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The Digestive System

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1
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Identify the letter that indicates the cardiac region of the stomach.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

2
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Identify the letter that indicates the region of the stomach that regulates the passage of chyme
into the small intestine.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

3
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Identify the letter that indicates folds that allow for expansion of the stomach.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

4
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Identify the letter that indicates the curvature where the greater omentum attaches.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

5
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Identify the letter that indicates the fundus of the stomach.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

6
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Identify the letter that indicates the cystic duct.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

7
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Identify the letter that indicates the hepatic ducts as they exits the porta hepatis.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

8
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Identify the letter that indicates the duct that carries digestive enzymes from acinar cells in the
pancreas.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

9
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Identify the letter that indicates the duct that directs both digestive enzymes and bile to the
duodenum.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

10
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Identify the letter that indicates the duct formed by the union of the right and left hepatic
ducts.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

11
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Identify the letter that indicates the root canal.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

12
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Identify the letter that indicates the crown.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

13
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Identify the letter that indicates the root.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

14
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Identify the letter that indicates the surface of the tooth that is coated with the hardest
substance in the body.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

15
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Identify the letter on the diagram that represents the neck of the tooth.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

16

Retroperitoneal organs have a serosa facing the peritoneal cavity and a(n) ________ on the
posterior side embedded in the abdominal wall.
A) mesothelium
B) adventitia
C) muscularis externa
D) vasa vasorum
E) caveolae

B

17

Infoldings of the sarcolemma of smooth muscle fibers.
A) mesothelium
B) adventitia
C) muscularis externa
D) vasa vasorum
E) caveolae

E

18

Junction of the transverse and ascending colon.
A) splenic flexure
B) cecum
C) hepatic flexure
D) ileocecal valve
E) haustra

C

19

The union of the cystic and common hepatic ducts.
A) accessory pancreatic duct
B) main pancreatic duct
C) hepatopancreatic ampulla
D) common bile duct
E) bile canaliculi

D

20

Smooth muscle constriction between the ileum and cecum.
A) splenic flexure
B) cecum
C) hepatic flexure
D) ileocecal valve
E) haustra

D

21

Attaches the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach.
A) haustra
B) hepatopancreatic ampulla
C) porta hepatis
D) greater omentum
E) lesser omentum

E

22

Attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm.
A) greater omentum
B) lesser omentum
C) falciform ligament
D) ligamentum teres
E) porta hepatis

C

23

Layer of the GI tract responsible for peristalsis and segmentation.
A) muscularis mucosae
B) muscularis externa
C) lamina propria
D) submucosa
E) serosa

B

24

Bulblike union of the main pancreatic duct and bile duct.
A) cystic duct
B) hepatic duct
C) porta hepatis
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla
E) accessory pancreatic duct

D

25

Three strips of longitudinal muscles of the muscularis of the colon causing it to pucker into
sacs.
A) ileocecal junction
B) haustra
C) teniae coli
D) muscularis mucosae
E) pyloric sphincter

C

26

Which layer of the digestive tract is responsible for the peristaltic waves that propel materials
from one portion to another?
A) muscularis externa
B) serosa
C) submucosa
D) mucosa

A

27

Which of the following choices correctly pairs a type of cell in the stomach with its
secretion?
A) parietal cell; pepsinogen
B) chief cell; pepsinogen
C) parietal cell; mucus
D) enteroendocrine; hydrochloric acid

B

28

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the large intestine?
A) It includes the ascending, transverse, and descending colon.
B) It contains an abundant bacterial flora.
C) It is the main site of nutrient absorption.
D) It absorbs much of the water and salts remaining in the wastes.

C

29

The digestive organ primarily responsible for the absorption of water is the
A) ileum.
B) duodenum.
C) anus.
D) large intestine.

D

30

Another name for serosa is
A) parietal peritoneum.
B) serous gland.
C) visceral peritoneum.
D) mucosa.

C

31

Medial to both midclavicular lines and superior to the subcostal plane lies the
A) appendix.
B) cecum.
C) jejunum.
D) pyloric sphincter.

D

32

To say someone is "tongue-tied" means that the
A) lips are exceptionally immobile.
B) tongue muscles are weak.
C) salivary glands produce little lubricant.
D) lingual frenulum is short.

D

33

The lesser omentum extends between the
A) greater curvature of the stomach and the posterior abdominal wall.
B) lesser curvature of the stomach and the porta hepatis of the liver.
C) transverse colon and the posterior abdominal wall.
D) sigmoid colon and the posterior pelvic wall.

B

34

The splenic, or left colic, flexure of the colon is located within the
A) left hypochondriac region.
B) left lumbar region.
C) right hypochondriac region.
D) right lumbar region.

A

35

Which of the following is not contained in saliva?
A) enzymes that begin the digestion of proteins
B) enzymes that initiate the digestion of carbohydrates
C) bicarbonate buffer
D) bactericidal enzymes

A

36

How many deciduous teeth are there?
A) 18
B) 20
C) 32
D) It varies from person to person.

B

37

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is primarily located within the
A) lamina propria.
B) muscularis mucosa.
C) serosa.
D) submucosa.

A

38

What is the function of the hepatopancreatic sphincter?
A) It controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juices into the alimentary canal.
B) As it contracts, it squeezes pancreatic secretions into the duodenum.
C) It inhibits defecation in the upper alimentary canal while the anal sphincters do the same in
the lower regions.
D) It prevents the movement of bile into the gallbladder.

A

39

Secretions of the parotid gland empty
A) anterior to the frenulum of the tongue.
B) between the lingual tonsil and epiglottis.
C) lateral to the upper molars.
D) through 10 ducts on the floor of the oral cavity.

C

40

The mesentery that suspends the small intestine is the
A) falciform ligament.
B) lesser omentum.
C) greater omentum.
D) mesentery proper.

D

41

Why are bacteria abundant in the large intestines but not in the stomach?
A) Food enters the stomach first and does not spend much time there.
B) The intestine is much warmer and moister, encouraging bacterial growth.
C) The stomach wall contains so much lymphoid tissue that it destroys all bacteria there.
D) Secretions of parietal cells kill bacteria in the stomach.

D

42

The stomach
A) stores food for later use in the form of fat.
B) absorbs most of the nutrients in food.
C) churns food into a paste by mechanical means.
D) dehydrates food materials before passing them to the small intestine.

C

43

Which of the following correctly describes the function of the greater omentum?
A) It is a vestigial structure that has no known function.
B) It stores fat.
C) It absorbs heat from the digestive process and radiates it to the outside of the body.
D) It wraps around most of the large intestine and anchors it to the anterior abdominal wall.

B

44

Which of the following is a secondarily retroperitoneal organ?
A) descending colon
B) ileum
C) sigmoid colon
D) transverse colon

A

45

What is the function of the gallbladder?
A) secretion of bile
B) production of cholesterol
C) secretion of gastrin
D) storage of bile

D

46

The pancreas contains all of the following regions except a
A) head.
B) tail.
C) hilum.
D) body.

C

47

The largest salivary gland is the
A) intrinsic.
B) submandibular.
C) sublingual.
D) parotid.

D

48

Which of the following cells produce intrinsic factor?
A) chief cells
B) parietal cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) enteroendocrine cells

B

49

Which of the following is not a function of hepatocytes?
A) producing digestive enzymes
B) picking up and processing nutrients from the portal blood
C) storing some vitamins
D) detoxifying poisons

A

50

Which of the following applies to the small intestine?
A) It is where foodstuffs first encounter protein-splitting enzymes.
B) Its walls secrete most of the digestive enzymes that are active in its lumen.
C) It is where carbohydrates and fats but not proteins are digested.
D) Breakdown products of fats enter its lacteals.

D

51

All of the following structures have all four tissue layers in their walls except the
A) esophagus.
B) mouth.
C) stomach.
D) sigmoid colon.

B

52

The portion of the large intestine closest to the liver is the
A) cecum.
B) rectum.
C) transverse colon.
D) descending colon.

C

53

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the bile-secreting liver
were severely damaged?
A) carbohydrates
B) lipids
C) proteins
D) nucleic acids

B

54

The duodenum contains these structures whose products neutralize the acidic chyme.
A) duodenal glands
B) gastric glands
C) intestinal glands
D) Peyer's patches

A

55

Which of the following statements about the duodenum is false?
A) It receives chyme from the stomach.
B) It is the site of action of liver and pancreas secretions.
C) It is shorter than either the ileum or jejunum.
D) It is more movable than the ileum or jejunum, which are retroperitoneal.

D

56

Which of the following layers is present in the mucosa of the stomach and intestines, but not
in the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx?
A) lining epithelium
B) lamina propria
C) muscularis mucosae
D) lumen

C

57

The "mostly mucous" extrinsic salivary gland is the ________ gland.
A) parotid
B) submandibular
C) sublingual
D) intrinsic

C

58

Which of the following are the only mucosal folds that do not flatten out at all when the
organ stretches?
A) longitudinal folds in the esophagus
B) rugae in the stomach
C) circular folds in the small intestine
D) mucosal folds in the gallbladder

C

59

The bare area of the liver
A) contains the ligamentum teres.
B) is covered with visceral peritoneum.
C) is fused with the diaphragm.
D) is on the liver's inferior and anterior surface.

C

60

The epithelial lining of the mouth derives from
A) ectoderm.
B) mesoderm.
C) endoderm.
D) neural crest.

A

61

The liver and pancreas form as part of the embryonic
A) foregut.
B) midgut.
C) hindgut.
D) the hindgut and midgut.

A

62

Of the basic digestive processes, the one in which nutrients enter capillaries is called
A) ingestion.
B) propulsion.
C) mechanical digestion.
D) absorption.

D

63

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the rectum?
A) lacks tenia coli
B) has longitudinal folds called columns
C) is secondarily retroperitoneal
D) has transverse folds called rectal valves

B

64

If we say the pancreas is shaped like a tadpole, then the tadpole's head lies
A) posterior to the fundus of the stomach.
B) inside the mesentery proper.
C) in the curvature formed by the duodenum.
D) against the hilum of the spleen.

C

65

Which of the following is true of the pectinate line of the anal canal?
A) It lies just below the level of the rectal valves.
B) It is also called the anal columns.
C) It divides regions of somatic and visceral innervation.
D) All hemorrhoids occur there.

C

66

Which of the following is not a characteristic of enteroendocrine cells?
A) They are scattered throughout the lining epithelium of the stomach and intestines.
B) They secrete hormones that help signal the events of digestion.
C) They never secrete their product into the lumen of the digestive canal.
D) They are scattered throughout the lining of the rectum.

D

67

The splenic flexure is the boundary between the
A) spleen and stomach.
B) transverse and descending colon.
C) transverse and ascending colon.
D) descending colon and sigmoid colon.

B

68

In the stomach, the undifferentiated epithelial stem cells lie near the junction between the
gastric pits and gastric glands. In the intestine, the corresponding stem cells occur
A) on the tips of the villi.
B) where the intestinal crypts meet the villi.
C) in the duodenal (Brunner's) glands.
D) deep within the intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberk├╝hn).

D

69

Some bacteria from the intestinal microbiota work their way into the intestinal wall and start
to spread through the circulation. Many of these bacteria are stopped by MALT, while many
more are destroyed by
A) hepatocytes.
B) hepatic macrophages.
C) the walling-off action of the greater omentum.
D) megakaryocytes.

B

70

Which of the following is a role of the levator ani muscle in defecation?
A) It pushes down on the feces.
B) It has no role in defecation, only in inhibiting defecation (it is the external sphincter muscle).
C) It lifts the anal canal superiorly around the feces.
D) Its stretch and proprioception properties initiate the defecation reflex.

C

71

In mastication, the relative roles of an incisor versus a molar are
A) piercing versus tearing.
B) chewing versus holding food in the mouth.
C) biting off pieces of food versus grinding.
D) only incisors function in mastication.

C

72

The lamina propria and submucosa of the stomach both derive from which embryonic layer?
A) ectoderm
B) intermediate mesoderm
C) splanchnic mesoderm
D) somatic mesoderm

C

73

Most of the gastrointestinal tract is innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic
branches of the nervous system. Which parts are innervated by the somatic nervous system?
A) esophagus and stomach
B) pharynx and anal canal
C) pyloric, ileocecal, and internal anal sphincters
D) small and large intestines

B

74

Which of the following structures neither enters nor leaves the porta hepatis?
A) hepatic veins
B) branches of hepatic portal vein
C) branches of hepatic artery
D) hepatic ducts

A

75

The parietal cells in the stomach produce
A) mucin.
B) pepsin.
C) intrinsic factor and HCl.
D) secretin.

C

76

Which of the following is not an accessory digestive organ?
A) teeth
B) salivary gland
C) liver
D) spleen

D

77

In most cases, the accessory pancreatic duct drains into the
A) common bile duct.
B) common hepatic duct.
C) duodenum.
D) jejunum.

C

78

The lining epithelium of the developing digestive tract (pharynx through anal canal) comes
from
A) ectoderm.
B) mesoderm.
C) endoderm.
D) neural crest.

C

79

The terminal portion of the small intestine is the
A) duodenum.
B) ileum.
C) jejunum.
D) pyloric sphincter.

B

80

The correct sequence of layers in the wall of the alimentary canal, from internal to external,
is
A) mucosa, muscularis, serosa, submucosa.
B) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.
C) serosa, muscularis, mucosa, submucosa.
D) submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis.

B

81

The layer of the digestive tube that contains abundant elastin plus blood vessels, lymphoid
nodules, and deep glands is the
A) adventitia.
B) submucosa.
C) muscularis.
D) serosa.

B

82

Which of the following statements about the large intestine is false?
A) It has no villi.
B) It exhibits external muscular bands called taeniae coli.
C) It is longer than the small intestine.
D) It has haustra.

C

83

The vermiform appendix is suspended from the cecum.

A) True

B) False

A

84

The terms taste bud and papillae are synonymous.

A) True

B) False

B

85

The lesser omentum directly attaches the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall.

A) True

B) False

B

86

The pancreas and duodenum are secondarily retroperitoneal organs.

A) True

B) False

A

87

Most of the ascending colon lies between the subcostal and transtubercular planes.

A) True

B) False

A

88

From the lumen outward, the layers of the gastrointestinal tract are mucosa, submucosa,
muscularis, serosa.

A) True

B) False

A

89

The most superficial layer of the esophagus is the serosa.

A) True

B) False

B

90

Smooth muscle fibers differ from skeletal muscle in that they do not contain contractile
myofilaments.

A) True

B) False

B

91

Stretching of the anal sphincter initiates the defecation reflex.

A) True

B) False

B

92

Villi are cytoplasmic projections on the surface of intestinal absorptive cells.

A) True

B) False

B

93

Chief cells of the gastric glands secrete pepsinogen.

A) True

B) False

A

94

Hepatic portal blood is mixed with blood from the hepatic artery in the liver.

A) True

B) False

A

95

The small intestines contain bacteria that synthesize some essential vitamins.

A) True

B) False

A

96

A gallstone lodged in the cystic duct may also cause blockage of the pancreas.

A) True

B) False

B

97

The sinusoids of the liver lobule receive blood from the portal arteriole and deliver blood to
the portal venule.

A) True

B) False

B


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