Central nervous system
Know the functions of the Nervous System
Sensory input,integration and motor output
what is sensory input
Sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside te body
What is integration
processes and interprets the sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment
What is Motor ouput
effects or causes a response by activating muscles or gland called effectors.
Know the division of the Nervous System and what each is responsible for
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
What is the Peripheral Nervous System
Consist of mainly nerves and extends from the brain to the spinal cord
What is the Central Nervous System
The brain and the spinal cord which it interpret incoming sensory information.
Where is the Central Nervous system located
The dorsal body cavity
Where is the Peripheral Nervous system located
Outside the central nervous system
Classify the nerves by functions
Sensory or afferent Motor or efferent interneuron or association
What is a sensory or afferent neuron
Consist of nerves composed of fibers that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors.
What is motor or efferent
carries impulses from the central nervous system to effector organs which are the muscles and glands.
What is Interneuron or association
connect motor and sensory neurons in neutral pathways. Their cell bodys are located in the CNS or central nervous system.
What are the main brain regions?
Corpus Callosum,thalamus,frontal lobe,diencephalon
What does the Corpus Callosum do?
connects the cerebral hemisphere it arches above the structures of the brain stem and allows the cerebral hemisphere to communicate with one another.communication highway between the right and left cerebral hemispheres
What does that thalamus do?
it encloses the shallow third ventricle of the brain. is a relay station for sensory impulses passing upwards to the sensory cortex.
What is the function of the frontal lobe
control skeletal muscles,thoughts and personality
What is the function of the diencephalon or interbrain
the part of the forebrain between the central hemisphere and the midbrain including the thalamus the third ventricle and the hypothalmus.
what does hypothalmus control
regulation of body tempature,water balance and thirst,appetite,sex drive,pleasure and pain centers and the pituitary gland.
What happens in a resting membrane
Electrically charged membrane ready to send an impulse cause and maintained by 3 things.Passive ion channels are always open, potassium leaves cell and sodium and potassium pump maintains ion concentration in cell. Cell membrane is positive on the outside cell with more sodium and negative on the inside of cell with more potassium.
what happens to the depolarization of a membrane
a change in the resting membrane potential caused by sodium entering the cell graded potential and action potential.
what happens to repolarization
all events required to reset cell membrane for next impulse
what are the different types of ion channels
passive are leaky to potassium and sodium, chemically gated and voltage gated.
What are the different nerve cell regions
Dendrites, cell body,axon hillock, axon, axon terminal and synapse
what is a dendrite
branching extensions of neurons that carry electrical signals to the cell body the receptive portion of a nerve cell
what is a cell body
the metabolic center of the neuron its transparent nucleus contains conspicuous nucleous.
what is the axon hillock
the cone like region of the cell body from which the axon arises
what is axon
neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process, the conducting portion of a nerve cell. each neuron has only one axon.
what is the axon terminal
absolute end of nerve containing neurotransmitters; may be thousands on one nerve due to branching
What is synapse or synaptic cleft
tiny gap that seperates the axon terminal of one neuron from the dendrite terminal of the next neuron.
Do neurons touch each other
no each axon terminal is seperated by a synapes.
what are the events of a synapse
action potential arrives at the end of the neuron a vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and nerve tissue are released to synapse nerve tissue binds to receptors on receiving cell membrane ion channels opens causing depolarization of the next neuron. ion channel closes and gets ready for the next impulse.
What are the layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Meninges,dura mater arachnoid mater,pia mater
what is meninges
connective tissue membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
what layer is the dura mater of the CNS protection
the outer layer
what layer is the arachnoid mater
it is the middle layer and is web like a cob web it has threadlike extensions
what is pia mater
like gentle mother clings tightly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord following every fold.
what is limbic system
emotional brain composed of parts of cerebrum and hypothalamus that controls emotional responses
What is Csf
cerebrospinal fluid is a watery cushion for brain and spinal cord
where is Choroid Plexus located
roof of the brain ventricles and makes CSF.
What does plasma from the blood filtered to make what?
where is CSF found?
brain ventricles and outside brain and spinal cord.
what is the difference between ascending and descending tracts
ascending carry sensory information toward the brain. decending convey motor command to the spinal cord.
What is accending tract do?
carrys sensory information towards the brain
what does decending tract do
conveys motor command to the spinal cord
name all the cranial nerves
What is the function of olfactory nerve
purely sensory, carries impulses for the sense of smell
What is the function of the optic nerve
purely sensory, carries impulses for vision
what is the function of oculomotor nerve
supplies motor fibers to four of the six muscles that direct the eyeball to the eye lid and to the internal eye muscles controlling lens shape and pupil size
what is the function of the trochlear nerve
supplies motor fibers for one external eye muscle superior oblique
what is the function of trigeminal nerve
conducts sensory impulses from the skin of the face and mucosa of the nose and mouth, also contains motor fibers that activate the chewing muscles
what is the function of abducens nerve
supplies motor fibers to the lateral rectus musle which rolls the eye laterally
what is the function of the facial nerve
activates the muscles of facial expression and the lacrimal and salivary glands; carries sensory impulses from the taste buds of anterior tongue
what is the function of the vestibulocochlear nerve
purely sensory,vestibular branch transmits impulses for the sense of balance and cochlear branch transmits impulses for the sens of hearing
What is the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve
supplies motor fibers to the pharynx throat that promotes swallowing and saliva production carries sensory impulses from taste buds of the posterior tongue and from the pressure receptors of the carotid artery
what is the function of the vagus nerve
fibers carry sensory impulses from tand motor impulses to the pharynx,larynx and the abodminal and thoracic viscera;most motor fibers are parasympathetic fibers that promote digestive activity and help regulate heart activity
what is the function of the accessory nerve
mostly motor fibers that activate the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle
what is the function of the hypoglossal nerve
motor fibers control tongue movements; sensory fibers carry impulses from the tongue
what is the anatomy and physiology of the spinal nerve
all has nerves that are mixed with sensory and motor
What are each of the connective tissues coverings around the neuron,fascicle(bundle of nerves)and entire nerve
Endoneurium,perineurium,epineurium combined they form the cordlike nerve.
What is a Endoneurium
a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber
What is perineurium
bundled together groups of fascicles or fibers tissue wrapping it is composed of connective tissue.
what is epineurium
several fascicles bundled together with a blood supply of a tough fibrous sheath to form the cordlike nerve.
are spinal nerves mixed, sensory or motor
how pairs are there of spinal nerves
31 pairs and 62 total.
how many pairs of cranial nerves are there
12 pair of cranial nerves and 24 total
is afferent a sensory or motor nerve
is Efferent sensory or motor nerve
Motor it is how are we going to respond
what is grey matter
it is unmyelated consist of mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites.
What is white matter
it is myleated consist of mainly nerve fibers.
What is the connective tissue coverings around the neuron, fascicle and entire nerve
know the components of a reflex arc and the order in which they respond
1: receptor, 2: sensory neurons 3:, intergration center or interneuron,4: motor neuron, 5: effectors.
What is muscles is part of the parasympathetic system
smooth muscles and glands
what muscles is part of the sympathetic system
Which division of the ANS is responsible a rapid heart rate and increased sweating when a person is scared or frightened
Sympathetic division of the ANS
Which division of the ANS is referred to as the "fight or flight" division
The Sympathetic Division of the ANS
This division controls increased activity of the digestive tract while decreasing respiratory rate.
Parasympathetic division of the ANS
Neurons of which division of the ANS release acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that binds to smooth muscle
Parasympathetic division of the ANS
What is the neurotransmitter released by neurons of the sympathetic division of the ANS
norepinephrine or epinephrine (both will be accepted)
This structure connects the cerebral hemispheres and allows for communication between the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum
The Corpus Callosum
Which region of the brain control the regulation of body temperature, thirst, hunger, and emotions?
The outermost layer spinal meninges is the tough, fibrous layer known as the
What structure regulates heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure?
Which area of the brain relays sensory inputs to the proper location in the cerebrum for interpretation
When impulses are sent away from the brain and spinal cord, the impulses are carried by what type of neuron?
Efferent neurons or Motor
What region of the cell receives the impulse from the previous neuron?
Depolarization causes what type of ion channel to open at the axon hillock?
Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
When a neurotransmitter attaches to the ion channel on the cell membrane surface, what type of ion channel does it attach to
chemically gated ion channels
When a cell depolarizes, what is it due to?
sodium entering the cell
Which of the following is true of all spinal nerves, are motor nerves, sensory nerves, or mixed nerve
Where do sensory impulses enter the spinal cord?
Dorsal Root of the Spinal Cord
How do motor impulses leave the spinal cord?
Ventral root of the spinal nerve
In the spinal cord, how are sensory impulses sent to the brain
Motor commands for skeletal muscle contractions of the arms and legs are sent back from the brain through what portion of the spinal cord?
The descending tracts of the spinal cord
What is the vision nerve?
What is the nerve for smell?
What is the nerve that controls the muscles that turn the head right and left, and raise the shoulders
What is the nerve that send impulses from the ears about sound and equilibrium
What are the three nerves that cause eyeball movements?
Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens nerves
What is the gap between two communicating neurons known as?
events at a synapes
action potential arrives at the end of the neuron a vesicle which contains sodium fuses with cell membrane and sodium are released to synapse. Sodium binds to receptors on receiving cell membrane ion channels opens causing depolarization of the next neuron ion channel closes and get read for next impulse.
chemical gate opens on cell membrane depolarization occurs sodium enters through chemical gates area of depolarization spreads to axon hillock voltage gates open at axon hillock generates action potential successive voltage gates open down the axon propagates an action potential.
Motor skills,expressive language
Process sensory inform pressure touch or pain
Bottom section primarily auditory
Back of brain visual stimuli