The Human Body in Health and Disease

Helpfulness: +11
Set Details Share
created 7 years ago by jncanf
6,879 views
Overview of the human body in health and disease. I did the whole chapter, so there wont be any terms missing or parts skipped.
updated 7 years ago by jncanf
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year, Graduate school, Professional
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

ANATOMY

IS THE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURES OF THE BODY

2

PHYSIOLOGY

IS THE STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE STRUCTURES OF THE BODY

3

PHYSI-

NATURE OR PHYSICAL

4

-OLOGY

THE STUDY OF

5

ANATOMIC POSITION

card image

DESCRIBES THE BODY, ASSUMING THAT:
1. STANDING STRAIGHT, FACING FORWARD
2. HOLDING ARMS AT SIDES, HANDS TURNED TO THE FRONT.

6

BODY PLANES

IMAGINARY VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINES USED TO DIVIDE THE BODY INTO SECTIONS FOR DESCRIPTIVE PURPOSES. ALIGNED TO BODY IN ANATOMIC POSITION.

7

VERTICAL PLANE

card image

UP AND DOWN PLANE THAT IS A RIGHT ANGLE TO THE HORIZON.

8

MIDSAGITTAL PLANE (MIDLINE)

card image

SAGITTAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY INTO EQUAL LEFT AND RIGHT HALVES.

9

SAGITTAL PLANE

card image

VERTICAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES BODY INTO UNEQUAL LEFT AND RIGHT POSITIONS.

10

FRONTAL PLANE (CORONAL PLANE)

card image

VERTICAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES THAT BODY INTO ANTERIOR (FRONT) AND POSTERIOR (BACK) PORTIONS.

11

HORIZONTAL PLANE

card image

FLAT CROSSWISE PLANE

12

TRANSVERSE PLANE

card image

HORIZONTAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY INTO SUPERIOR (UPPER) AND INFERIOR (LOWER) PORTIONS. CAN BE AT THE WAIST OR ANY OTHER LEVEL ACROSS THE BODY.

13

SKELETAL SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: BONES, JOINTS, AND CARTILAGE

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: SUPPORTS AND SHAPES THE BODY. PROTECTS THE INTERNAL ORGANS. FORMS SOME BLOOD CELLS AND STORES MINERALS.

14

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES:MUSCLES, FASCIA, AND TENDONS

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: HOLDS THE BODY ERECT. MAKES MOVEMENT POSSIBLE. MOVES BODY FLUIDS AND GENERATES BODY HEAT.

15

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: HEART, ARTERIES, VEINS, CAPILLARIES, AND BLOOD.

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGHOUT THE BODY TO TRANSPORT OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS TO CELLS AND TO CARRY WASTE PRODUCTS TO THE KIDNEYS WHERE WASTE IS REMOVED TO FILTRATION.

16

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: LYMPH, LYMPHATIC VESSELS, AND LYMPH NODES

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: REMOVES AND TRANSPORTS WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE FLUID BETWEEN THE CELLS. DESTROYS HARMFUL SUBSTANCES SUCH AS PATHOGENS AND CANCER CELLS IN THE LYMPH NODES. RETURNS THE FILTERED LYMPH TO THE BLOODSTREAM WHERE IT BECOMES PLASMA AGAIN.

17

IMMUNE SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: TONSILS, SPLEEN, THYMUS, SKIN, AND SPECIALIZED BLOOD CELLS

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: DEFENDS THE BODY AGAINST INVADING PATHOGENS AND ALLERGENS.

18

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: NOSE, PHARYNX, TRACHEA, LARYNX, AND LUNGS

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: BRINGS OXYGEN INTO THE BODY FOR TRANSPORTATION TO THE CELLS. REMOVES CARBON DIOXIDE AND SOME WATER WASTE FROM THE BODY.

19

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: MOUTH, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINES, LARGE INTESTINES, LIVER, AND PANCREAS.

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: DIGESTS INGESTED FOOD SO IT CAN BE ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM . ELIMINATES SOLID WASTE.

20

URINARY SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: KIDNEYS, URETERS, URINARY BLADDER, AND URETHRA

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: FILTERS BLOOD TO REMOVE WASTE. MAINTAINS THE ELECTROLYTE AND FLUID BALANCE WITHIN THE BODY.

21

NERVOUS SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: NERVES, BRAIN, AND SPINAL CORD

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: COORDINATES THE RECEPTION OF STIMULI. TRANSMITS MESSAGES THROUGHOUT THE BODY.

22

SPECIAL SENSES

MAJOR STRUCTURES: EYES AND EARS

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: RECEIVE VISUAL AND AUDITORY INFORMATION AND TRANSMIT IT TO THE BRAIN.

23

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: SKIN, SEBACEOUS GLANDS, AND SWEAT GLANDS

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: PROTECTS THE BODY AGAINST INVASION BY BACTERIA. AIDS IN REGULATING THE BODY TEMPERATURE AND WATER CONTENT.

24

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: ADRENAL GLANDS, GONADS, PANCREAS, PARATHYROIDS, PINEAL, PITUITARY, THYMUS, AND THYROID

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATES ALL BODY FUNCTIONS

25

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

MAJOR STRUCTURES: MALE- PENIS AND TESTICLES
FEMALE- OVARIES, UTERUS, AND VAGINA

MAJOR FUNCTIONS: PRODUCES NEW LIFE

26

VENTRAL

REFERS TO THE FRONT, OR BELLY SIDE, OF THE ORGAN OR BODY

27

VENTR-

BELLY SIDE OF THE BODY

28

-AL

PERTAINING TO

29

DORSAL

BACK OF ORGAN OR BODY

30

DORS-

BACK OF BODY

31

ANTERIOR

SITUATED IN THE FRONT, ON THE FRONT OR FORWARD PART PART OF ORGAN. ANTERIOR IS ALSO USED IN REFERENCE TO THE VENTRAL SURFACE OF THE BODY.

32

ANTER-

FRONT OR BEFORE

33

-IOR

PERTAINING TO

34

POSTERIOR

SITUATED IN THE BACK. BACK PART OF THE ORGAN. ALSO USED IN REFERENCE TO THE DORSAL SURFACE OF THE BODY.

35

POSTER-

BACK OR TOWARD THE BACK

36

SUPERIOR

UPPERMOST, ABOVE, OR TOWARD THE HEAD.

37

INFERIOR

LOWERMOST, BELOW, OR TOWARD THE FEET.

38

CEPHALIC

TOWARD THE HEAD

39

CEPHAL-

HEAD

40

CAUDAL

TOWARD THE LOWER PART OF THE BODY

41

CAUD-

TAIL OR LOWER PART OF THE BODY

42

PROXIMAL

SITUATED NEAREST THE MIDLINE OR BEGINNING OF THE BODY STRUCTURE.

43

DISTAL

SITUATED FARTHEST FROM THE MIDLINE OR BEGINNING OF THE BODY STRUCTURE.

44

MEDIAL

MEANS THE DIRECTION TOWARD, OR NEARER, THE MIDLINE.

45

LATERAL

MEANS THE DIRECTION TOWARD OR NEARER THE SIDE AND AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE.

46

BILATERAL

MEANS RELATING TO, OR HAVING, TWO SIDES

47

BODY CAVITIES

TWO MAJOR: DORSAL AND VENTRAL CAVITIES. ARE SPACES WITHIN THE BODY THAT CONTAIN AND PROTECT INTERNAL ORGANS.

48

DORSAL CAVITY

LOCATED ALONG THE BACK OF THE BODY AND HEAD, CONTAINS ORGANS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT COORDINATE BODY FUNCTIONS AND IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PORTIONS: CRANIAL AND SPINAL CAVITY

49

CRANIAL CAVITY

LOCATED WITHIN THE SKULL, SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE BRAIN

50

CRANIAL

PERTAINING TO THE SKULL

51

SPINAL CAVITY

LOCATED WITHIN THE SPINAL COLUMN, SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE SPINAL CORD.

52

VENTRAL CAVITY

LOCATED ALONG THE FRONT OF THE BODY, CONTAINS THE BODY ORGANS THAT MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS.

53

HOMEOSTASIS

IS THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH THE BODY MAINTAINS A CONSTANT INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.

54

HOME/O

MEANS CONSTANT

55

-STASIS

MEANS CONTROL

56

THORACIC CAVITY

CHEST CAVITY OR THORAX, SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE HEART AND THE LUNGS.

57

DIAPHRAGM

A MUSCLE THAT SEPARATES THE THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL CAVITIES.

58

ABDOMINAL CAVITY

CONTAINS PRIMARILY THE MAJOR ORGANS OF DIGESTION. REFERRED TO AS ABDOMEN.

59

PELVIC CAVITY

SPACE FORMED BY THE HIP BONES AND IT CONTAINS PRIMARILY THE ORGANS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS.

60

ABDOMINOPELVIC

THERE IS NO PHYSICAL DIVISION BETWEEN THE ABDOMINAL AND PELVIC CAVITIES. ALSO REFERES TO THESE TWO CAVITIES AS A SINGLE UNIT.

61

ABDOMIN/O

MEANS ABDOMEN

62

PELV

PELVIS

63

-IC

PERTAINING TO

64

INGUINAL

MEANS RELATING TO THE GROIN, REFERES TO THE ENTIRE LOWER AREA OF THE ABDOMEN, THIS INCLUDES THE GROIN.

65

GROIN

THE CREASE AT THE JUNCTION OF THE TRUNK WITH THE UPPER END OF THE THIGH

66

REGIONS OF THE THORAX AND ABDOMEN

card image

ARE A DESCRIPTIVE SYSTEM THAT DIVIDES THE ABDOMEN AND LOWER PORTION OF THE THORAX INTO NINE PARTS:

67

HYPOCHONDRIAC REGIONS

LOCATED ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THE BODY AND ARE COVERED BY THE LOWER RIBS.

68

HYPO-

BELOW

69

CHONDR/I

CARTILAGE

70

HYPOCHONDRIAC

MEANS BELOW THE RIBS. ALSO DESCRIBES AN INDIVIDUAL WITH AN ABNORMAL CONCERN ABOUT HIS OR HER HEALTH.

71

EPIGASTRIC REGION

LOCATED ABOVE THE STOMACH

72

EPI-

MEANS ABOVE

73

GASTR

STOMACH

74

LUMBAR REGION

ARE LOCATED ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES NEAR THE INWARD CURVE OF THE SPINE

75

LUMB

MEANS LOWER BACK

76

LUMBAR

DESCRIBES THE PART OF THE BACK BETWEEN THE RIBS AND THE PELVIS

77

UNBILICAL REGION

SURROUNDS THE UMBILICUS WHICH IS COMMONLY KNOWN AS THE BELLY BUTTON OR NAVAL. THIS PIT IN THE CENTER OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL MARKS THE POINT WHERE THE UMBILICAL CORD WAS ATTACHED BEFORE BIRTH.

78

ILIAC REGIONS

ARE LOCATED IN THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OVER THE HIP BONES. THE ILIAC REGION IS NAMED FOR THE WIDE PORTION OF THE HIP BONE.

79

ILI

MEANS HIP BONE

80

HYPOGASTRIC REGION

LOCATED BELOW THE STOMACH

81

QUADRANTS OF THE ABDOMEN

card image

DESCRIBING WHERE AN ABDOMINAL ORGAN OR PAIN IS LOCATED IS MADE EASIER BY DIVIDING THE ABDOMEN INTO FOUR IMAGINARY QUADRANTS.

82

QUADRANT

MEANS DIVIDED INTO FOUR

83

THE PERITONEUM

IS A MULTILAYERED MEMBRANE THAT PROTECTS AND HOLDS THE ORGANS IN PLACE WITHIN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.

84

MEMBRANE

IS A THIN LAYER OF TISSUE THAT COVERS A SURFACE, LINES A CAVITY, OR DIVIDES A SPACE OR ORGAN

85

PARIETAL PERITONEUM

IS THE OUTER LAYER OF THE PERITONEUM THAT LINES THE INTERIOR OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL

86

PARIETAL

MEANS CAVITY WALL

87

VISCERAL PERITONEUM

IS THE INNER LAYER OF THE PERITONEUM THAT SURROUNDS THE ORGANS OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.

88

VISCERAL

RELATING TO THE INTERNAL ORGANS

89

MESENTERY

IS A FUSED DOUBLE LAYER OF THE PARIETAL PERITONEUM THAT ATTACHES PARTS OF THE INTESTINE TO THE INTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL.

90

RETROPERITONEAL

MEANS LOCATED BEHIND THE PERITONEUM

91

RETRO-

MEANS BEHIND

92

PERITON

MEANS PERITONEUM

93

-EAL

PERTAINING TO

94

PERITONITIS

IS INFLAMMATION OF THE PERITONEUM

95

-ITIS

MEANS INFLAMMATION

96

STRUCTURES OF THE BODY

THE BODY IS MADE UP OF INCREASING LARGER, AND MORE COMPLEX STRUCTURAL UNITS. FROM SMALLER TO LARGEST THESE ARE: CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, AND THE BODY SYSTEMS.

97

CELLS

ARE THE BASIC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF THE BOSY. CELLS ARE SPECIALIZED AND GROUPED TOGETHER TO FORM TISSUES AND ORGANS.

98

CYTOLOGY

IS THE STUDY OF THE ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL.

99

CYT

MEANS CELL

100

THE STRUCTURE OF CELLS: CELL MEMBRANE

IS THE TISSUE THAT SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE CONTENTS OF THE CELL BE SEPARATING THEM FROM ITS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.

101

THE STRUCTURE OF CELLS: CYTOPLASM

IS THE MATERIAL WITHIN THE CELL MEMBRANE THAT IS "NOT" PART OF THE NUCLEUS.

102

-PLASM

MEANS FORMATIVE MATERIAL OF CELLS

103

THE STRUCTURE OF CELLS: NUCLEUS

IS SURROUNDED BY THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE, IS A STRUCTURE WITHIN THE CELL THAT HAS TWO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS: 1. IT CONTROLS THE ACTIVITIES OF THE CELL, AND 2. IT HELPS THE CELL DIVIDE.

104

STEM CELLS

STEM CELLS DIFFER FROM OTHER KINDS OF CELL IN THE BODY BECAUSE OF TWO CHARACTERISTICS:
1. STEM CELLS ARE UNSPECIALIZED CELLS THAT ARE ABLE TO RENEW THEMSELVES FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME BY CELL DIVISION. THIS IS IN CONTRAST TO OTHER TYPES OF CELLS THAT HAVE A SPECIALIZED ROLE AND DIE AFTER A DETERMINED LIFESPAN.
2. UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS STEM CELLS CAN BE TRANSFORMED INTO CELLS WITH SPECIAL FUNCTIONS SUCH AS THE CELLS OF THE HEART MUSCLE THAT MAKE THE HEARTBEAT POSSIBLE OR THE SPECIALIZED CELLS OF THE PANCREAS THAT ARE CAPABLE OF PRODUCING INSULIN.

STEM CELLS POTENTIALLY HAVE MANY THERAPEUTIC USES, INCLUDING BEING TRANSPLANTED FROM ONE INDIVIDUAL TO ANOTHER. CELLS FOR THIS PURPOSE ARE HARVESTED FROM THE HEMOPOIETIC (BLOOD FORMING) TISSUE OF THE DONORS BONE MARROW. HOWEVER UNLESS THERE IS AN EXCELLENT MATCH BETWEEN THE DONOR AND RECIPIENT, THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF REJECTION KNOWN AS GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE.

105

ADULT STEM CELLS

ALSO KNOWN AS SOMATIC STEM CELLS, ARE UNDIFFERENTIATED CELLS FOUND AMONG DIFFERENTIATED CELLS IN A TISSUE OR ORGAN. NORMALLY THE PRIMARY ROLE OF THESE CELLS IS TO MAINTAIN AND REPAR THE TISSUE IN WHICH THEY ARE FORMED.

106

UNDIFFERENTIATED

MEANS NOT HAVING A SPECIALIZED FUNCTION OR STRUCTURE.

107

DIFFERENTIATED

MEANS HAVE A SPECIALIZED FUNCTION OR STRUCTURE

108

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

ARE UNDIFFERENTIATED CELLS THAT ARE UNLIKE ANY SPECIFIC ADULT CELL; HOWEVER, THEY HAVE THE IMPORTANT ABILITY TO FORM ANY ADULT CELL.

109

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

1. THESE CELLS CAN PROLIFERATE (GROW RAPIDLY) INDEFINITELY IN A LABORATORY, AND COULD THEREFORE POTENTIALLY PROVIDE A SOURCE FOR ADULT MUSCLE, LIVER, BONE, OR BLOOD CELLS.
2. BECAUSE THESE CELLS ARE MORE PRIMITIVE THAN ADULT STEM CELLS, AN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT DOES NOT REQUIRE AS PERFECT A MATCH BETWEEN THE PATIENT AND DONOR AS THE TRANSPLANTATION OF ADULT STEM CELLS.

110

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

3. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS COME FROM THE CORD BLOOD FOUND IN THE UMBILICAL CORD AND PLACENTA OF A NEWBORN INFANT. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS FROM CORD BLOOD CAN BE HARVESTED AT THE TIME OF BIRTH WITHOUT DANGER TO MOTHER OR CHILD. THESE CELLS ARE KEPT FROZEN UNTIL NEEDED FOR TREATMENT PURPOSES.
4. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS CAN ALSO BE OBTAINED FROM SURPLUS EMBRYOS PRODUCED BY IN VITRO (TEST TUBE) FERTILIZATION. WHICH THE INFORMED CONSENT OF THE DONOR COUPLE, STEM CELLS OBTAINED IN THIS MANNER ARE BEING USED FOR IMPORTANT MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.

111

GENETICS

THE STUDY OF HOW GENES ARE TRANSFERRED FROM PARENTS TO THEIR CHILDREN AND THE ROLE OF GENES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE.

112

GENE

A FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF HEREDITY. GENES CONTROL HEREDITARY DISORDERS AND ALL PHYSICAL TRAITS SUCH AS HAIR, SKIN, AND EYE COLOR.
GENE- MEANS PRODUCING

113

-TICS

PERTAINING TO

114

GENETICIST

A SPECIALIST IN THE GENENTIC FIELD

115

DOMINANT AND RECESSIVE GENES

EACH NEWLY FORMED INDIVIDUAL RECEIVES TWO GENES OF EACH GENETIC TRAIT: ONE FROM THE FATHER AND ONE FROM THE MOTHER.

116

DOMINANT GENE

IS INHERITED FROM EITHER PARENT, THE OFFSPRING WILL INHERIT THAT GENETIC CONDITION OR CHARACTERISTIC.

117

RECESSIVE GENE

WHEN THE SAME RECESSIVE GENE IS INHERITED FROM BOTH PARENTS, THE OFFSPRING WILL HAVE THAT CONDITION. FOR EXAMPLE, SICKLE CELL ANEMIA IS A GROUP OF INHERITED RED BLOOD CELL DISORDERS THAT ARE TRANSMITTED BY A RECESSIVE GENE. WHEN THIS GENE IS TRANSMITTED BY BOTH PARENTS THE CHILD WILL HAVE SICKLE CELL ANEMIA.

WHEN A RECESSIVE GENE IS INHERITED FROM ONLY ONE PARENT, AND A NORMAL GENE IS INHERITED FOR THE OTHER PARENT, THE OFFSPRING WILL NOT HAVE THE CONDITION. ALTHOUGH THE CHILD DOESN'T HAVE SICKLE CELL ANEMIA THEY WILL HAVE THE TRAIT AND CAN PASS IT TO THEIR CHILDREN.

118

THE HUMAN GENOME

A GENOME IS THE COMPLETE SET OF GENETIC INFORMATION OF AN INDIVIDUAL.

119

CHROMOSOMES

ARE THE GENETIC STRUCTURES LOCATED WITHIN THE NUCLEUS OF EACH CELL. THEY ARE MADE UP OF THE DNA MOLECULES CONTAINING THE BODY'S GENES. PACKAGING GENETIC INFORMATION INTO CHROMOSOMES HELPS A CELL KEEP A LARGE AMOUNT OF GENETIC INFORMATION NEAT, ORGANIZED, AND COMPACT. EACH CHROMOSOME CONTAINS ABOUT 100,000 GENES.

120

SOMATIC CELL

ANY CELL IN THE BODY EXCEPT GAMETES (SEX CELLS). THEY CONTAIN 46 CHROMOSOMES ARRANGED INTO 23 PAIRS. THERE ARE 22 IDENTICAL PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES, PLUS ANOTHER PAIR. IN A FEMALE THIS PAIR CONSISTS OF XX CHROMOSOMES, AND IN A MALE THIS PAIR CONSISTS OF AN XY CHROMOSOMES. IT IS THIS CHROMOSOME PAIR THAT DETERMINES THE SEX OF THE INDIVIDUAL.

121

SOMATIC

MEANS PERTAINING TO THE BODY IN GENERAL.

122

SEX CELL

(SPERM OR EGG) ALSO KNOWN AS A GAMETE, IS THE ONLY TYPE OF CELL THAT DOES NOT CONTAIN 46 CHROMOSOMES. INSTEAD EACH OVUM (EGG) OR SPERM HAS 23 SINGLE CHROMOSOMES. IN A FEMALE, ONE WILL BE A X CHROMOSOME. IN A MALE ONE OF THESE WILL BE A X OR A Y CHROMOSOME. WHEN A SPERM AND OVUM JOIN, THE NEWLY FORMED OFFSPRING RECEIVES 23 CHROMOSOMES FROM EACH PARENT, FOR A TOTAL OF 46.

IT IS THE X OR Y CHROMOSOME FROM THE FATHER THAT DETERMINES THE GENDER OF THE CHILD. A DEFECT IN CHROMOSOMES CAN LEAD TO BIRTH DEFECTS. EXAMPLE, DOWN SYNDROME HAVE 47 INSTEAD OF THE USUAL 46.

123

DNA

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID. THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE DNA MOLECULE, WHICH IS LOCATED ON THE PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES IN THE NUCLEUS OF EACH CELL, IS THE SAME FOR ALL LIVING ORGANISMS. HUMAN DNA CONTAINS THOUSANDS OF GENES THAT PROVIDE THE INFORMATION ESSENTIAL FOR HEREDITY, DETERMINING OUR PHYSICAL APPEARANCE, DISEASE RISKS, AND OTHER TRAITS

124

DNA STRUCTURE AND OTHER INFORMATION 1

1. DNA IS PACKAGED IN A CHROMOSOME AS TWO SPIRALING STRANDS THAT TWIST TOGETHER TO FORM A DOUBLE HELIX. A HELIX IS A SHAPE TWISTED LIKE A SPIRAL STAIRCASE. A DOUBLE HELIX CONSISTS OF TWO OF THESE STRANDS TWISTED TOGETHER.
2. DNA IS FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS OF ALL TYPES OF CELLS EXCEPT RED BLOOD CELLS (ERYTHROCYTES). THE DIFFERENCE HERE IS DUE TO THE FACT THAT ERYTHROCYTES DO NOT HAVE A NUCLEUS.

125

DNA STRUCTURE AND OTHER INFORMATION 2

3. THE DNA FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL IS DIFFERENT AND NO TWO DNA PATTERNS ARE EXACTLY THE SAME. THE ONLY EXCEPTION TO THIS RULE IS IDENTICAL TWINS, WHICH ARE FORMED FROM ONE FERTILIZED EGG THAT DIVIDES. ALTHOUGH THEIR DNA IS IDENTICAL, THESE TWINS DO DEVELOP FINGERPRINTS AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS THAT MAKE EACH OTHER UNIQUE.
4. A VERY SMALL SAMPLE DNA, SUCH AS FROM HUMAN HAIR OR TISSUE CAN BE USED TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUALS IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS, PATERNITY SUITS, OR GENEALOGY RESEARCH.

126

GENETIC MUTATION

IS A CHANGE OF THE SEQUENCE OF A DNA MOLECULE. POTENTIAL CAUSES OF GENETIC MUTATION INCLUDE EXPOSURE TO RADIATION OR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION.

127

SOMATIC CELL MUTATION

IS A CHANGE WITHIN THE CELL OF THE BODY. THESE CHANGES AFFECT THE INDIVIDUAL BUT CANNOT BE TRANSMITTED TO THE NEXT GENERATION.

128

GAMETIC CELL MUTATION

IS A CHANGE WITHIN THE GENES IN THE GAMETIC (SEX CELL) THAT CAN BE TRANSMITTED BY A PARENT TO HIS OR HER CHILDREN.

129

GENETIC ENGINEERING

IS THE MANIPULATING OR SPLICING OF GENES FOR SCIENTIFIC OR MEDICAL PURPOSES. THE PRODUCTION OF HUMAN INSULIN FROM MODIFIED BACTERIA IS AN EXAMPLE OF ONE RESULT OF GENETIC ENGINEERING.

130

GENETIC DISORDER

ALSO KNOWN AS A HEREDITARY DISORDER, IS A PATHOLOGICAL CONDITION CAUSED BY AN ABSENT OR DEFECTIVE GENE. SOME GENETIC DISORDERS ARE OBVIOUS AT BIRTH, OTHERS MAY MANIFEST (BECOME EVIDENT) AT ANY TIME IN LIFE.

131

CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF)

A GENETIC DISORDER THAT IS PRESENT AT BIRTH AND AFFECTS BOTH THE RESPIRATORY AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS

132

DOWN SYNDROME (DS)

A GENETIC VARIATION THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHARACTERISTICS FACIAL APPEARANCE, LEARNING DISABILITIES, AND PHYSICAL ABNORMALITIES SUCH AS HEART VALVE DISEASE.

133

HEMOPHILIA

A GROUP OF HEREDITARY BLEEDING DISORDERS IN WHICH A BLOOD-CLOTTING FACTOR IS MISSING. THIS BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDER IS CHARACTERIZED BY SPONTANEOUS HEMORRHAGES OR SEVERE BLEEDING FOLLOWING AN INJURY.

134

HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE (HD)

IS A GENETIC DISORDER THAT IS PASSED FROM PARENT TO CHILD. EACH CHILD OF A PARENT WITH THE GENE FOR HD HAS A 50/50 CHANCE OF INHERITING THIS DEFECTIVE GENE. THIS CONDITION CAUSES NERVE DEGENERATION WITH SYMPTOMS THAT MOST OFTEN APPEAR MIDLIFE. THIS DAMAGE EVENTUALLY RESULTS IN UNCONTROLLED MOVEMENTS AND THE LOSS OF SOME MENTAL ABILITIES.

135

DEGENERATION

MEANS WORSENING CONDITION

136

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

TERM USED TO DESCRIBE A GROUP OF GENETIC DISEASES THAT ARE CHARACTERIZED BY PROGRESSIVE WEAKNESS AND DEGENERATION OF THE SKELETAL MUSCLES THAT CONTROL MOVEMENT.

137

PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU)

GENETIC DISORDER IN WHICH THE ESSENTIAL DIGESTIVE ENZYME PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE IS MISSING. PKU CAN BE DETECTED BY A BLOOD TEST PERFORMED ON INFANTS AT BIRTH. WITH CAREFUL DIETARY SUPERVISION, CHILDREN BORN WITH PKU CAN LEAD NORMAL LIVES. WITHOUT EARLY DETECTION AND TREATMENT PKU CAUSES SEVERE MENTAL RETARDATION.

138

TAY-SACHS DISEASE

IS A FATAL GENETIC DISORDER IN WHICH HARMFUL QUANTITIES OF A FATTY SUBSTANCE BUILD UP IN TISSUES AND NERVE CELLS IN THE BRAIN. BOTH PARENTS HAVE TO HAVE THE MUTATED GENE TO AFFECT OFFSPRING.

139

TISSUE

A GROUP OR LAYER OF SIMILARLY SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT JOIN TOGETHER TO PERFORM CERTAIN SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS. THE FOUR MAIN TYPES ARE EPITHELIAL, CONNECTIVE, MUSCLE, AND NERVE.

140

HISTOLOGY

STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION, AND FUNCTION OF TISSUES

141

HIST

MEANS TISSUE

142

HISTOLOGIST

A SPECIALIST IN THE STUDY OF THE ORGANIZATION OF TISSUES AT ALL LEVELS.

143

EPITHELIAL TISSUES

FORM A PROTECTIVE COVERING FOR ALL THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SURFACES OF THE BODY. THEY ALSO FORM GLANDS.

144

EPITHELIUM

SPECIALIZED EPITHELIAL TISSUE THAT FORMS THAT EPIDERMIS OF THE SKIN AND THE SURFACE LAYER OF MUCOUS MEMBRANES.

145

EPIDERMIS

OUTER LAYER OF THE SKIN

146

ENDOTHELIUM

IS THE SPECIALIZED EPITHELIAL TISSUE THAT LINES THE BLOOD AND LYMPH VESSELS, BODY CAVITIES, GLANDS, AND ORGANS.

147

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

SUPPORT AND CONNECT ORGANS AND OTHER BODY TISSUES. THE FOUR KINDS ARE: DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, ADIPOSE TISSUE, LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, LIQUID CONNECTIVE TISSUES.

148

DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

SUCH AS BONE AND CARTILAGE, FORM THE JOINTS AND FRAMEWORK OF THE BODY.

149

ADIPOSE TISSUE

ALSO KNOWN AS FAT, PROVIDES PROTECTIVE PADDING, INSULATION, AND SUPPORT

150

ADIP

MEANS FAT

151

-OSE

PERTAINING TO

152

LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

SURROUNDS VARIOUS ORGANS AND SUPPORTS BOTH NERVE CELLS AND BLOOD VESSELS.

153

LIQUID CONNECTIVE TISSUES

BLOOD AND LYMPH, THEY TRANSPORT NUTRIENTS AND WASTE PRODUCTS THROUGHOUT THE BODY.

154

MUSCLE TISSUE

CONTAINS CELLS WITH THE SPECIALIZED ABILITY TO CONTRACT AND RELAX.

155

NERVE TISSUE

CONTAINS CELLS WITH THE SPECIALIZED ABILITY TO REACT TO STIMULI AND TO CONDUCT ELECTRICAL IMPULSES.

156

APLASIA

THE DEFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT, OR THE CONGENITAL ABSENCE OF AN ORGAN OR TISSUE

157

A-

MEANS WITHOUT

158

-PLASIA

FORMATION

159

HYPOPLASIA

INCOMPLETE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORGAN OR TISSUE USUALLY DUE TO A DEFICIENCY IN THE NUMBER OF CELLS.

160

HYPO-

DEFICIENT

161

ANAPLASIA

A CHANGE IN THE STRUCTURE OF CELLS AND IN THERE ORIENTATION TO EACH OTHER. THIS ABNORMAL CELL DEVELOPMENT IS CHARACTERISTIC OF TUMOR FORMATION IN CANCERS.

162

ANA-

EXCESSIVE

163

DYSPLASIA

ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OR GROWTH OF CELLS, TISSUES, OR ORGANS.

164

DYS-

MEANS BAD

165

HYPERPLASIA

ENLARGEMENT OF AN ORGAN OR TISSUE BECAUSE OF AN ABNORMAL INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CELLS IN THE TISSUES.

166

HYPER-

MEANS EXCESSIVE

167

HYPERTROPHY

GENERAL INCREASE IN THE BULK OF A BODY PART OR ORGAN THAT IS DUE TO AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE, BUT NOT IN THE NUMBER, OF CELLS IN THE TISSUES. THIS ENLARGEMENT IS NOT DUE TO TUMOR FORMATION.

168

-TROPHY

MEANS DEVELOPMENT

169

GLAND

A GLAND IS A GROUP OF SPECIALIZED EPITHELIAL CELLS THAT ARE CAPABLE OF PRODUCING SECRETIONS. TWO MAJOR TYPES OF GLANDS ARE EXOCRINE AND ENDOCRINE

170

SECRETION

IS THE SUBSTANCE PRODUCED BY A GLAND.

171

EXOCRINE GLANDS

SUCH AS SWEAT GLANDS, SECRETE CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES INTO DUCTS THAT LEAS EITHER TO OTHER ORGANS OR OUT OF THE BODY.

172

EXO-

MEANS OUT OF

173

-CRINE

MEANS TO SECRETE

174

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

PRODUCE HORMONES, DO NOT HAVE DUCTS. THESE HORMONES ARE SECRETED DIRECTLY INTO THE BLOODSTREAM, WHICH ARE THEN TRANSPORTED TO ORGANS AND STRUCTURES THOUGH THE BODY.

175

ENDO-

MEANS WITHIN

176

ADENITIS

INFLAMMATION OF A GLAND

177

ADEN

MEANS GLAND

178

ADENOCARCINOMA

A MALIGNANT TUMOR THAT ORIGINATES IN GLANDULAR TISSUE

179

CARCIN

MEANS CANCEROUS

180

-OMA

TUMOR

181

ADENOMA

A BENIGN TUMOR THAT ARISES IN, OR RESEMBLES, GLANDULAR TISSUE

182

BENIGN

NOT LIFE THREATENING

183

ADENOMALACIA

ABNORMAL SOFTENING OF A GLAND

184

-MALACIA

ABNORMAL SOFTENING

185

ADENOSIS

ANY DISEASE CONDITION OF A GLAND

186

-OSIS

AN ABNORMAL CONDITION OR DISEASE

187

ADENOSCLEROSIS

ABNORMAL HARDENING OF A GLAND

188

-SCLEROSIS

ABNORMAL HARDENING

189

ADENECTOMY

SURGICAL REMOVAL OF A GLAND

190

-ECTOMY

SURGICAL REMOVAL

191

ORGAN

A BODY ORGAN IS A SOMEWHAT INDEPENDENT PART OF THE BODY THAT PERFORMS A SPECIFIC FUNCTION. FOR PURPOSES OF DESCRIPTION, THE RELATED TISSUES AND ORGANS ARE DESCRIBED AS BEING ORGANIZED INTO BODY SYSTEMS WITH SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS.

192

PATHOLOGY

THE STUDY OF THE NATURE AND CAUSE OF DISEASE THAT INVOLVES CHANGES IN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. ALSO MEANS A CONDITION PRODUCED BY DISEASE.

193

-PATHY

MEANS DISEASE

194

PATHOLOGIST

SPECIALIZES IN THE LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF TISSUE SAMPLES TO CONFIRM OR ESTABLISH A DIAGNOSIS. THESE TISSUE SPECIMENS CAN BE REMOVED IN BIOPSIES, DURING OPERATIONS, OR IN POSTMORTEM EXAMINATIONS.

195

POSTMORTEM

MEANS AFTER DEATH

196

AUTOPSY

POSTMORTEM EXAMINATION

197

ETIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF CAUSES OF DISEASE

198

ETI

MEANS CAUSE

199

PATHOGEN

A DISEASE PRODUCING MICROORGANISM SUCH AS A VIRUS

200

TRANSMISSION

THE SPREAD OF A DISEASE

201

CONTAMINATION

MEANS THAT A PATHOGEN IS POSSIBLY PRESENT. CONTAMINATION OCCURS THROUGH A LOCK OF PROPER HYGIENE STANDARDS OR BY FAILURE TO TAKE APPROPRIATE INFECTION CONTROL PRECAUTIONS.

202

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

KNOWN AS A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE, IS ANY CONDITION THAT IS TRANSMITTED FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER EITHER BY DIRECT OR BY INDIRECT CONTACT WITH CONTAMINATED OBJECTS.

203

COMMUNICABLE

MEANS CAPABLE OF BEING TRANSMITTED

204

INDIRECT CONTACT TRANSMISSION

REFERS TO SITUATIONS IN WHICH A SUSCEPTIBLE PERSON IS INFECTED BY CONTACT WITH A CONTAMINATED SURFACE

205

BLOOD-BORNE TRANSMISSION

THE SPREAD OF A DISEASE THROUGH CONTACT WITH BLOOD OR OTHER BODY FLUIDS THAT ARE CONTAMINATED WITH BLOOD. EXAMPLES ARE: HIV, HEPATITIS B, STDs

206

AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION

OCCURS THROUGH CONTACT WITH CONTAMINATED RESPIRATORY DROPLETS SPREAD BY A COUGH, OR SNEEZE. EXAMPLE: FLU, CLOD, MEASLES

207

FOOD-BORNE AND WATERBORNE TRANSMISSION

KNOWN AS FECAL-ORAL TRANSMISSION, IS CAUSED BY EATING OR DRINKING CONTAMINATED FOOD OR WATER THAT HAS NOT BEEN PROPERLY TREATED TO REMOVE CONTAMINATION OR KILL PATHOGENS THAT ARE PRESENT.

208

VECTOR-BORNE TRANSMISSION

THE SPREAD OF CERTAIN DISEASE DUE TO THE BITE OF A VECTOR. EXAMPLE: MALARIA AND WEST NILE VIRUS

209

VECTOR

MEANS INSECTS OR ANIMALS SUCH AS FLIES, MITES, FLEAS, TICKS, RATS, AND DOGS THAT ARE CAPABLE OF TRANSMITTING A DISEASE.

210

EPIDEMIOLOGIST

A SPECIALIST IN THE STUDY OF OUTBREAKS OR DISEASE WITHIN A POPULATION GROUP

211

EPI-

MEAN ABOVE

212

DEM

MEANS POPULATION

213

ENDEMIC

REFERS TO THE ONGOING PRESENCE OF A DISEASE WITHIN A POPULATION, GROUP, OR AREA

214

EPIDEMIC

A SUDDEN AND WIDESPREAD OUTBREAK OF A DISEASE WITHIN A SPECIFIC POPULATION GROUP OR AREA

215

PANDEMIC

REFERS TO AN OUTBREAK OF A DISEASE OCCURRING OVER A LARGE GEOGRAPHIC AREA, POSSIBLY WORLDWIDE.

216

PAN-

MEANS ENTIRE

217

FUNCTIONAL DISORDER

PRODUCES SYMPTOMS FOR WHICH NO PHYSIOLOGICAL OR ANATOMICAL CAUSE CAN BE IDENTIFIED.

218

IATROGENIC ILLNESS

AN UNFAVORABLE RESPONSE DUE TO PRESCRIBED MEDICAL TREATMENT

219

IDIOPATHIC DISORDER

AN ILLNESS WITHOUT KNOWN CAUSE

220

IDI/O

MEANS PECULIAR TO THE INDIVIDUAL

221

INFECTIOUS DISEASE

AN ILLNESS CAUSED BY LIVING PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS SUCH AS BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

222

NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION

A DISEASE ACQUIRED IN A HOSPITAL OR CLINICAL SETTING

223

NOSOCOMIAL

MEANS HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED

224

ORGANIC DISORDER

PRODUCES SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY DETECTABLE PHYSICAL CHANGES IN THE BODY.

225

CONGENITAL DISORDER

AN ABNORMAL CONDITION THAT EXISTS AT THE TIME OF BIRTH. THESE CONDITIONS CAN BE CAUSED BY A DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER BEFORE BIRTH, PRENATAL INFLUENCES, PREMATURE BIRTH, AND INJURIES DURING THE BIRTH PROCESS.

226

CONGENITAL

MEANS EXISTING AT BIRTH

227

DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER

ALSO KNOWN AS BIRTH DEFECT, CAN RESULT IN A ANOMALY OR MALFORMATION SUCH AS THE ABSENCE OF A LIMB OR THE PRESENCE OF AN EXTRA TOE.

228

ANOMALY

A DEVIATION FROM WHAT IS REGARDED AS NORMAL.

229

ATRESIA

CONGENITAL ABSENCE OF A NORMAL OPENING OF THE FAILURE OF A STRUCTURE TO BE TUBULAR.

230

ANAL ATRESIA

CONGENITAL ABSENCE OF THE OPENING AT THE BOTTOM END OF THE ANUS

231

PRENATAL INFLUENCES

ARE THE MOTHERS HEALTH, BEHAVIOR, AND THE PRENATAL MEDICAL CARE SHE DOES, OR DOES NOT, RECEIVE BEFORE DELIVERY

232

PRENATAL INFLUENCE EXAMPLES

1. PROBLEM WITH MOTHERS HEALTH: RUBELLA INFECTION. BIRTH DEFECTS CAN DEVELOP IF A PREGNANT WOMAN CONTRACTS THIS VIRAL INFECTION EARLY IN HER PREGNANCY.
2. PROBLEM CAUSED BY MOTHERS BEHAVIOR: FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (FAS) CAUSED BY THE MOTEHRS CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL DURING THE PREGNANCY. RESULTING CONDITION OF BABY IS CHARACTERIZED BY PHYSICAL AND BEHAVIORAL TRAITS, INCLUDING GROWTH ABNORMALITIES, MENTAL RETARDATION, BRAIN DAMAGE, AND SOCIALIZATION DIFFICULTIES.
3. PROBLEM CAUSED BY LACK OF PRENATAL MEDICAL CARE: PREMATURE DELIVERY OR A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABY.

233

PREMATURE BIRTH

BIRTH THAT OCCURS EARLIER THEN 37 WEEKS. CAN CAUSE SERIOUS HEALTH PROBLEMS BECAUSE THE BABY'S BODY SYSTEMS HAVE NOT HAD TIME TO FORM COMPLETELY. BREATHING PROBLEMS AND HEART PROBLEMS ARE COMMON.

234

BIRTH INJURIES

CONGENITAL DISORDERS THAT WERE NOT PRESENT BEFORE THE EVENTS SURROUNDING THE TIME OF BIRTH.

235

CEREBRAL PALSY

EXAMPLE OF BIRTH INJURY. THE RESULT OF BRAIN DAMAGE, CAN BE CAUSED BY PREMATURE BIRTH OR INADEQUATE OXYGEN TO THE BRAIN DURING THE BIRTH PROCESS.

236

AGING

NORMAL PROGRESSION OF THE LIFE CYCLE THAT WILL EVENTUALLY END IN DEATH. DURING THE LATTER PORTIONS OF LIFE, INDIVIDUALS BECOME INCREASINGLY AT HIGHER RISK OF DEVELOPING HEALTH PROBLEMS THAT ARE CHRONIC OR EVENTUALLY FATAL. AS THE AVERAGE LIFE SPAN IS BECOMING LONGER, A LARGER PORTION OF THE POPULATION IS AFFECTED BY SUCH DISORDERS RELATED TO AGING.

237

GERIATRICS

STUDY OF THE MEDICAL PROBLEM AND CARE OF THE AGED. ALSO KNOWN AS GERONTOLOGY. GERIATRICS IS THE PREFERRED NAME.

238

GERIATRICIAN

A PHYSICIAN WHO SPECIALIZES IN THE CARE OF OLDER PEOPLE. ALSO KNOWN AS GERONTOLOGIST. GERIATRICIAN IS THE PREFERRED NAME.

239

A

ANTERIOR

240

Abd, Abdo

ABDOMEN

241

anat

ANATOMY

242

CD

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

243

CH, chr

CHROMOSOME OR CHROMOSOMES

244

cyt

CYTOLOGY, CYTOPLASM

245

D

DORSAL

246

epid

EPIDEMIC

247

HEM, hemo

HEMOPHILIA

248

HIS, Histo, histol

HISTOLOGY

249

P

PHYSIOLOGY, POSTERIOR

250

umb

UMBILICAL

251

V, vent, ventr

VENTRAL


Related pages


combining form meaning gallbladderspinal skeletongriffith experimentnormal pco2 valuerepressible enzymeearwax is produced byspermatic ductsimmature erythrocytespleural cavity functiongeological catastrophespharmaceutical phase of drug actionexercise 10 the axial skeletonwbc averageholograms exist because ofskin and body membranes chapter 4anatomy of a sperm cellduration of systole and diastolecontrols the body with chemical molecules called hormonesis b6 water solublethe cytoplasm of a skeletal muscle fiber is called thegenital warts pussmicrobiology differential testssnowfall tv showanatomical terms worksheet answer keyvitamin d niacinenzymes that digest carbohydrates are produced by what organswhich of the following is a role of lymph nodessemitendinosus functionwilhelm wundt 1879pbr3 molecular geometryhow does osmosis differ from diffusionfomites and vectorsstimulates wbc productionrhizopus labeledassociative network memorywedding cake model of criminal justiceroot beer cocktail gallianofreshwater biome locations around worldwhat is myofilamentschizophrenia negative symptoms listhesi vocabulary practicethalamic neuronshow many nucleotides are needed to specify three amino acidsmedical suffix desisturbid brothwhat is a single allele traitmembranous urethra functionabbreviations for missesphysioex exercise 3 answerspiaget s stages of cognitive developmentlocation of thermoreceptorshesi a2 flashcard study systempsychoanalytic counselingafferent nerves definitioncat clavicleposition of sternumwhat is total peripheral resistancehow many chromosomes does a woman haveamino acid in a sentencecampbell biology chapter 18 reading guide answersmeristematic cells in plantsphotorespiration occurs mainly inprecipitation in the coniferous forestchapter 19 conceptual physics answersparts of appendicular skeletonwhich of the following statements is true regarding organic moleculeswhich of the following chemical agents is used for sterilizationitalian numbers 1-100 liststructure that encloses the nerve cordgram stain of micrococcus luteusinteractive physiology pearson