The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea

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Microbiology
Chapter 11
Microbiology
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1

Which system has five kingdoms made up of Monera (procaryotes); Protista (eukaryotic, unicellular); Fungi (eukaryotic, multicellular, chitin); Plantae (eukaryotic, multicellular) and Animalia (eukaryotic, multicellular)?

Whittaker's Five-Kingdom System

2

What is Woese's Three Domains based on?

Comparison of sequence of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

3

The three domains are above the kingdoms. Name the three domains.

Eubacteria (prokaryotic and contain bacteria)

Archaea (Prokaryotic and contain archaeabacteria)

Eucarya (contains all eukaryotic kingdoms)

4

How many volumes are contained in Bergey's Manual 1st Edition? Name them.

Four volumes: I. Gram negative

II. Gram positive

III. Other Gram negative bacteria

IV. Actinomycetes and other Gram positive bacteria

5

What are the division of the volumes in Bergey's Manual 1st edition based on?

Gram reaction

cell shape

cell arrangement

Oxygen requirements

motility

metabolic properties

6

How many volumes are contained in Bergey's Manual 2nd edition? Name them.

Five volumes I. Archaea and deeply branching phototrophic bacteria

II. The Proteobacteria (Gram negative)

III. The Firmicutes (Gram positive)

IV. Odd bacteria

V. Actinobacteria

7

What does Low G+C mean?

Less G and C in the DNA

8

What does High G+C mean?

More G and C in the DNA

9

What are the groups included in Proteobacteria?

Alpha

Beta

Gamma

Delta

Epsilon

10

True or False. The firmicutes are gram negative.

False

11

True or False. The proteobacteria are gram negative

True

12

What is the phylogeny of proteobacteria based on?

Ribosomal RNA studies

13

Which of the proteobacteria are nitrogen-fixing of which the most common is Rhizobium?

Alpha

14

What industrial benefit does the alpha proteobacteria offer?

They produce acetic acid from ethyl alcohol and help to make vinegar

Acetobacter

Gluconobacter

15

What are obligate intercellular parasites?

Bacteria that must live inside the cell of the host

16

How are alpha proteobacteria medically important?

Rickettsia, Arthropod-borne, spotted fever

R. prowazekii - Epidemic typhus (Lice on humans)

R. typhi - Endemic murine typhus (fleas on rats)

R. rickettsii - Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Ticks)

17

Give an example of bacteria - vector - disease in the alpha proteobacteria group.

Ehrlichia - Tick-borne - ehrlichiosis

18

What cures most patients with alpha proteobacteria infections?

Doxycyxcline

19

What is the best way to prevent typhus?

Inoculation with the typhus vaccine series before traveling to endemic areas and to avoid contact with lice.

20

True or False. All proteobacteria is not gram negative.

False

21

Alpha proteobacteria are chemoautotrophic. What does it mean?

They oxidize nitrogen for energy (lose electron or breakdown CO2)

Fix CO2 - carbon source

22

What is the alpha proteobacteria plant pathogen and what does it do?

Agrobacterium - insert a plasmid into plant cells, inducing a tumor

23

The Beta proteobacteria are medically important and very dangerous. Why?

Bordetella are chemoheterotrophic and rod-shaped - B. pertussis causes whooping cough

Burkholderia are nosocomial infections - B. cepacia is used for pesticides and dangerous for cystic fibrosis

24

Neisseria is a beta proteobacteria - which diseases are attributed to this bacteria?

N. meningitidis

N. gonorrhoeae

25

What is the Gram status and shape is Neisseria?

Gram negative cocci

26

Which two bacteria will never be used in the lab due to its dangerous nature?

Neisseria - beta proteobacteria

Pseudomonas - gamma proteobacteria

27

When it comes to metabolism - how does alpha proteobacteria differ from beta proteobacteria?

Alpha are chemoautotrophic and beta are chemoheterotrophic

28

What is the largest subgroup of proteobacteria?

Gamma

29

The enterics are included in the gamma proteobacteria - what are they?

Located in the intestines and colon and all are facultatively anaerobic and have peritrichous flagella. Includes: Klebsiella

Proteus

Salmonella

Serratia

30

Which gamma proteobacteria is considered very dangerous due to being an opportunistic pathogen? Why?

Pseudomonas because they can change their genome to use any food product. Found in the burn unit; green in color and smells like grapes.

31

Which of the pseudomonas are nitrogen fixing?

Azotobacter and azomonas

32

Which gamma proteobacteria causes pneumonia and where are they found?

Legionellales - in streams, warm-water pipes and cooling towers

33

Which gamma proteobacteria are found in salt water or raw fish?

Vibrionales

34

Which disease is vibrionales known to cause?

Cholera and gastroenteritis

35

What is another very dangerous gamma proteobacteria that require heme fraction and NAD cofactor?

Haemophilus

36

Which type of media has to be used with Haemophilus proteobacteria?

Blood agar (TSA + 5% agar) that has been boiled causing the release of X factor -referred to as chocolate agar due to its dark color

37

Which type of media does Neisseria require?

TSA + 5% agar

38

Which bacteria infections are caused by Haemophilus influenzae?

Meningitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, septic arthritis, earaches

39

Which proteobacteria are microaerphilic with helical or vibrioid rods and motile by means of flagella?

Epsilon proteobacteria

40

Which of the epsilon proteobacteria have one polar flagellum and are gastroenteritis?

Campylobacter

41

Which epsilon proteobacteria causes spontaneous abortion in domestic animals?

C. fetus

42

Which epsilon proteobacteria is the leading cause of baterial diarrhea?

C. jejuni

43

Which epsilon probacteria causes heartburn, peptic ulcers and stomach cancer?

Helicobacter or helicobacter pylori

44

Which group are low G + C and gram positive?

Firmicutes

45

Which of the firmicutes are endospore-producing and obligate anaerobes?

Clostridium

46

Which of the firmicutes are endospore-producing rods and Bacillus?

Bacillales

47

Which of the bacillales are cocci?

Staphylococcus

48

Which are generally aerotolerant anaerobes and lack an electron transport chain?

Lactobacillales

49

What are some typical lactobacillales?

Lactobacillus (in yogurt)

Streptococcus

Enterococcus

Listeria (gram positive rod) - if contracted in pregnancy, 40% chance of miscarriage

50

Which group are not contagious, wall-less and pleomorphic?

Mycoplasmatales

51

Which bacteria causes "walking" pneumonia?

M. pneumoniae

52

What are the gram positive and high G + C called?

Actinobacteria

53

Which of that actinobacteria are normal flora in the throat?

Corynebacterium

54

Corynebacterium causes diphtheria and strep throat but how are they visually different?

In diphtheria, there is a gray layer of infection in the throat and in strep throat, there is a yellow layer of infection.

55

Which of the nonproteobacteria gram negative bacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs?

Cyanobacteria

56

What are the basic characteristics of cyanobacteria?

oxygenic photosynthesis

gliding motility

fix nitrogen

57

What type of photosynthesis requires no oxygen?

Anoxygenic photosynthesis which is purple and green photosynthetic bacteria

58

Which nonproteobacteria gram negative bacteria is the longest gram negative bacteria?

Fusobacteria

59

Which group do spirochaetes and bacteriodetes fall under?

nonproteobacteria gram negative

60

Which of the bacteriodetes is found in the mouth and large intestine?

Bacteroides


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