Earth Science Exam #3

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by GreenHero15
26,917 views
book cover
Earth Science
Chapters 2-6
This course includes an overview of those sciences that collectively seek to understand our dynamic Earth and its relationship to the larger universe. Includes material from the fields of geology, oceanography, meteorology and astronomy through which we examine the physical laws and natural processes that have helped to shape and change Earth and the universe around it. An introduction to astronomy will explore the universe and solar system, including basic cosmological principles, the life and death of stars, and the objects in our solar system.
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

The most important mechanical weathering process is ________.

frost action

2

Which the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atom's nucleus?

protons

3

All silicate minerals contain which two elements?

silicon, oxygen

4

As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form ________.

decreases

5

A(n) ________ represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with sand and gravel.

esker

6

Which of the following best describes the process of eluviation?

removal of very fine-sized silt and clay particles from the A and E soil horizons

7

Which of the following best describe the E soil horizon?

leaching zone

8

Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.

9

From the land surface downward to the unweathered bedrock, which of the following is the correct order of the different soil horizons?

0, A, E, B, C, bedrock

10

A broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine is a(n) ________.

outwash plain

11

During the most recent ice age, glaciers covered about ________ percent of Earth's land area.

30

12

The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ________.

limestone

13

Which one of the following is NOT true about mechanical weathering?

does not affect metamorphic rocks

14

Sedimentary rocks ________.

– may contain fossils

– may be economically important

– hold important clues to Earth's history

all of the above

15

Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

rhyolite

16

Coal beds originate in ________.

freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

17

Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth's crust?

silicates

18

The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is ________.

marble

19

Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?

The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons.

20

Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?

the bottom or base

21

Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?

micas

22

Assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statement is true?

Water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart.

23

The loess deposited in many parts of the Midwest ________.

was once glacial outwash deposits

24

Clay minerals formed from gabbro or diorite bedrock illustrate which kind of weathering?

chemical

25

What two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?

warm temperatures; very moist

26

Desert pavement is the result of ________.

deflation

27

A(n) ________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier.

ground moraine

28

The finely divided, red, brown, and yellow soil-coloring minerals originate by what process?

precipitation of iron oxides during the chemical weathering process

29

The texture of an igneous rock ________.

records the rock's cooling history

30

Which of the following statements concerning mudflows is NOT true?

Mudflows deposit talus slopes.

31

The agents of metamorphism are ________.

heat, pressure, and chemical fluids

32

Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism?

– The rock becomes more compact.

– Crystals may grow larger.

– Certain minerals may recrystallize.

all of the above

33

Consider a weathered rock or soil particle lying on a slope. How will the gravitational force pulling the particle downward along the land surface vary with the inclination of the slope?

It will decrease as the slope angle is lessened.

34

The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as ________.

hardness

35

An atom's mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?

7

36

What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following low-grade metamorphism?

slate

37

The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.

cleavage

38

All of the following are possible indicators that creep is occurring except for ________.

an extremely thick soil profile

39

In which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective?

in moist, temperate climates

40

Which common mineral is composed entirely of silicon and oxygen?

quartz

41

Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock.

granite

42

Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement?

creep

43

Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit a ________ texture.

coarse-grained

44

The most unreliable (variable) diagnostic property of minerals such as quartz is ________.

color

45

Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering?

– mineral content

– climate

– topography

all of these

46

Igneous rock is formed ________.

by crystallization of magma

47

Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for ________.

shale

48

________ is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals.

Gneiss

49

Sedimentary rocks comprise approximately ____ percent of Earth's outermost 10 miles.

5

50

Obsidian exhibits a ________ texture.

glassy

51

As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique from wind, water, and ice?

Mass wasting does not require a transporting medium.

52

Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?

luster

53

This rock gets its name from a chain of mountains located in South America.

andesite

54

What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight?

oxygen

55

________ is one of the two major flow mechanisms in a glacier.

Slipping

56

Which one of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock?

frost wedging

57

Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?

Antarctica

58

A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weighs 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This indicates that ________.

gold has a higher density and specific gravity than quartz and olivine

59

A naturally occurring concentration of one or more metallic minerals that can be extracted economically is a(n) ________.

ore

60

A name commonly used as a synonym for the most recent Ice Age is ________.

Pleistocene epoch

61

The term drift ________.

means any sediments of glacial origin

62

What mature, desert landscape feature consists of coalesced alluvial fans?

bajada

63

Select the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar from the list below.

granite

64

Which mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?

calcite

65

All of the following are factors that affect rates of weathering except for ________.

geologic age of earth materials

66

Which one of the following is NOT true for minerals?

They can be a liquid, solid, or glass.

67

This dense, nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone.

quartzite

68

Which mineral has water bound into its structure?

gypsum

69

Metamorphism may result from ________.

– pressure

– heat

– chemical action

all of these

70

Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified primarily on the basis of ________.

particle size

71

Which of the following is NOT a fundamental particle found in atoms?

selectron

72

Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?

gold

73

Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called ________.

ions

74

Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth's land area?

30%

75

Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ________.

protons in the nucleus

76

Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends the position of its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?

accumulation exceeds wastage

77

Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is NOT true?

involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material

78

Which of the following minerals is a silicate?

feldspar

79

Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?

slate, phyllite, schist

80

Of the following, which one would most likely be triggered by an earthquake?

rock avalanche

81

All of the following are factors affecting mass wasting except for ________.

geologic age

82

This igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes.

porphyritic

83

Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?

the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere

84

________ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.

Cirques

85

How do freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying contribute to soil creep?

The soil expands and contracts, lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope.

86

Granite and gabbro ________.

have a similar texture

87

Which statement best describes slumping, a mass wasting process?

a block or blocks of unconsolidated regolith slide downhill along a curved slip surface

88

Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?

calving

89

Ice Age glaciers had many indirect effects. Which one of the following was NOT such an effect?

formation of mountains

90

Intrusive rocks ________.

none of the above

– are generally fine-grained

– are quite often vesicular

– form at Earth's surface

91

Frost wedging is the major weathering process contributing to the formation of which regolith material?

talus slopes

92

A ________ forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and subsequently melts, creating a pit.

kettle

93

Which one of the following is NOT true of glaciers?

exist only in the Northern Hemisphere

94

The ion at the center of a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron is surrounded by ________.

four oxygen ions

95

Which one of the following operates primarily in areas of permafrost?

solifluction

96

Which of the rocks listed below is a popular building stone?

granite

97

In terrain with steep hill slopes, which crop and cultivation technique will minimize soil erosion?

apples; land between the trees is planted in grass and not cultivated

98

What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?

diamond

99

In the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, north-facing slopes (downhill direction is toward the north) are typically more moist and heavily forested than south-facing slopes. Why?

North-facing slopes receive about the same amount of precipitation as south-facing slopes; less moisture evaporates from north-facing slopes.

100

Which of the following is NOT one of the eight most common elements in the Earth's crust?

carbon

101

A natural levee is ________.

both a depositional feature and essentially parallel to its stream channel

102

A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean. What is the average gradient?

0.5 m/km

103

A ________ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.

stalactite

104

An artesian well is one in which ________.

water rises above the top of the aquifer without any pumping

105

As stream discharge increases ________.

only velocity increases

106

At a bend in a river, the main erosion is ________.

on the outside of the bend

107

At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ________.

distributaries

108

Caves most commonly form in ________.

limestone

109

Erosional retreat of a ________ leads to enlargement and extension of a wave-cut platform in the inland direction.

wave-cut cliff

110

Fetch refers to ________.

a large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves

111

Hot springs are most numerous in which region of the United States?

West

112

If you were to examine the profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is ________.

steepest near the head

113

Large estuaries are more common on a(n) ________ coastline.

submergent

114

Permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called ________.

aquifers

115

The most common drainage pattern is ________.

dendritic

116

The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants is called ________.

transpiration

117

The single most important erosional agent is ________.

running water

118

The suspended load of a stream ________.

usually consists of fine particles

119

The term karst topography was first used in ________.

the Republic of Slovenia, a province of the former Yugoslavia

120

The water table is ________.

a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above

121

The world's largest river in terms of discharge is the ________.

Amazon

122

When water is pumped from a well, a depression is often produced in the water table. Such a depression is a(n) ________.

cone of depression

123

Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?

With a slight reduction in pressure, water in a saturated, natural conduit suddenly boils, sending a plume of steam and hot water into the air above the vent.

124

Which of the following features characterize meandering streams and valleys?

natural levees; broad floodplains

125

Which of the following is associated with areas of karst topography?

– soluble rock

– caverns

– sinkholes

all of these

126

Which of the following is NOT part of the water cycle?

calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater

127

Which one of the following factors does NOT influence stream velocity?

discharge

128

________ are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.

Rapids and lots of whitewater

129

________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.

Capacity

130

________ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

An oxbow

131

________ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

Silt and clay-sized, detrital grains

132

________ would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants.

Slightly clayey sand


Related pages


kappa alpha psi temple universityintroduction to sociology chapter 1subcostal arteriesprotective reflexthe products of glycolysisinorganic salts deposited in organic ground substancegreen twig fracturediagram of a neuron with labelsthe results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed bywhat is the significance of red blood cells being anucleatetriploid chromosomesupinators of the forearmhemoglobin transportsthe purpose of a mordant in the gram stain ishepatic portal vesselmhhe biologydescribe the mesentery and the greater omentumnursing diagnosis noncompliancefundamental nursing exam questionsimmune system quizletthe endocrine system chapter 9how does aldosterone modify the chemical composition of urinethe primary pacemaker of the heart is theanatomy and physiology immune systembinomial expansion geneticsto kill a mockingbird testhypothalamus strokedead nerve endingswhat is filtered in the glomerulusaqueous humor functiontermination transcription eukaryoteswhat are the countries in asia and their capitalswhich of these phases is not part of hemostasisthe axial skeleton exercise 10positive phototropismintegumentary system functions and structuresynonyms of minimizethe dead christ andrea mantegnarugae of mucosadiarrhea acid basebiology chapter 31 assessment answersbond angle in so2what is the best definition of a eukaryotic cellformula of blue vitroldivision sphenophytasurgery flashcardspink panties recipe vodkaveterinary flashcardssister chromatids and homologous chromosomesa gastrovascular cavity isa recombinant plasmid gets inside a bacterial cell byneurotransmitter for release is stored in synapticfemale climactericwhat must happen before mitosis can beginwhat increases the surface area of certain epithelial tissuesvasodilation cardiovascular systemrna codon tablecardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all exceptfrom which cell do the granulocytes descendvertebral cavityouter electron configurationwhat is the function of neuroglial cellswhat is the spinal cord composed ofa testcross involvesof the following which occurs during the calvin cycledefine absorption in digestive systembrachialis muscle exercisesanimal ribosomesnh4clo3what are viruses that infect bacteria calledspermiogenesis involves thefind the p-value for the indicated hypothesis testpedigree chart for eye colorwhat type dominance do pea plants showdefinition of a dominant allelelongest vein in bodychromalveolatestubular secretion in nephron