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A&P Chapter 1 Review

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1

Define Anatomy.

The study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.

2

Define physiology.

The study of the function of the body structures.

3

Describe the nature of different topics in anatomy.

Gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and developmental anatomy

4

Describe the main focus of physiology.

Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level.

5

Describe the principle of complementarity of structure and function. How does it unite the disciplines of anatomy and physiology?

Function always reflects structure.

(physiology) (anatomy)

The function depends on its structure.

6

Levels of organization: list from simplest to most complex.

Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

7

Describe the importance of each of the necessary life functions. Briefly describe each function.

Maintaining boundaries- Ex. skin keeps insides in and outside out

Movement- the ability to move on it's own

Responsiveness- Responding to external environment

Digestion- Breaking food down to smaller components

Metabolism- chemical reactions that occur in the human body

Excretion- process of removing wastes

Reproduction- sexual or cellular or asexual

Growth- change in the size of the stucture

8

Define Homeostasis

Maintenance of a constant, stable internal environment.

9

Negative feedback system

Maintains homeostasis.

The output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus.

Example: Regulation of body temperature

10

Positive feedback system

Does not maintain homeostasis.

The output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus.

Example: Regulation of blood clotting

11

Anatomical Position

Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from the body

12

Why is anatomical position important?

It gives us all the same frame of reference

13

Superior

Inferior

Closer to the top of the head

Further away from the head

14

Anterior

Posterier

Towards the front

Towards the back

15

Medial

Lateral

Closer to the midline

Further away from the midline

16

Proximal

Distal

Closer to the origin

Further away from the origin

17

Superficial

Deep

Closer to the surface of the body

Further away from the surface

18

Frontal

Cuts body into anterior and postier positions

19

Sagittal

Divides body into left and right (does not have to be equal)

20

Transverse

Divides body into superior and inferior horizontal cut.

21

Oblique

At a diagonal.

22

Dorsal Cavity

Back

2 sections: cranial cavity and vertebral cavity

23

Ventral Cavity

Front

2 subdivisions: Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

24

Cranial Cavity

In your cranium (holds your brain)

25

Vertebral cavity

Spinal Cord

26

Thoracic Cavity

Contains heart and lungs

27

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Contains abdominal and pelvic

28

Name the membranes in the ventral cavity.

Serous Membranes

Parietal serosa and visceral serosa

29

Parietal Serosa

Lines internal body walls

Example: lines the abdominal walls, thoracic walls...

30

Visceral Serosa

Covers the internal organs (each organ has its own serous membrane)

31

Serous Fluid

Separates the serosa (found in between the membranes)


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