Leaving Cert Chemistry Definitions

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1

Polarity

Refers to the separation of a positive and negative charge

2

Avocadro's Law

States that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules

3

Half L ife

The time taken for half the nuclei in any given sample to decay

4

Radioactivity

The spontaneous breaking up of unstable nuclei with the emission of one or more types of radiation

5

Robert Boyles Law

States that at a constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure ---> As pressure increases, volume decreases

6

Combined Gas Law

card image
7

Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes

The volumes of reacting gases and volumes of any gaseous products are in the ratio of small whole numbers provided the volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure

8

Electro negativity

Is the relative attraction that an atom in a molecule has for the shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond

9

Charles Law

States that at constant pressure the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature measured in the Kelvin Scale ---> As temperature increases, volume increases.

10

Mole

One mole of a substance always contains 6 x 1023 particles (Atoms, Ions or Molecules)

11

Compound

A substance that is made up of 2 or more different elements that are combined together chemically.

12

Standard Temperature and Pressure

Standard Temp. - 275K (00C)

Standard Pressure.- 101,325 Pa (101kPa)

13

Relative Molecular Mass

The sum of all the relative atomic masses of all atoms in the compound

14

Diffusion

The process by which particles of a substance spread through a solid liquid or gas

15

Atomic Radius

Half distance between the nuclei of 2 atoms of the same element that are joined together by a single covalent bond.

16

Ion

Is a charged atom or groups of atoms

17

Isotopes

Are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus

18

Element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

19

Relative Atomic Mass

This average mass of an atom is measured relative to the mass o's 1/12 of the C-12 isotope

20

Pressure

Pressure of a gas is the force exerted by the gas on each unit area of its container. Measure using Pascal (101,325 Pa or 101 kPa; 1kPa=1000Pa)

21

Ideal Gas

A gas that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases under all conditions of temperature and pressure ( PV=nRT)

22

Gases

Defined as a substance that has no well defined boundaries but diffuses rapidly to fill any container in which its placed.

23

Covalent Bonding

The chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons

24

Ionic Bond

The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound

25

Intermolecular Forces

Bonding between one molecule and another --> Van Der Waals, Dipole Dipole and Hydrogen Bonding

26

Screening Effect

Inner shell of electrons shield the outer electron from attracting to the nucleus

27

First Ionisation Energy

The MINIMUM amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from a neutral gaseous atom in its ground state.

28

Electronic Configuration

Shows the arrangement of electrons in each main energy level in an atom of that element.

29

Energy Level

The fixed energy value that an electron in an atom may have

30

Second Ionisation Energy

Is the amount of energy required to remove the 2nd electron from the positive ion formed when the 1st electron was removed.


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