flow to organs and groups of organs.

A) True

B) False

A

86

The elastic arteries are the largest arteries near the heart.

A) True

B) False

A

87

The saphenous vein is not paired with an artery with the same name.

A) True

B) False

A

88

Paired fetal umbilical veins carry blood from the fetus to the placenta, whereas the unpaired
umbilical artery returns blood from the placenta to the fetus.

A) True

B) False

B


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