Central nervous system

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chapter 7 Essentials of Human Anatomy and physiology
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Know the functions of the Nervous System

Sensory input,integration and motor output


what is sensory input

Sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside te body


What is integration

processes and interprets the sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment


What is Motor ouput

effects or causes a response by activating muscles or gland called effectors.


Know the division of the Nervous System and what each is responsible for

Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System


What is the Peripheral Nervous System

Consist of mainly nerves and extends from the brain to the spinal cord


What is the Central Nervous System

The brain and the spinal cord which it interpret incoming sensory information.


Where is the Central Nervous system located

The dorsal body cavity


Where is the Peripheral Nervous system located

Outside the central nervous system


Classify the nerves by functions

Sensory or afferent Motor or efferent interneuron or association


What is a sensory or afferent neuron

Consist of nerves composed of fibers that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors.


What is motor or efferent

carries impulses from the central nervous system to effector organs which are the muscles and glands.


What is Interneuron or association

connect motor and sensory neurons in neutral pathways. Their cell bodys are located in the CNS or central nervous system.


What are the main brain regions?

Corpus Callosum,thalamus,frontal lobe,diencephalon


What does the Corpus Callosum do?

connects the cerebral hemisphere it arches above the structures of the brain stem and allows the cerebral hemisphere to communicate with one another.communication highway between the right and left cerebral hemispheres


What does that thalamus do?

it encloses the shallow third ventricle of the brain. is a relay station for sensory impulses passing upwards to the sensory cortex.


What is the function of the frontal lobe

control skeletal muscles,thoughts and personality


What is the function of the diencephalon or interbrain

the part of the forebrain between the central hemisphere and the midbrain including the thalamus the third ventricle and the hypothalmus.


what does hypothalmus control

regulation of body tempature,water balance and thirst,appetite,sex drive,pleasure and pain centers and the pituitary gland.


What happens in a resting membrane

Electrically charged membrane ready to send an impulse cause and maintained by 3 things.Passive ion channels are always open, potassium leaves cell and sodium and potassium pump maintains ion concentration in cell. Cell membrane is positive on the outside cell with more sodium and negative on the inside of cell with more potassium.


what happens to the depolarization of a membrane

a change in the resting membrane potential caused by sodium entering the cell graded potential and action potential.


what happens to repolarization

all events required to reset cell membrane for next impulse


what are the different types of ion channels

passive are leaky to potassium and sodium, chemically gated and voltage gated.


What are the different nerve cell regions

Dendrites, cell body,axon hillock, axon, axon terminal and synapse


what is a dendrite

branching extensions of neurons that carry electrical signals to the cell body the receptive portion of a nerve cell


what is a cell body

the metabolic center of the neuron its transparent nucleus contains conspicuous nucleous.


what is the axon hillock

the cone like region of the cell body from which the axon arises


what is axon

neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process, the conducting portion of a nerve cell. each neuron has only one axon.


what is the axon terminal

absolute end of nerve containing neurotransmitters; may be thousands on one nerve due to branching


What is synapse or synaptic cleft

tiny gap that seperates the axon terminal of one neuron from the dendrite terminal of the next neuron.


Do neurons touch each other

no each axon terminal is seperated by a synapes.


what are the events of a synapse

action potential arrives at the end of the neuron a vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and nerve tissue are released to synapse nerve tissue binds to receptors on receiving cell membrane ion channels opens causing depolarization of the next neuron. ion channel closes and gets ready for the next impulse.


What are the layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord

Meninges,dura mater arachnoid mater,pia mater


what is meninges

connective tissue membranes covering the brain and spinal cord


what layer is the dura mater of the CNS protection

the outer layer


what layer is the arachnoid mater

it is the middle layer and is web like a cob web it has threadlike extensions


what is pia mater

like gentle mother clings tightly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord following every fold.


what is limbic system

emotional brain composed of parts of cerebrum and hypothalamus that controls emotional responses


What is Csf

cerebrospinal fluid is a watery cushion for brain and spinal cord


where is Choroid Plexus located

roof of the brain ventricles and makes CSF.


What does plasma from the blood filtered to make what?



where is CSF found?

brain ventricles and outside brain and spinal cord.


what is the difference between ascending and descending tracts

ascending carry sensory information toward the brain. decending convey motor command to the spinal cord.


What is accending tract do?

carrys sensory information towards the brain


what does decending tract do

conveys motor command to the spinal cord


name all the cranial nerves



What is the function of olfactory nerve

purely sensory, carries impulses for the sense of smell


What is the function of the optic nerve

purely sensory, carries impulses for vision


what is the function of oculomotor nerve

supplies motor fibers to four of the six muscles that direct the eyeball to the eye lid and to the internal eye muscles controlling lens shape and pupil size


what is the function of the trochlear nerve

supplies motor fibers for one external eye muscle superior oblique


what is the function of trigeminal nerve

conducts sensory impulses from the skin of the face and mucosa of the nose and mouth, also contains motor fibers that activate the chewing muscles


what is the function of abducens nerve

supplies motor fibers to the lateral rectus musle which rolls the eye laterally


what is the function of the facial nerve

activates the muscles of facial expression and the lacrimal and salivary glands; carries sensory impulses from the taste buds of anterior tongue


what is the function of the vestibulocochlear nerve

purely sensory,vestibular branch transmits impulses for the sense of balance and cochlear branch transmits impulses for the sens of hearing


What is the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve

supplies motor fibers to the pharynx throat that promotes swallowing and saliva production carries sensory impulses from taste buds of the posterior tongue and from the pressure receptors of the carotid artery


what is the function of the vagus nerve

fibers carry sensory impulses from tand motor impulses to the pharynx,larynx and the abodminal and thoracic viscera;most motor fibers are parasympathetic fibers that promote digestive activity and help regulate heart activity


what is the function of the accessory nerve

mostly motor fibers that activate the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle


what is the function of the hypoglossal nerve

motor fibers control tongue movements; sensory fibers carry impulses from the tongue


what is the anatomy and physiology of the spinal nerve

all has nerves that are mixed with sensory and motor


What are each of the connective tissues coverings around the neuron,fascicle(bundle of nerves)and entire nerve

Endoneurium,perineurium,epineurium combined they form the cordlike nerve.


What is a Endoneurium

a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber


What is perineurium

bundled together groups of fascicles or fibers tissue wrapping it is composed of connective tissue.


what is epineurium

several fascicles bundled together with a blood supply of a tough fibrous sheath to form the cordlike nerve.


are spinal nerves mixed, sensory or motor



how pairs are there of spinal nerves

31 pairs and 62 total.


how many pairs of cranial nerves are there

12 pair of cranial nerves and 24 total


is afferent a sensory or motor nerve



is Efferent sensory or motor nerve

Motor it is how are we going to respond


what is grey matter

it is unmyelated consist of mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites.


What is white matter

it is myleated consist of mainly nerve fibers.


What is the connective tissue coverings around the neuron, fascicle and entire nerve

Endoneurium,perineurium,and epieurium


know the components of a reflex arc and the order in which they respond

1: receptor, 2: sensory neurons 3:, intergration center or interneuron,4: motor neuron, 5: effectors.


What is muscles is part of the parasympathetic system

smooth muscles and glands


what muscles is part of the sympathetic system



Which division of the ANS is responsible a rapid heart rate and increased sweating when a person is scared or frightened

Sympathetic division of the ANS


Which division of the ANS is referred to as the "fight or flight" division

The Sympathetic Division of the ANS


This division controls increased activity of the digestive tract while decreasing respiratory rate.

Parasympathetic division of the ANS


Neurons of which division of the ANS release acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that binds to smooth muscle

Parasympathetic division of the ANS


What is the neurotransmitter released by neurons of the sympathetic division of the ANS

norepinephrine or epinephrine (both will be accepted)


This structure connects the cerebral hemispheres and allows for communication between the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum

The Corpus Callosum


Which region of the brain control the regulation of body temperature, thirst, hunger, and emotions?



The outermost layer spinal meninges is the tough, fibrous layer known as the

Dura Mater


What structure regulates heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure?

Medulla Oblongata


Which area of the brain relays sensory inputs to the proper location in the cerebrum for interpretation



When impulses are sent away from the brain and spinal cord, the impulses are carried by what type of neuron?

Efferent neurons or Motor


What region of the cell receives the impulse from the previous neuron?



Depolarization causes what type of ion channel to open at the axon hillock?

Voltage-Gated Ion Channels


When a neurotransmitter attaches to the ion channel on the cell membrane surface, what type of ion channel does it attach to

chemically gated ion channels


When a cell depolarizes, what is it due to?

sodium entering the cell


Which of the following is true of all spinal nerves, are motor nerves, sensory nerves, or mixed nerve

Mixed Nerves


Where do sensory impulses enter the spinal cord?

Dorsal Root of the Spinal Cord


How do motor impulses leave the spinal cord?

Ventral root of the spinal nerve


In the spinal cord, how are sensory impulses sent to the brain

Ascending Tracts


Motor commands for skeletal muscle contractions of the arms and legs are sent back from the brain through what portion of the spinal cord?

The descending tracts of the spinal cord


What is the vision nerve?

Optic Nerve


What is the nerve for smell?

Olfactory Nerve


What is the nerve that controls the muscles that turn the head right and left, and raise the shoulders

Accessory Nerve


What is the nerve that send impulses from the ears about sound and equilibrium

Vestibulocochlear nerve


What are the three nerves that cause eyeball movements?

Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens nerves


What is the gap between two communicating neurons known as?

a synapse


events at a synapes

action potential arrives at the end of the neuron a vesicle which contains sodium fuses with cell membrane and sodium are released to synapse. Sodium binds to receptors on receiving cell membrane ion channels opens causing depolarization of the next neuron ion channel closes and get read for next impulse.


neuron impulse

chemical gate opens on cell membrane depolarization occurs sodium enters through chemical gates area of depolarization spreads to axon hillock voltage gates open at axon hillock generates action potential successive voltage gates open down the axon propagates an action potential.


Frontal lobe

Motor skills,expressive language


Parietal lobe

Process sensory inform pressure touch or pain


Temporal lobe

Bottom section primarily auditory


Occipital lobe

Back of brain visual stimuli

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