Exam 2 Questions

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1

All of the following normally enter the plant through the roots except ___.

carbon dioxide.

2

The seed coat's most important function is to provide:

desiccation resistance.

3

The ovary is most often located on/in the____.

carpel

4

An adult animal that possesses bilateral symmetry is most certainly also____.

triploblastic.

5

In terms of food capture, which sponge cell is most similar to the cnidocyte of a cnidarian?

choanocyte

6

If a plant is infected with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, what is the most probable effect on the plant?

It will likely grow faster.

7

Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as___.

suspension-feeding devices.

8

The key evolutionary innovation that distinguishes mammals from other chordates is:

milk

9

Which of the following is NOT a group within Bilatera based on DNA evidence?

Protostomia

10

Humans most frequently acquire trichinosis by___.

eating undercooked pork.

11

What do animals as diverse as corals and monkeys have in common?

presence of Hox genes

12

A sponge's structural materials (spicules, spongin) are manufactured by the___.

amoebocytes

13

Why are humans considered members of the chordates when we have no notochord, pharyngeal slits, or muscular post-anal tail?

These chordate traits appear in human embryos

14

Plants contain meristems whose major function is to___.

produce more cells.

15

The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a____.

flagellated protist.

16

What should animals with radial symmetry be better able to do than those with bilateral symmetry?

deal effectively with food distributed homogeneously 360°

17

Both monkeys and apes are located in all of the following groups except?

Hominins

18

The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having___.

true tissues or no tissues.

19

In which era did the genus Homo arise?

Cenozoic

20

What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of animals originated, from earliest to most recent?
tetrapods (1)
vertebrates (2)
deuterostomes (3)
amniotes (4)
bilaterians (5)

5 → 3 → 2 → 1 → 4

21

In flowering plants, pollen is released from the____.

anther.

22

The apical bud of a shoot produces ________, resulting in the inhibition of lateral bud growth.

auxin

23

Which distinction is given more emphasis by the morphological phylogeny than by the molecular phylogeny?

protostome and deuterostome

24

The distinction between sponges and other animal phyla is based mainly on the absence versus the presence of___.

true tissues.

25

Dwarf mistletoe grows on many pine trees in the Rockies. Although the mistletoe is green, it is probably not sufficiently active in photosynthesis to produce all the sugar it needs. The mistletoe also produces haustoria. Thus, dwarf mistletoe growing on pine trees is best classified as____.

a parasite.

26

All of the following floral parts are involved in pollination or fertilization except

sepals

27

Which of the following are true of most angiosperms?

They have a triploid endosperm within the seed and an ovary that becomes a fruit.

28

A plant that has been stored in the dark for a long period of time is placed in a growth chamber with a normal light-dark cycle. The process of______occurs, where the plant starts “greening”. This process is initiated by____within plant cells.

de-etiolation, phytochrome

29

In the life cycle of an angiosperm, which of the following stages is diploid?

microsporocyte

30

Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?

It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.

31

Bilateral symmetry is LEAST associated with:

the sessile condition

32

What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal is that coelomates:

have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.

33

In the diagram of early embryonic development in animals below, which letter correctly identifies the archenteron?

C (yellowinsideblue)

34

What are epiphytes?

plants that grow on other plants but do not obtain nutrients from their hosts

35

In the drawing of a sponge below, the following letters denote which sponge parts:

A = mesohyl, B = osculum, C = choanocyte, D = spicules, E = amoebocytes

36

The species in the photograph below belongs to which group (stingray)?

Chondrichthyes

37

What distinguishes complete metamorphosis from incomplete metamorphosis in insects?

the radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages

38

Under which conditions would asexual plants have the greatest advantage over sexual plants?

a relatively constant environment with infrequent disturbances

39

An example of a mutualistic association between a plant and a fungus would be

mycorrhizae

40

Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?

nervous conduction and muscular movement

41

Planarians lack dedicated respiratory and circulatory systems because___.

none of their cells are far removed from the gastrovascular cavity or from the external environment.

42

The species in the photograph below belongs to which group (anemone)?

Cnidaria

43

What is typically the result of double fertilization in angiosperms?

Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed.

44

The plant hormone involved in aging and ripening of fruit is____.

ethylene

45

True or false. Porifera are diploblasts.

False

46

All of the following are correct matches for the name of a taxonomic group containing humans and a distinguishing characteristics of that group except?

class Mammalia: placenta joining fetus and mother, development entirely within uterus

47

Plants growing in a partially dark environment will grow toward light in a response called phototropism. Which of the following statements is true regarding phototropism?

Auxin causes a growth increase on one side of the stem.

48

Which of the following belongs to the lobe-fin clade?

tetrapods

49

In the drawing of an amniotic egg below, identify the letters that correctly associate with theallantois
and chorion (letter order DOES matter).

B, C (tip of veiny thing, inner shell)

50

Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?

birds

51

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?

lancelets

52

Which clade in the phylum Cnidaria includes "jellies" with boxlike (as opposed to rounded) medusae, as illustrated in the species below?

Cubozoa

53

In what way do nitrogen compounds differ from other minerals needed by plants?

Only nitrogen requires the action of bacteria to be made available to plants.

54

The group known as Lophotrochozoa includes about 18 animal phyla and has a huge diversity of body forms. On what basis are these animals thought to be in the same clade?

DNA sequences

55

A fruit is most commonly____.

a mature ovary.

56

You are a nature photographer on assignment in Australia. To your surprise and delight, you observe the mammalian species in the photograph below laying eggs. This species must be a:

monotreme

57

In flowering plants, a mature male gametophyte contains

two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus.

58

Vertebrates and tunicates share___.

a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.

59

The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes___.

provides for regulation of buoyancy.

60

Multicellular organisms occur in several clades and dominate three:

animals, fungi, plants

61

Which of the following is true of members of the phylum Cnidaria?

They may use a gastrovascular cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton.


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