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chapter 23

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1

triple alliance

One of the two great, competing alliances of the major powers of Europe in 1914. This group united Germany, The Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Italy.

2

triple entente

One of the two great, competing alliances of the major powers of Europe in 1914. This group linked Britain, France, and Russia.

3

central powers

This was the name given to the nations of the Triple Alliance.Germany and its world war one allies in Austria,turkey and Bulgaria.

4

allied powers

This was the name given to the nations of the Triple Entente. Britain, France and Russia fighting against the central powers.

5

archduke francis ferdinand

This man was assassinated on June 28, 1914 while paying a state visit to Sarajevo. This man was heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and he was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. His assassination is what began the war.

6

neutrality

nonparticipation in a dispute or war. The US was neutral during WWI until 1917.....but later on The U.S favored the British and was against the Germans.

7

Luistania

a British passenger ship that was sunk by German U-boats that killed almost 1,200 people including 128 Americans; made America consider entering WWI

8

zimmermann telegram

A coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917, to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt, at the height of World War I. The telegram instructed the ambassador to approach the Mexican government with a proposal to form a military alliance against the United States. It was intercepted and decoded by the British and its contents hastened the entry of the United States into World War I.

9

Arthur Zimmerman

German foreign minister who sent the message to Mexico and Proposed an alliance between Mexico and and Germany.

10

Committee on Public information

government agency during world war one that sought to shape public opinion in support of the war effort through newspaper, pamphlets,speeches,films and other media. Woodrow Wilson established this under journalist George Creel.

11

the creel committee

Committee on Public Information; aimed to sell America and the world on Wilson's war goals; propaganda, censorship, "four-minute men" speeches, "Liberty Leagues" (spy on community)

12

george creel

a journalists who was the head of the Committee of Public Information. He helped the anti-German movement as well as inspired patriotism in America during the war.

13

selective service act of 1917

the law establishing the military draft for world war one...In May 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which created a national draft. The act required all men ages 21 to 30 to register for military service at local polling stations. This was the first time the U.S. government had established a draft before entering a war.

14

espionage act

Provided for the imprisonment of up to 20 years for persons who either tried to incite rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct the operations of the draft.

15

trading with the enemy act

obliged any newspaper printed here in a foreign language to furnish the postmaster general with English translations of everything published about the war...forbade trade with the enemy and empowered the postmaster general to deny use of the mails for any printed matter that, in his opinion, advocated treason, insurrection, or forcible resistance to the laws of the US

16

sedition act

Prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the US government.

17

american expeditionary force

American force of 14,500 that landed in France in June 1917 under the command of General John Pershing. Both women and blacks served during the war, mostly under white officers,,,,the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the ___ fought in France alongside British and French allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces. The ___ helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive (at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood) in June 1918, and fought its major actions in the Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne Offensives in late 1918.
Gen. Pershing was a commander of these forces.

18

John Pershing

a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. He is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies (a retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority); holds the first United States officer service number (O-1). his nickname of "Black Jack" resulted from his command of black troops earlier in his career

19

moral diplomacy

foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace.Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy.

20

14 points

Wilson's peace plan designed to end the war without much discontent from all countries. It helped create the League of Nations, as well as inspired the allies, demoralized the enemy, and gave promises out to dissatisfied minorities...Woodrow Wilson's peace plan to end WWI. It calls for free trade; an end to secret pacts between nations; freedom of the seas; arms reduction; and the creation of a world organization - called the League of Nations

21

david Lloyd George

He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

22

Georges Clemenceau

Represented France at Versailles and was one of the Big Four. Wanted revenge against Germany and compensation in the form of indemnities and territory

23

Vittorio Orlando

Represented Italy at Versailles and was one of the Big Four. Wanted revenge against Germany and compensation in the form of indemnities and territory

24

treaty of versailles

the treaty ending world war one and creating the league of nations.peace conference in which all of the allies in the war participated and it was the first time an American president traveled abroad for a diplomatic conference. The United States never ratified the Treaty.

25

war guilt clause

In treaty of Versailles; declared Germany and Austria-Hungary responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers for war damages...Forced to admit guilt for the war, accept French occupation of Rhineland for 15 years, and pay a huge sum of $ in reparations to GB and France.

26

war reparations

Compensation or repayment; compensation payable by a defeated nation for damages sustained as a result of hostilities. One of the clauses of the Treaty of Versailles, that Germany had to pay for the war damages of WWI

27

league of nations

international organization created by the Versailles treaty after world war one to ensure world stability.

28

irreconcilables

group of US senators opposed to ratification of the treaty of Versailles after world war one.

29

Reservationists

group of US senators opposing approval of the treaty of Versailles without significant amendments. Led by henry cabot

30

Article 10

This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression.The most controversial of the League of Nations covenants, Article 10 said that all nations must protect the territorial and political integrity of other League members. The article meant that if one nation was engaged in war, all others must become involved. This article was a large part of why the US rejected the League.


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