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Introduction to Medical Terminology

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created 7 years ago by jncanf
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Overview of Medical Terminology

updated 7 years ago by jncanf

Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year, Graduate school, Professional

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1

PRIMARY TERMS

APPEAR IN BOLDFACE.

2

SECONDARY TERMS

APPEAR IN ORANGE. SOME OF THESE TERMS ARE THE :ALSO KNOWN AS" NAMES OF CONDITIONS OR PROCEDURES.

3

THE FOUR TYPES OF WORD PARTS

1. A WORD ROOT: BASIC MEANING OF THE TERM. USUALLY, BUT NOT ALWAYS, INDICATES THE INVOLVED BODY PART.
2. COMBINING FORM: IS A WORD ROOT WITH A VOWEL AT THE END SO THAT A SUFFIX BEGINNING WITH A CONSONANT CAN BE ADDED.
3. SUFFIX: USUALLY, BUT NOT ALWAYS, INDICATES THE PROCEDURE, CONDITION, DISORDER, OR DISEASE. ALWAYS COMES AT THE END OF A WORD.
4. PREFIX: USUALLY, BUT NOT ALWAYS, INDICATES location, TIME, NUMBER, OR STATUS. ALWAYS COMES AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORD.

4

WORD PART GUIDELINES

1. A WORD ROOT CANNOT STAND ALONE. A SUFFIX MUST BE ADDED TO COMPLETE THE TERM.
2. RULES FOR CREATING A COMBINING FORM BY ADDING A VOWEL APPLY WHEN A SUFFIX BEGINNING WITH A CONSONANT IS ADDED TO A WORD ROOT.
3. WHEN A PREFIX IS NECESSARY, IT IS ALWAYS PLACES AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WORD.

5

COMBINING FORM VOWELS

1. THE LETTER "O" IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED COMBINING VOWEL.
2. WHEN A WORD ROOT IS SHOWN ALONE AS A COMBINING FORM, IT INDICATED A SLASH (/) AND THE COMBINING VOWEL.

6

RULES FOR USING COMBINING FORM VOWELS

1. COMBINING VOWEL IS USED WHEN THE SUFFIX BEGINS WITH A CONSONANT.
2. A COMBINING VOWEL IS NOT USED WHEN THE SUFFIX BEGINS WITH A VOWEL (A,E,I,O,U)
3. COMBINING VOWEL IS USED WHEN TWO OR MORE WORD ROOTS ARE JOINED.

7

MYEL/O

SPINAL CORD

8

MY/O

MUSCLE

9

OSTE/O

BONE

10

MYEL/O

BONE MARROW

11

NEUR/O

NERVE

12

ARTHR/O

JOINT

13

TONSILL/O

TONSILS

14

TONSILLITIS

INFLAMMATION OF THE TONSILS

15

-ITIS

INFLAMMATION

16

TONSILLECTOMY

THE SURGICAL REMOVAL OF THE TONSILS

17

CARNI

SKULL

18

-UM

NOUN ENDING

19

SUFFIXES AS NOUN ENDINGS

A NOUN IS A WORD THAT IS THE NAME OF A PERSON PLACE OR THING. IN MED. TERM. SOME SUFFIXES CHANGE THE WORD ROOT INTO A NOUN.
EXAMPLE: CRANIUM IS THE PORTION OF THE SKULL THAT ENCLOSES THE BRAIN.

OTHER SUFFIXES COMPLETE THE TERM BY CHANGING THE WORD ROOT INTO A NOUN.

20

SUFFIXES MEANING "PERTAINING TO"

AN ADJECTIVE IS A WORD THAT DEFINES OR DESCRIBES A THING. IN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY MANY SUFFIXES MEANING "PERTAINING TO" CHANGE THE WORD ROOT INTO AN ADJECTIVE.

EXAMPLE: CARDIAC- AN ADJECTIVE THAT MEANS PERTAINING TO THE HEART.

21

SUFFIXES MEANING ABNORMAL CONDITION

MANY SUFFIXES, SUCH AS -OSIS, MEANS "ABNORAML CONDITION OR DISEASE".

22

GASTROSIS

ANY DISEASE OF THE STOMACH

23

GASTR

MEANS STOMACH

24

-OSIS

ABNORMAL CONDITION OR DISEASE

25

CYAN/O

MEANS BLUE

26

ERYTHR/O

MEANS RED

27

LEUK/O

MEANS WHITE

28

MELAN/O

MEANS BLACK

29

POLL/O

MEANS GREY

30

CYANOSIS

BLUE DISCOLORATION OF THE SKIN CAUSE BY A LACK OF ADEQUATE OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD

31

ERYTHROCYTE

A MATURE RED BLOOD CELL

32

-CYTE

CELL

33

LEUKOCYTE

WHITE BLOOD CELL

34

MELANOSIS

ANY CONDITION OF UNUSUAL DEPOSITS OF BLACK PIGMENT IN BODY TISSUES OR ORGANS.

35

POLIOMYELITIS

A VIRAL INJECTION OF THE GREY MATTER OF THE SPINAL CORD

36

PATHOLOGY

STUDY OF ALL ASPECTS OF DISEASE

37

PATH

MEANS DISEASE

38

-OLOGY

MEANS THE STUDY OF

39

-ALGIA

PAIN AND SUFFERING

40

GASTRALGIA

STOMACH ACHE

41

-DYNIA

ALSO MEANS PAIN, ALTHOUGH IT MEANS THE SAME AS -ALGIA IT IS NOT USED AS COMMONLY.

42

GASTRODYNIA

ALSO MEANS STOMACH ACHE

43

-ITIS

MEANS INFLAMMATION

44

GASTRITIS

INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH

45

-MALACIA

ABNORMAL SOFTENING

46

ARTERIOMALACIA

ABNORMAL SOFTENING OF THE WALLS OF AN ARTERY OR ARTERIES.

47

-MEGALY

ENLARGEMENT

48

HEPATOMEGALY

ABNORMAL ENLARGEMENT OF THE LIVER

49

HEPAT/O

MEANS LIVER

50

-NECROSIS

MEANS TISSUE DEATH

51

ARTERIONECROSIS

TISSUE DEATH OF A ARTERY OR ARTERIES

52

-SCLEROSIS

ABNORMAL HARDENING

53

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

ABNORMAL HARDENING OF AN ARTERY OR ARTERIES

54

-STENOSIS

ABNORMAL NARROWING

55

ARTERIOSTENOSIS

ABNORMAL NARROWING OF AN ARTERY OR ARTERIES

56

-CENTESIS

SURGICAL PUNCTURE TO REMOVE FLUID FOR DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSES OR TO REMOVE EXCESS FLUID

57

ABDOMINOCENTESIS

SURGICAL PUNCTURE OF THE OF THE ADBOMINAL CAVITY TO REMOVE FLUID

58

-GRAPHY

MEANS THE PURPOSE OF PRODUCING A PICTURE OR RECORD

59

ANGIOGRAPHY

PROCESS OF PRODUCING A RADIOGRAPHIC (X-RAY) STUDY OF THE BLOOD VESSELS AFTER THE INJECTION OF A CONTRAST MEDIUM TO MAKE THESE BLOOD VESSELS VISIBLE

60

-GRAM

PICTURE OR RECORD

61

ANGIOGRAM

FILM PRODUCED BY ANGIOGRAPHY

62

ANGI/O

BLOOD VESSEL

63

-PLASTY

SURGICAL REPAIR

64

MYOPLASTY

SURGICAL REPAIR OF A MUSCLE

65

-SCOPY

VISUAL EXAMINATION

66

ARTHROSCOPY

THE VISUAL EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF A JOINT

67

-RRHAGE AND -RRHAGIA

MEANS BLEEDING, HOWEVER THEY ARE MOST OFTEN USED TO DESCRIBE SUDDEN, SEVERE BLEEDING

68

HEMORRAGE

LOSS OF A LARGE AMOUNT OF BLOOD IN A SHORT TIME

69

-RRHAPHY

SURGICAL SUTURING TO CLOSE A WOUND AND INCLUDES THE USE OF SUTURES, STAPLES, OR SURGICAL GLUE.

70

MYORRHAPHY

SURGICAL SUTURING OF A MUSCLE WOUND

71

-RRHEA

MEANS FLOW OR DISCHARGE AND REFERS TO THE FLOW OF MOST BODY FLUIDS

72

DIARRHEA

IS THE FREQUENT FLOW OR LOOSE OR WATERY STOOLS

73

DIA-

MEANS THROUGH

74

-RRHEXIS

RUPTURE

75

MYORRHEXIS

RUPTURE OF A MUSCLE

76

NATAL

MEANS PERTAINING TO BIRTH

77

NAT

MEANS BIRTH

78

PRENATAL

MEANS THE TIME AND EVENTS BEFORE BIRTH

79

PRE-

MEANS BEFORE

80

PERINATAL

REFERS TO THE TIME AND EVENTS SURROUNDING BIRTH, THIS IS THE TIME JUST BEFORE, DURING, AND JUST AFTER BITH.

81

PERI-

MEANS SURROUNDING

82

POSTNATAL

REFERS TO THE TIME AND EVENTS AFTER BIRTH

83

POST-

MEANS AFTER

84

AB-

MEANS AWAY

85

DYS-

MEANS BAD, DIFFICULT, OR PAINFUL

86

HYPER-

MEANS EXCESSIVE OR INCREASED

87

INTER-

MEANS BETWEEN OR AMONG

88

SUB-

MEANS UNDER, LESS, OR BELOW

89

AD-

MEANS TOWARD OR IN THE FIRECTION OF

90

EU-

MEANS GOOD, NORMAL, WELL, OR EASY

91

HYPO-

MEANS DEFICIENT OR DECREASED

92

INTRA-

MEANS WITHIN OR INSIDE

93

SUPER-, SUPRA-

MEANS ABOVE OR EXCESSIVE

94

ABNORMAL

MEANS NOT NORMAL OR AWAY FROM NORMAL

95

DYSFUNCTIONAL

MEANS AN ORGAN OR BODY PART THAT IS NOT WORKING PROPERLY.

96

HYPERTENSION

IS HIGHER THAN NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE

97

INTERSTITIAL

MEANS BETWEEN, BOT NOT WITHIN, THAT PARTS OF A TISSUE

98

SUBCOSTAL

MEANS BLOW A RIB OR RIBS

99

ADDICTION

MEANS DRAWN TOWARD OR A STRONG DEPENDENCE ON A DRUG OR SUBSTANCE

100

EUTHYROID

A NORMALLY FUNCTIONING THYROID GLAND

101

HYPOTENSION

IS A LOWER THAN NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE

102

INTRAMUSCULAR

MEANS WITHIN THE MUSCLE

103

SUPRACOSTAL

MEANS ABOVE OR OUTSIDE THE RIBS

104

LARYNG

MEANS LARYN AND THROAT

105

RHIN/O

MEANS NOSE

106

OT/O

EAR

107

OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY

THE STUDY OF THE EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT

108

TAKING TERMS APART

1. ALWAYS START AT THE END OF THE WORD, WITH THE SUFFIX, AND WORK TOWARD THE BEGINNING


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