Special Senses

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1

accommodation

Adjustment of the eye for various distances so that images fall on the retina of the eye

2

acuity

Clearness or sharpness od a sensory function

3

adnexa

Tissues or structures in the body adjacent to or near a related structure

T he adnexa of the eye include the extra ocular muscles, orbits, eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus.

4

humor

Any fluid or semifluid of he body

5

labyrinth

A series of intricate communicating passages

The labyrinth of the ear includes the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibule.

6

opaque

Substance or surface that neither transmits nor allows the passage of light

7

perilymph

Fluid that very closely resembles spline fluid but found in the cochlea

8

photopigment

Light-sensitive pigment in the retinal cones that absorb light and initiates the visual process; also called visual pigment

9

refractive

Ability to bend light rays as they pass from one medium to another

10

tunic

Layer or coat of tissue; also called membrane layer

The fibrous, vascular, and sensory tunics are the three layers that comprise the eyeball.

11

ambly/o

dull, dim

ambly/opia: dimness of vision

12

aque/o

water

aque/ ous: Pertaining to water

-ous: petaining to

13

blephar/o

eyelid

blephar/o/ptosis: a prolapse or downward displacement of the eyelid

-ptosis: prolapse, downward dispalcement

14

choroid/o

choroid

choroid/o/ pathy: disease of the choroid

-pathy: disease

15

conjunctiv/o

conjunctiva

conjunctiv/al: pertaining to the conjunctiva

-al: pertaining to

16

core/o

pupil

core/o/meter: instrument for measuring the pupil

meter: instrument for measuring

17

pupill/o

pupil

pupill/o/graphy: process of recording (movement of) the pupil

graphy: process of recording

18

corne/o

cornea

corne/al: pertaining to the cornea

-al:pertaining to

19

cycl/o

ciliary body of the eye; circular; cycle

cycl/o/ pledge: paralysis of the ciliary body

_plegia: paralysis

20

dacryl/o

tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)

dacry/oma: tumor like swelling of the lacrimal duct

-oma: tumor

21

lacrim/o

tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)

lacrimal/o/tomy: incision of the lacrimal duct or sac

-tomy: incision

22

dacryocyst/o

lacrimal sac

dacryocyst/o/ptosis: prolapse of the lacrimal sac

-ptosis: prolapse, downward displacement

23

glauc/o

gray

glauc/oma: gray tumor

-oma: tumor

If not treated, glaucoma results in increased intraocular pressure (IOP) that destroys the retina and optic nerve.

24

goni/o

angle

goni/o/scopy: visual examination of the irideocorneal angle

-scopy: visual examination

25

irid/o

iris

irid/o/plegia: paralysis of (the sphincter of) the iris

plegia: paralysis

26

kerat/o

horny tissue; hard; cornea

karat/o/tomy: incision of the cornea

-tomy: incision

27

ocul/o

eye

ocul/o/myc/osos: fungal infection of the eye (or it's parts)

myc: fungus

-osos: abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

28

ophthalm/o

eye

ophthalm/o/logist: specialist in the study of the eye

-ologist: specialist in the study of

Ophthalmologists are physicians who specialize in the medical and surgical management of diseases and disorders of the eyes.

29

opt/o

eye, vision

opt/o/metry: act of measuring vision

Optometry is the science of diagnosing, managing, and treating nonsurgical conditions and diseases of the eye and visual system.

30

optic/o

eye, vision

optic/al: pertaining to the eye or vision

-al: pertaining to

31

phac/o

lens

phac/o/cele: herniation (displacement) of the lens into the interior chamber of the eye

-cele: hernis, swelling

The usual cause of phacocele is blunt trauma to the eye.

32

phot/o

light

phot/o/phobia: abnormal fear of (intolerance to) light

-phobia: fear

Intolerance to light is associated with people who suffer from migraines or have light-colored eyes or glaucoma. Some medication also cause marked intolerance to light.

33

presby/o

old age

presby/opia: (poor) vision (associated with) old age

-opia: vision

Presbyopia is the loss of accommodation due to weakening of the ciliary muscles as a result of the aging process.

34

retin/o

retina

retin/o/sis: abnormal condition of the retina

-osos: abnormal condition; increase(used primarily with blood cells)

Retinosis includes any degenerative process of the retina not associated with inflammation.

35

scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of the eye)

scler/o /malacia: softening of the sclera

-malacia: softening

36

scot/o

darkness

scot/o/ma: dark, tumorlike spot

-oma: tumor

Scotoma is an area of diminished vision in the vision field.

37

vitr/o

vitreous body (of the eye)

vitr/ectomy: removal of the (contents of the) vitreous chamber

-ectomy: excision, removal

The removal of the vitreous body allows surgical procedures that would otherwise be impossible, including repair of macular holes and tears in the retina.

38

audi/o

hearing

audi/o/meter: instrument for measuring hearing

-meter: instrument for measuring

39

labyrinth/o

labyrinth (inner ear)

labyrinth/ o/tomy: incision of the labyrinth

-tomy: incision

40

mastoid/o

mastoid process

mastiod/ectomy: removal of the mastoid process

-ectomy: excision, removal

41

ot/o

ear

to/o/py/o/rrhea: discharge of puss from the ear

-py/o: pus

-rrhea: discharge, flow

42

salping/o

tubes (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)

salping/o/pharyng/eal: pertaining to the eustachian (auditory) tube and pharynx

-al: pertaining to

pharyng: pharnyx

43

staped/o

stapes

staped/ectomy: excision of the stapes

-ectomy: excision, removal

Stapedectomy is performed to improve hearing, especially in cases of otosclerosis.

44

myring/o

tympanic membrane (eardrum)

myring/o/myc/osis: abnormal condition due to fungal infection ot he tympanic membrane

-myc: fungus

-osos: abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

45

tympan/o

tympanic membrane (ear drum)

tympani/o/story: forming an opening in the tympanic membrane

-stomy: forming an opening (mouth)

This procedure is usually performed to insert small pressure-equalizing (PE) tubes through the tympanum.

46

-acusia

hearing

an/acusia: not hearing (deafness)

-an: without; not

47

-cusis

hearing

presby/cusis: hearing (loss) associated with old age

presby: old age

Presbycusis generally occurs in both ears and primarily affects perception of high pitch tones.

48

-opia

vision

dilpl/ copia: double vision

dipl- double; twofold

49

-opsia

vision

heter/ opts: inequality of vision (in the two eyes)

heter- different

50

-tropia

turning

eso/propia: turning inward(of the eyes); also called convergent strabismus or crossed eyes

eso-: inward

51

exo-

outside, outward

exo/tropia: abnormal turning outward of (one or both eyes); also called divergent strabismus

-tropia: turning

52

hyper-

excessive, above normal

hyper/opia: excess (farsighted) vision

opia: vision

53

Diseases and Conditions

...

54

acromatopsia

Severe congenital deficiency in color perception; also called complete color blindness

55

chalazion

Small, hard tumor developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst

56

conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva with vascular congestion that produces a red or pink eye and may be secondary to allergy or viral, bacterial, or fungal infections

57

ectropion

Eversion, or outward turning, of the edge of the lower eyelid

58

entropion

Inversion, or inward turning, of the edge of the lower eyelid

59

epiphora

Abnormal overflow of tears

Epiphora is sometimes caused by obstruction of the tear ducts.

60

hordeolum

Localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyelids, generally caused by a bacterial infection; also called stye

61

metamorphosia

Visual distortion of objects

Metamorphosia is commonly associated with errors of refraction, retinal disease, choroiditis, detachment of the retina, and tumors of the retina or choroid.

62

nyctalopia

Impaired vision in dim light; also called night blindness

Common causes of nyctalopia include cataracts, vitamin A deficiency, certain medications, and hereditary causes.

63

nystagmus

Type of involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision.

64

papilledema

Swelling and hyperemia of the optic disc, usually associated with increased intracranial pressure; also called choked disc

65

photophobia

Unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light

Photophobia commonly occurs in such diseases as meningitis, inflammation of the eyes, measles, and rubella.

66

presbyopia

Loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens associated with the aging process

During the aging process, proteins in the lens become harder and less elastic and muscle fibers surrounding the lens lose strength. These changes cause a decreased ability to focus, especially at close range.

67

retinopathy

diabetic

Any disorder of retinal blood vessels

Disorder that occurs in patients with diabetes and manifests as small hemorrhages, edemas, and formation of new vessels on the retina, leading to scarring and eventual loss of vision

68

trachoma

Chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis that typically leads tp bindness

69

anacusis

Complete deafness; also called anacusia

Anacusis may be unilateral or bilateral. Anacusis should not br confused with hearing loss. Hearing loss refers to impairment in hearing and the individual may be able to respond to auditory stimuli, including speech

70

conduction impairment

Blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear (conduction pathway)

71

labyrinthitis

Inflammation of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile process

labyrinthitis may lead to progressive vertigo.

72

Ménière disease

Disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing

Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus.

73

noise-inducing hearing loss (NIHL)

Condition caused by the destruction of hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing, as a result of sounds that are "too long, too loud, or too close"

Target shooting, leaf blowing, motorcycle engines, rock concerts, woodworking, and other such environmental noises all produce sounds that may, over time, cause NIHL.

74

otitis externa

Infection of the external auditory canal

Common causes of otitis externa include exposure to water when swimming (swimmer's ear) bacterial or fungal infections, seborhea, eczema, and such chronic conditions as allergies.

75

presbyacusis

Impairment of hearing resulting from old age; also called presbyacusia

In presbyacusis, patients are generally able to hear low tones but lose the ability to hear higher tones. This condition usually affects speech perception, especially in the presence of background noise, as in a restaurant or a large crowd. This type of hearing loss is irreversible.

76

tinnitus

Perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present

Tinnitus may be caused by a blow to the head, injection of large doses of aspirin, anemia, noise exposure, stress, impacted wax, hypertension, and certain types of medication and tumors.

77

vertigo

Sensation of a spinning motion either of oneself or of the surroundings

Vertigo usually results from damage to inner ear structures associated with balance and equilibrium. It may be caused by labyrinthitis or from the nerves that carry messages from the semicircular canals to the brain.

78

MEDICAL, SURGICAL, AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

...

79

Medical (2)

...

80

ear irrigation

Flushing of the ear canal with water or saline to dislodge foreign bodies or impacted cerumen (ear wax)

81

slit-lamp examination

Stereoscopic magnified view of the anterior eye structures in detail, which includes the cornea, lens, iris, sclera, and vitreous humor

82

Surgical (12)

...

83

blepahroplasty

Cosmetic surgery that removes fatty tissue above and below the eyes that commonly form as a result of the aging process or excessive exposure to the sun

84

pressure-equalizing (PE) tube placement

Insertion of tubes through the tympanic membrane, commonly used to teat chronic otitis media: also called tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes

85

cochlear implant insertion

Placement of an artificial hearing device that produces hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; also called bionic ear

86

cyclodialysis

Formation of an opening between the anterior chamber and the suprachoriidal space for the draining of aqueous humor in glaucoma

87

enucleation

Removal of the eyeball from the orbit

88

eviseration

Removal of the contents of the eye laving the sclera and cornea and iris intact

89

mastoid antrotomy

Surgical opening of a cavity within the mastoid process

90

otopalsty

Corrective surgery for a deformed or excessively large or small pinna

91

phacomulsification

Method of treating cataracts by using ultrasonic waves to disintegrate a cloudy lens, which is then aspirated and removed

92

radial keratotomy

Incision of the cornea for treatment of nearsightedness or astigmatism

93

sclerostomy

Surgical formation of an opening in the sclera

94

tympanoplasty

Resconsriction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; also called myringioplasty

95

Clinical (12)

...

96

audiometry

Measurement of hearing acuity at various sound-wave frequencies

97

caloric stimulation test

Test that uses different water temperatures to access the vestibular portion of the nerve of the inner ear (acoustic nerve) to determine if nerve damage is the cause of vertigo

98

electronystagmography (ENG)

Method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles

99

gonioscopy

Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to determine ocular motility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma

100

ophthalmodynamometry

Measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels

101

opthalmoscopy

Visual examination of the interior of the eye using a handheld instrument called an ophthalmoscope, which has various adjustable lenses for magnification and a light source to illuminate the interior of the eye

102

otoscopy

Visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope

103

pneumatic

Procedure that assesses the ability of the tympanic membrane to move in response to change in air pressure

104

retinoscopy

Evaluation of refractive errors of the eye by projecting a light into the eyes and determining the movement of reflected light rays

105

tonometry

Evaluation of intraocular pressure by measuring the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force

106

tuning fork test

Evaluation of sound conduction using a vibrating using fork

107

Rinne (tuning fork test)

Tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction (BC) verses air conduction (AC) of sound

108

weber (tuning fork test)

Tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time

109

visual acuity (VA) test

Part of an eye examination that determines the smallest letters that can be read on a standardized chart at a distance of 20 feet

110

dacryocystography

Radiographic imaging procedure of the nasolacrimal (tear) glands and ducts

111

fluorescein angiography

Evaluation of blood vessels and their leakage in and beneath the retina after injection of fluorescein dye, which circulates while photographs of the vessels within the eye are obtained

112

Eye Abbreviations

...

113

Acc

accomodation

114

ARMD, AMD

age-related macular degeneration

115

Ast

astigmatism

116

ENG

electronystagmogarphy

117

IOL

intraocular lens

118

IOP

intraocular pressure

119

LASIK

laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

120

Ear Abbreviations

...

121

AC

air conduction

122

BC

bone conduction

123

ENT

ears, nose, and throat

124

NIHL

noise-induced hearing loss

125

O.D.

Doctor of optometry

126

RK

radial keratomy

127

SLE

slit-lamp examination;

systemic lupus erythematosus

128

ST

esotropia

129

VA

visual acuity

130

VF

visual field

131

XT

exotropia

132

OM

otitis media

133

PE

physical examination;

pulmonary embolism;

pressure-equalizing (tube)

134

URI

upper respiratory infection


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