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Food Science and Nutrition chapter one flashcards
updated 3 years ago by ivyHmitman
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1

What factors can influence your food choices?

-Biology

-Social Influences

-Social changes (Time shortage for Americans)

-Flavor, Texture, Appearance

-Routine and Habit

-Advertisment

-Guidelines

-Early Influences

-Economics

-NUTRITION

2

Definition of Hunger

The primary physiological drive to find and eat food, mostly regulated by internal cues to eat.

3

Definition of Appetite

The primary psychological (external) influences that encourage us to find and eat food, often in the absence of obvious hunger.

4

Define Satiety

State in which there is no longer a desire to eat; a feeling of satisfaction.

5

Define Nutrition

The science that links food to health and disease. Including the process by which humans ingest foods.

6

Define Nutrients

Chemical substance in food that contributes to health, many of which are essential parts of a diet. Nutrients nourish us by producing calories to fulfill energy needs, materials for building body parts, and factor to regulate necessary chemical process in the body.

7

Essential Nutrients

A substance that when left out of a diet leads to signs of bad health. The body either cannot produce this nutrients or cannot produce enough of it to meet its needs. Then if added back into diet before permanent damage occurs, the affected aspects of health are restored.

8

Six Classes of Nutrients

1. Carbohydrates

2. Lipids

3. Protiens

4. Vitamins

5. Minerals

6.Water

9

Three functional categories of nutrients

1. Provide calories to meet energy needs

2. Important for growth, development and maintenance

3. Those that act to keep the body functions running smoothly

10

Why is water a nutrient?

-Solvent, Lubricant, Vehicle for Nutrients and Waste, Regulates Temperature

11

How much water should the average man and woman drink a day?

Men: 3 liters a day

Women: 2200 grams

12

Phytochemicals

AKA: "Super Foods"

Are plant chemicals that are physiologically active compounds in food that provide benefits but are not essential nutrients.

13

What is a Calorie?

The amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1ºC

14

What is a Kcal?

1000 calories

15

How many calories per gram are there for Carbohydrates?

4 kcal/gram

16

How many calories per gram are there for Protein?

4 Kcal/gram

17

How many calories per gram are there for Alcohol?

7 kcal/gram

18

How many calories per gram are there for Fat?

9 kcal/gram

19

What percent of U.S. adults are overweight or obese?

68%

20

What fraction of children in the U.S. are overweight/obese?

1/3

21

Definition of Food Science

Discipline in which engineering, biological, physical sciences are used to study the nature of food and food processes.

22

Definition of Nutrition (as in the occupation)

The science of food, the nutrients and substances therein.

23

Food Plate categories

Grains, Proteins, Vegetables, Fruits, and Dairy

24

What are Macronutrients?

-Carbohydrates

-Lipids

-Protein

25

Lipids

Triglycerides:

-Major form of fat in food, key energy source, fat storage in body

-Made up of fatty acids and gycerol

Saturated and unsaturated

26

Protein

Composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

27

Functions of Protein

Bone and muscle

components in blood, cells, membranes, enzymes, and immune system.

28

Vitamins (organic)

Carbon contained

-Water soluble

-Fat soluble

29

Minerals

Non-carbon containing

-Major

-trace

30

1 pound= how many calories?

3,500 calories

31

If there are 15g of carbohydrates, how many calories in the food come from carbs?

60kcal

32

What are the biggest issues with the American diet?

Too much:

-Salt

-Sugar

-Fat

-Alcohol

Too Little:

-Fiber

-Potassium

-Calcuim

-Vitamin D

33

What percent of calories (energy) should come from Carbohydrates?

45-65%

34

What percent of calories (energy) should come from Fats?

20-35%

35

What percent of calories (energy) should come from protein?

10-35%

36

Energy Dense

High calorie content relevant to nutritional content (vitamins, minerals).

37

Nutrient Dense

High levels of nutrient content (vitamins and minerals)

38

Desirable nutrition

Metabolic needs are met

39

Under Nutrition

Depleted supplies of nutritional needs

40

Over-Nutrition

Can cause stomach distress and toxicity

41

Measuring Nutritional Status: (ABCDE)

A. Anthropometric: Weight, height, waste cirumfrence

B. Biochemical: Measure of nutrients in blood or waste products

C. Clinical: Physical exam

D. Dietary: examine the diet (food record)

E. Environmental: living conditions, educational levels, where they were raised

42

DRI

Daily recommended income

43

RDA

Recommended daily allowance

44

AI

Adequate intake

45

EER

Estimated energy requirment

46

UL

Upper Level

47

DV

Daily Value

48

General Food Label Requirments

-Product name, name and address of manufacturer, amount of product in package, ingredients in descending order by weight, a nutrition fact panel

49

What foods are food labels not required on?

Raw fruits and vegetables, fish

50

Food Labeling and Protein

Protein percent Daily Value does NOT have to be listed for those over age 4

-American have plenty of protein in their diets, and it is very difficult and expensive to measure

51

Two components closely regulated by FDA

1. Substance

2. Disease or Health related conditon

52

What is the problem with Dietary supplements?

They are NOT strictly regulated

-Quality control-unknown concentrations of active ingredients

-Unknown active ingredients

53

What are the three pieces to a healthy diet?

Variety

Balance

Moderation

54

A single serving size cannot contain more than ___ grams of fat

13g

55

A single serving size cannot contain more than ___ grams of Saturated fat

13g

56

A single serving size cannot contain more than ___ grams of cholesterol

60mg

57

What changes to the food label are they trying to change?

Have total calories first

Make fonts more appropriate

Less focus on fat, but more focus on sugars

58

Cell Membrane

Double layer of lipid, carbohydrates, and protein

Control passage of substances

59

Cytoplasm

Fluid material within a cell

-Anaerobic, produces energy for the cell without oxygen

60

Mitochondria

Power plant

Major site for energy production

Aerobic (uses oxygen)

All cells EXCEPT red blood cells

61

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Communication network, synthesis, detoxification, calcium storage

62

Golgi Complex

packaging site for proteins

63

Lysosomes

Cell digestive system

Contain enzymes for digestion

AKA suicide bags

64

Peroxisomes

Detoxify harmful chemicals

form peroxides (H2O2)

Prevent peroxide build-up (catalose)

Metabolize alcohol

65

Nucleus

Double membrane

Not in Red Blood Cells

Genetic material DNA makes up the senses found on chromosomes

Direct protein synthesis and cell division

Mitochondria contain their own DNA

66

Four primary types of tissue:

Epithelial

Connective

Muscles

Nervous

67

Veins

Carrie blood into the heart on the right side

68

Arteries

Bring blood out of the heart (left side)

69

Cardiovascular System:

Blood and Plasma

Carries oxygen and carbon dioxide

carries nutrients and waste products

Contains the portal veins

70

Lymphatic System:

Circulatory system

transports most fats after digestion

Important part of Immune system

Pick up fluids between cells and transports fluids back to the heart for the cardiovascular system

71

MOuth's job in digestion

-Chew food

-Taste

-Create saliva

-Mucus

72

Mastication

Chewing foods

73

Esophagus

Long muscular tube

connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach

74

Epiglottis

Prevents food from entering the trachea

75

Peristalsis

Muscular contractions that move the food bolus along

76

Esophageal Sphincter

Closes the opening of the esophagus to the stomach

77

Stomach

Large muscular sac

can hold up to 4 cups of food

food is mixed with gastric juices

-Hydrochloric acid (HCL)

-Enzymes

Chyme is formed

78

Chyme

Mixture of food and digestive enzymes

79

Gastric Juices/ Stomach Acids

-Destroys activity of protien

-Activates digestive enzymes

-partially digests dietary protein

-Makes dietary minerals soluble for absorption

80

Pariental calles

Cells producing the HCL (stomach acid)

81

Neck Cells

Secrete Mucus

82

Chief Cells

Release the enzyme pepsinogen

-Zymogen: inactive form of an enzyme

Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by HCL

83

Small Intestine

10 feet long

MOST OF THE DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS OCCURS HERE

84

Pyloric sphincter

Located at the base of the stomach, controls the entry of chyme into the small intestine

85

Three sections of small intestine

1. Duodenum

2. Jejunum

3. Ileum

86

Peristalsis

The contraction that moves food along through the system

87

Mucosa

Lining of the small intestine

88

Lumen

Cavity of the small intestine

Folded many times

contains villi (finger like projections to trap food particles and enhance absorption

increases surface area 600 times

89

Entrocytes:

New absorptive cells constantly being produced

-Due to acidity of substance coming from substance they only last a few days

Crypts produce new cells

90

Ways to absorb nutrients

Passive diffusion

Facilitated diffusion

Active absorption

Phagocytosis

Pinocytosis

91

Passive Diffusion

High concentration to Low concentration

-Fats, water, and some minerals

92

Facilitated Diffusion

Carrier protein drives nutrient through absorptive cells

-fructose

93

Active Absorption

Carrier protein AND energy drive nutrient through cells

-glucose and amino acids

94

Phagocytosis

Active cells engulf solid nutrients

95

Pinocytosis

Active cells engulf liquid nutrients

96

Large Intestine

-Mucus lining protects from bacteria

-Very small amount of absortion

-strength of the immune system occurs here

-formation of fecies

-Bacterial population (important for health and breaking down fiber)

97

Rectum/ Anus

Rectum= collecting area for feces

Anus is the outer opening utilized for elimination of fecal matter

98

2 Anal Sphincters

-Internal

-External- under voluntary control

99

Liver

Produces bile

-recycled by enterhepatic circulation

Bile used in the small intestine to emulsify fat (detergent affect to break up fat into small usable pieces)

100

Gallbladder

Stores Bile

101

Pancreas

Hormones

-Insulin: regulates blood glucose storage

-glucagon: regulates glycogen storage

Pancreatic enzymes- for breaking down carbs, fats, and proteins

Bicarbonate- protects lining of small intestine (like baking soda)

102

Bicarbonate

protects lining of small intestine (like baking soda)

103

Pancreatic enzymes

For breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

104

Nutrient Storage

Humans have nutrient storage so we do not have to eat constantly.

105

Where is Fat stored?

Adipose tissue

106

Where is Carbohydrates stored?

Glycogen

107

Where is protein stored?

There is no true reserve

108

Epigenetics

Changes in gene expression caused by other factors

109

Nutrigenomis

Study of how food impacts health

(currently a one-size-fits-all approach is used, but that will/is change)

110

Nutritional diseases with a genetic link:

Cardiovascular disease

Obesity

Diabetes

Cancer

111

Ulcers

An open sore on an external or internal surface of the body, caused by a break in the skin or mucous membrane that fails to heal

Extremely painful

Causes: H. Plyori (bacteria), smoking/anxiety/stress, Non steroidal anti-inflammatory painkillers)

112

Heart burn

Gastroesophageal reflux

-1/2 of adults are affected

treated w/ medication and diet

113

Constipation

Causes:

-ignoring normal urges

-muscle spasms

-certain medications

Treatment:

** DIETARY FIBER

-fluids

-regular physical activity

114

Laxatives

-Irritate the intestinal nerve

-Draw water into the intestine

-Regular use is harmful

115

Hemorrhoids (piles)

Swollen veins of the rectum and anus

Intense pressure and straining especially in butt area

Dietary recommendation: FIBER and fluids

116

Irritable Bowel Sydrome

Symptoms: cramps, bloating, increased frequency, diarrhea, constapation

25 million cases

Causes: altered intestinal peristalsis, decreased pain threshold, stress/anxiety

Treatment: Elimination diet, moderate caffine, Low-fat, small, frequent meals

117

Diarrhea

Fluidity and frequency of evacuation

Generally lasts 1-2 days

Causes: infections, poorly absorbed substances, too much fiber, sugar alcohols

Treatment: Plenty of fluids

118

Gallstones

Causes: Cholesterol crystallizing in solid masses

-Being over weight

-losing weight rapidly

-genetic predisposition

Symptoms: Upper right abdominal pain, gas, bloating, nausea, vomiting

Treatment: removal of galbladder

119

Celiac disease

Allergic reaction to gluten

-Autoimmune disease

-Flattens villi in small intestine

-Limits absorption of nutrients

Treatment: elimination of wheat and rye in diet

120

Grain and Gluten

Wheat, Rye, Barley

-Oats are often contaminated in the field during harvest but does not contain gluten

121

Cystic Fibrosis

-Genetic

-Mucous blocks pancreatic ducts

-Impaired digestion of carbs, protein, fat

because enzymes are not delivered to small intestibe

Treatment: replacement enzymes

122

Functional foods

Foods that provide healthy benefits beyond those supplied by the traditional nutrients they contain

123

Subclinical

Stage of a disease or disorder not severe enough to produce symptoms that can be detected or diagnosed

124

Epidemiology

The study of how disease rates very among different population groups

125

Placebo

Generally a fake medicine of treatment used to disguise the treatments given to the participants in an experiment

126

Animal model

Use of animals to studydisease to understand more about human disease

127

Double-bind study

An experimental design in which neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participants assignment or the outcome of the study until it is completed. An independent third party holds the code and the data until the study has been completed

128

DRI

Dietary reference intakes: term used to encompass nutrient recommendations made by the food and nutrition board of the national academy of science.

129

Balancing Calories to manage weight

Balance between calories consumed and calories expended determines weight

130

What claim is NOT FDA approved?

Structure/ function claims

131

Epithelial tissue

The surface tissue that line the outside of the body and all external external passages within it

132

Connective Tiisue

Protein tissue that hold different structures in the body together some body structures are made up of connective tissues- tendons, and cartilage connective tissue also forms part of bones and the non muscular structure of arteries and veins

133

Muscle tissue

a type of tissue adapted to contract to cause movement

134

Nervous tissue

Tissue composed of highly branched, elongated cells, which transports nerve impulses from one part of the body to another

135

Lymphatic system

A system of vessels and lymph that acceots fluid surrounding cells and large particles, such as products of fat absorption. Lymph eventually passes into the blood stream from the lymph system

136

Intestinal cells

Barrier to invading microorganisms

137

Epigenome

The way that genome is marked and packaged inside the cell nucleous

138

Epigenetics

Inherited changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence

139

Monosaccharides

Simple sugars

-Glucose

-Fructose

-Galactose

Found in ring structure

140

Glucose

Major monosaccharide in the body

-AKA dextrose

-In bloodstream (blood sugar)

-Breakdown of starches and sucrose

source of fuel for cells

141

Fructose

Fruit sugar

-part of sucrose

-In fruit, honey, and high fructose corn syrup

-converted into glucose in the liver

142

Galactose

Part of lactose

-converted to glucose in the liver

143

Disaccharides

Two sugars bonded together

-Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose

144

Sucrose

glucose and fructose= table sugar

145

Lactose

Galactose and glucose = milk products

146

Maltose

Glucose and glucose= fermentation and alcohol

147

Polysaccharides

Many sugars:

-Starch

-Glycogen

--Amylose

--Amylopectine

148

Indigestible polysaccharides

soluble or viscus- Functional or fermentable

149

Insoluble polysaccharides

Bulking, Non-fermentable

-Found in all plants

-Increases fecal bulk

150

Glycogen

Storage form of carbohydrate for animals and humans

-Structure similar to amylopecton --> highly branched

-More sites for enzyme action

-Found in the liver and muscles

151

Nutritive Sweeteners

Provide calories

152

Non-nutritive sweeteners

Do NOT provide calories

153

High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)

Made from cornstarch mixed with acid and enzymes

55% or 42%fructose with a balnce of glucose and water

-Very close to sucrose

-Cheap

-Sweeter then sucrose

-Improved shelf-stability and food properties

154

How does the American intake of sugar relate to the recommended amount?

Most of U.S. has too much sugar in their diets

155

What creates Carbohydrates?

Photosynthesis

6 carbon+6 water= glucose+ 6 oxygen

156

What is the basic unit of all sugar?

Glucose

157

Starch

A carbohydrate made up of multiple units of glucose attached together in a form the body can digest (complex carbs)

158

FIber

Substance in plant foods not digested by the processes that take place in the stomach or small intestine. Adds bulk to feces.

159

Fermentation

The concentration of carbohydrates to alcohole, acids, and carbon dioxide without the us of oxygen

160

Amylose Starch

Long, straight chains of glucose units

161

Amylopecton

A digestible branched chain type of starch composed of glucose units

Raises blood glucose quicker

162

Functional fiber

Fiber added to foods that has been shown to provide health benefits

163

What is important to remember when looking at the percent of calories from carbohyrates?

The percent of calories from carbs is more important than the total amount of carbs in a food when constructing a healthy diet

164

Sugar alcohols

Sorbitol, xylitol, Erythritol

-Has cooling affect in mouth

-Does NOT promote tooth decay

-Metabolizes more slowly than glucose- good for diabetes

-Can give you diarrhea

165

Alternative sweeteners in order of increased sweeteness

-Tagactose

-Cyclamate

-Stevia

-Aspartame

-Acesulfame

-Saccharin

-Sucralose

-Neotame

166

Digestion of starches/fibers in the mouth

Some starches are broken down to maltose by salivary amylase

167

Digestion of starches/fibers in the Stomach

Salivary amylase is inactive by strong stomach acids in the stomach, NO farther digestion occurs in stomach

168

Digestion of starches/fibers in the pancreas

Enzymes (amylase) from pancreas break down starch into maltose in the small intestine

169

What type of sugar do they measure sweetness with?

Sucrose (table sugar)= 1 in sweetness

170

Types of sweeteners

Brown sugar: molasses and sucrose

Turbinado: raw sugars

Maple Syrup: Mostly sucrose

Honey: fructose and glucose

Agave Nectar: (insulin and heat) mostly fructose, little glucose

Fruit Concentrates: Mostly fructose

171

What is the result of not eat enough Carbohydrates?

Your body will start to break down protein and will eventually result in loss of muscle

172

Ketosis

The condition of having high concentration of Ketone bodies and related breakdown products in the bloodstream and tissues

173

What helps regulate glucose levels?

-Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas which increases the synthesis of glycogen in the liver and the movement of glucose from the bloodstream into body cells

-Glucagon: A hormone that stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into glucose

-Epinephrine: a hormone aka adrenaline is released and various nerve endings in the body it acts to increase glycogen breakdown in the liver, among other functions

174

Process regualting blood glucose

1. elevated blood glucose

2. Pancreas releases insulin

3. Glucose transports into cells

4. Conversion of glucose into glycogen

5. Normalization of blood glucose

6. Low blood glucose

7.Pancreas releases glycagon

8. Breakdown of glycogen to glucose

9. Increased gluconeogenesis

10. Normalization of blood glucose

175

Glycemic Index

The blood glucose response of a given food, compared to a standard GI is influenced by starch structure, fiber content, food processing, physical structure, and macro-nutrients in the meal, such as fat.

*The likelihood of a food to raise your blood sugar*

176

Glycemic load (GL)

The amount of carbs in a serving of food multiplied by the glycemic index of that carb divided by 100.

(GI*Grams of Carbs)/ 100= GL

177

How dies fiber help with blood glucose levels?

Fiber has slow glucose absorption which better regulates glucose

178

What is the recommended about of fiber intake for men? and Women?

Men: 38 grams a day

Women: 25 grams a day

179

Problems with high-sugar diets

-Empty calories

-Dental decay

-Weight gain

180

Type one Diabetes

Decreased release of insulin

Frequent urination and urine high in sugar

*Body stops producing insulin

*beta cells are destroyed

181

Type Two Diabetes

-Begins often after age 40

-Most common type

-The insulin receptors on the cell surfaces of certain body tissues becoming insulin resistant

-Often linked with obesity and can be reversed by weight loss

182

reactive hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose thatfollows a meal high in simple sugars, with corresponding symptoms or irritability, headache, nervousness, sweating, confussion

183

Fasting hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose that follows about a day of fasting

184

Metabolic Syndrome

A condition in which a person had poor blood glucose regulation, hypertension, increased blood triglycerides and other health problems, this condition is usually accompanied by obesity, lack of physical activity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates

185

What is the most popular, and oldest sugar substitute in North America?

Saccharine (Sweet 'N Low)

186

Where in the digestive tract is Tagatonise metabolized?

Large intestine

187

What is the minimum amount of Carbs a person should consume a day?

130 grams MINIMUM

188

What is the main fuel source for the brain and blood cells?

Carbohydrates

189

What happens with undigested Carbohydrates?

-Only minor amounts escape digestion

-Travels to colon

-Fermented by bacteria

-Acids and gasses produced

-May promote health of the colon

190

Liver can...

-Transform monosaccharide into glucose

-Release glucose back into the bloodstream

-Store as glycogen (or fat)

191

Why do Legumes give people Gas??

Contain high levels of two indigestible sugars

-Stachyose (Tetrasaccharide) & Raffinose

-Humans Lack the Enzyme that Breaks Down these Sugars

-Stachyose& Raffinose

-Pass Through the Stomach and Small Intestine into the Large Intestine

-Gas-Producing Bacteria in the Large Intestine LOVE These Sugars and Metabolize Them –Producing Gas

192

Functions of Carbohydrates

-Supply energy to brain, Central nervous system, and RBC

-Protein sparing: uses carbs before protein

-Prevents ketosis: maintains acid/base

193

Hyperglycemia

High blood glucose

194

Hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose

195

Role of Liver

Regulates glucose that enters bloodstream

196

Role of the pancreas

-Release of insulin

-Release of glucagon

197

Glyconeogenesis

The synthesis of new glucose from non-carbohydrates precursors

-Protein used as fuel and not to build and repair tissues

-Amino acids taken first from blood then from muscles, heart, liver, kidneys...

198

During sedentary (low activity) what is used as a predominant energy source?

Fat

199

Blood Glucose Regulation

VERY TIGHTLY REGULATED

200

Gestational Diabetes

Develops during pregnancy

Usually goes away after baby is born

201

Lactose Maldigestion

Develops after early childhood

Lactose intolerant


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