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Biology Practical 2

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1

Monoecious

having both male and female reproductive parts on the same individual

2

Dioecious

having male and female reproductive parts on separate indiviuals

3

integument

protective layer around the ovule; becomes the seed coat

4

pollen grain

in seed plants starts as a microspore and a gametophyte forms inside

5

pollen tube

male gamete type travel to the ovule through this (fallopian tube)

6

tracheids

a type of cell found in xylem; at maturity the cell is dead/hollow allows for movement of water and salts through the roots

7

lignin

in organic substance that is one of the main components of wood

8

fiber cells

cells in the xylem that are lignified and offer support

9

parenchyma

type of ground tissue; unspecialized plant tissue; makes up the bulk of the soft parts of the plant (cortex; pith;mesophyl)

10

sieve tube elements

cells of the phloem that conduct carbohydrates from leaves to the rest of the plant

11

cambium

thin layer to meristematic tissue

produces phloem on its outer surface

xylem on the inner surface

and increases the diameter of the stem/trunk

12

vascular bundles

groups of xylem and phloem cells

13

cork cells

cells that make up nonliving water resistant tissues

bark of the tree

14

cork cambium

layer of meristamatic tissue that becomes cells that become bark

15

rhizome

a modified underground stem

16

staminate cones

male strobili of the gymnosperms; where microsporangia/spore are formed

17

ovuliferous

females strobili of gymnosperms; contains megasporangia/ megaspores; then the megametaphyte and egg; eventually fertilized embryo

18

megaphylls

part of the female cone; modified leaves that bear megasporangia

19

micropyle

small gap in the integument surrounding the ovule; where male gametes enter to fertilize the egg

20

deciduous

plants that shed leaves at the end of the growing season

21

evergreens

plants that fully persist throughout the year

22

megasporocyte

cell that reduces megaspores

23

resin duct

tube in the stem or leaf

lined with cells that secrete resin

24

monoecious vs dioecious

mono- sex parts on the same tree (evergreens); pollen=sperm and cone=egg

dio-sex parts on separate individuals sporophyte-->sporophyll-->sporangia

25

Evolution of Seed and Vascular Tissues

Seed: composed of female gametophyte and egg cell within; prior to fertilization; embryo w/in seed in nourished by female gametophyte tissues that also serves as protective coat (integument of ovule); composed of 3 different genomes

Vascular tissues: (roots) serve two main functions

1)anchoring plant to substrate

2)absorption of water and nutrients from the soil

26

Phylum Cycadophyta

-dioecious

-mega/micro(female/male): sprorophyte; sporophyll; sporangia

27

Phylum Ginkophyta

-dioecious

-distinctive leaf and twig

-favor male plants because the fleshy seeds of the female trees tend to rot and small bad when fall

28

Phylum Coniferophyta

-pine trees; evergreens (cedar; juniper;spruce)

-leaves are modified; needles that produce resin

-monoecious (both genders same plant)

29

phylum Gnetophyta

-dioecious

-double fertilization: process involves the joining of a female gametophyte (megagametophyte, also called the embryo sac) with two male gametes (sperm)

**only gymnosperm phylum to have double fertilization

30

Scientific names of Species studied in Lab

-Zamia sp. Phylum Cycadophyta

-Gingkio sp. Phylum Ginkgophyta

-Pinus sp. Phylum Coniferophyta

-Ephedra trifurca sp. Phylum Gnetophyta

31

Difference in male and female cones in Phylum Conierophyta Pinus sp.

male: softer cone; produces pollen(sperm); smaller; deteriorates quickly(2 sperms cells; on fertilizes egg other sperm nucleus is absorbed)

female: gametophyte; megasporocyte produces 4 megaspore cells (3 abort/ 1 develops)

32

Succulents

thick fleshy parts that help store water in dry environments

33

Pollinators

animals that move pollen from anthers to the stigma of the flower

34

Flowers are comprised of 4 rings (modified leafs)

-sepals: outer whorl of the flower

-petals: colorful; attract pollinators

-stamens: contain microsporangia; includes a filament that supports the anther

-carpels: contain megasporangia; composed of stigma; style; ovary (contains ovules)

-pistil: two of more carpels fused together

35

coevolution

Example: flowers and pollinators

-when two or more species evolve together

36

stigma

top most part of the pistil where pollen lands and germinates

37

double fertilization

-pollen first germinates the stigma and produces pollen tube that penetrates(germinates) the style and enters the ovary to fertilize the female gametophyte (egg)

38

synergid (double fertilization)

A cell of the female gametophyte. There are two and they are located at the micropyle end of the embryo sac and near the egg. These cells help guide the pollen tube. The pollen tube grows towards and into one of these cells, the cell dissolves, the pollen tube stops growing and the sperm is released.

39

polar nuclei (double fertilization)

A cell of the female gametophyte. There are two. They fuse with one of the male sperm to form 3n (triploid) endosperm (nutritive tissue of the seed).

40

Epidermis

The outer most layer of the plant, may have. May be covered by the cuticle.

41

Cortex

The layer of tissue between the epidermis and the endodermis and vascular tissue of the plant. Used in starch storage and in the uptake of water and minerals.

42

Starch Granule

Glucose is water soluble and cannot be stored easily by plants. The glucose molecules produced during photosynthesis are combined to form this semi-crystalline structure

43

Atactostele

A type of eustele found in monocots. Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem.

44

Pith

Soft spongy tissue in the center of the stem. Parenchyma cells make up this tissue

45

Parenchyma

A type of ground tissue. These unspecialized cells make up a bulk of the plant biomass including the pith, cortex, and mesophyll

46

Mesophyll

In dicot leaves the layer of tissue just under the upper epidermis. The cells contain many chloroplasts. These cells are made of chlorenchyma cells (parenchyma cells with chloroplasts).

47

Parts of the flower

Carpel: Stigma; style ; and ovary

Stamen: Anther and filament

Petal

Ovule

Receptacle

Sepal

48

Difference between monocot and diocot

Mono: 1 cotyledon; fibrous roots; Actactostele (complex vascular bundles); parallel veins; floral X3

Dio: 2 cotyledons; taproot roots; Eustele ( vascular bundles in ring); netlike veins; floral X4 or 5

49

Importance of structures in plant leaves

structure and function

epidermis: waxy cucticle prevents water loss

stomata: allows water and gas exchange with the mesophyll; control by guard cell via turgor/pressure

parenchyma cells: site of photosynthesis

50

Eudicots Parenchyma cells

-differentiated into

palisade parenchyma:layer of tissue just under the upper epidermis. The cells contain many chloroplasts. These cells are made of chlorenchyma cells (parenchyma cells with chloroplasts)

spongy parenchyma: layer of tissue just above the lower epidermis. These cells contain fewer chloroplasts and are less tightly spaced to allow for diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide during respiration and photosynthesis

51

Importance of Storage Structures

-energy storing molecules (starch) overproduced and stored for limited time resources

-typically subterranean

-modified root, stem, or leaf tissue

52

Mycelium

the vegetative part of the fungus made up of many hyphae

53

hyphae

are threadlike filaments

54

Chytrid

group of primitive fungi that have flagellated zoospores; and are never filamentous

found in aquatic systems

often parasitic

55

Saprobic

describes an organisms that feeds on nonliving or decaying matter

secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs and digested material

56

Coenocytic

containing multiple nuclei in one cell

57

Septate

having dividers between cells

58

Haustoria

the appendages (in parasitic fungi) that penetrate the hosts tissue

59

Sporangia (fungi)

spore producing structures

60

Gametangia (fungi)

Gametate producing structure

61

Fruiting bodies (fungi)

a multicellular structure that contains spore-producing structures

62

Plasmogamy

fusion of the cytoplasm of two of more cells in fungi

63

Karyogamy

fusion of two cell nuclei in fungi

64

Dikaryon

having two nuclei in a cell in fungi

65

Heterokaryotic

having multiple genetic different nuclei in one cell (fungi)

66

Ectomycorrhizae (fungi)

fungi that for a symbiotic relationship with plants

fungus lives outside the roots of the plants

67

Endomycorrhizae (fungi)

symbiotic relationship with plants

fungus lives on the inside of the roots of the plant

68

Zygospore (fungi)

a thick walled spore that is formed during sexual reproduction

69

Sporangiosphores (fungi)

stalk that holds a sporangium

70

Ascus

A sac-shaped structure that produces spores

Occurs during sexual reproduction

71

Asocarp

large fruiting body that contain asci

72

Conidiophores

branched hypae that bear conidia

occurs during asexual reproduction in the Ascomycota

73

Condia

in the Ascomycota a asexual produce fungal spore

74

Basidium

A club shaped structure that bears spores

occurs during sexual reproduction

75

Basidiocarps

large fruiting bodies that bear basidia

76

Cell Wall (Fungi)

Made up of Chitin

77

Characteristics of Fungi

-decomposers (saprobes) chemoautotrophic

-feed by releasing enzymes into the environment and absorbs predigested organic compounds

-inhabit all environments

-non motile

-have no chlorophyl

-most are choenocytic and have multiple nuclei within a single cytoplasm (except for yeast)

-alteration of generations (haploid dominant)

78

Septate Vs. Aseptate

Septate: cells divided by cell walls; cell walls perforated

Aseptate: no cells walls between cells; multinucleate

79

Lichens and Symbiosis

-mutualism between cyanobacterium or green algae

-benefits of he algae is protected (housed) receive nutrients from the fungus

-benefits of fungus: photosynthetic sugars provided from algae

Growth forms: crustose (crusty); foliose (foliaged); fruticose (moss)

80

Sexual reproduction in Fungi

-most fungi reproduce sexually

-chitrid fungi: occurs by fusion of motile gametes to form a zygote

-other phyla: involves fusion of gametangia (fruiting bodies: releases sexual spores)

  • Zygomycota (zygote fungi)
  • Ascomycota (sac fungi)
  • Basidiomycota (club-shaped fungi)
81

Difference between 4 Phyla of fungi and characteristics

Chytridomycota: mostly aquatic; many are parasitic on protists, plants, and animals; flagellated zoospores and gametes

Zygomycota: aseptate; sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction ex: bread mold (rhizopus)

Ascomycota: sac fungi; septate; sexually reproduced one round of meiosis followed by one round of mitosis; forms spores in asci (sacs)

Basidiomycota: club fungi; septate hypea; club shaped; basidiocarp has gills that house the basidia where basidospores are produced; long lived dikaryotic phase (shrooms; toadstools; rusts; shelf fungi; puffballs)

82

Parazoa (animal)

animals of this group DO NOT HAVE: tissues; organs; symmetry; gastrulation during embryonic development; Phyla Porifera is the only subkingdom

83

Metazoa (animal)

animals of this group DO HAVE: tissues; organs; symmetry; gastrulation during embryonic developments; includes all animals not in parazoa

84

Diploblastic (animal)

having two embryological germ layers

1) ectoderm

2)endoderm

85

Radial Symmetry (animal)

body plane of organism that can be divided into two mirror halves by a plane passing through any angle along the central axis

86

Ectoderm

outermost tissue layer

gives rise to the nervous system

87

Endoderm

innermost tissue layer

gives rise respiratory and digestive systems

88

Triploblastic

three embryological germ layers

1)endoderm

2)mesoderm

3)ectoderm

89

Bilateral symmetry

symmetry that can be divided into left and right halves along the central axis

include all the triploblastic animals in lab

90

Mesoderm

middle layer

gives rise to connective tissue; muscles/bones; and circulatory system

91

Cephalization

the concentration of neuro and sensory organs towards the anterior region of the body

92

nerve cord

a hollow dorsal tract contain nerve tissue

93

incurrent pore

openings where water enter into the spongeocoel also called: ostium

94

spongeocoel

in Porifera the central cavity of the sponge

95

excurrent opening

water exists

also called the: osculum

96

choanocyte

flagellated cells lining the spongeoecoel

maintain the flow of water through the sponge and capture food

aka: collar cells

97

Amoebocytes

cells that phagocytize food captured by choanocytes

food distributed all over

all cells that look like ameobo

98

mesohyl

the gelatinous matrix between the outermost layer of cells and choanocytes

amoebocytes travel in this

99

spicules

needle like fibers that give structures to the sponge

can be made of CaCO3 and silica

100

gastrovascular cavity

gastro: gut

vascular: circulation

organ that forms both ^

101

epidermis

the outermost layer of tissue

develops the ectoderm

102

polyp

one of the two body planes of Cnidarian

sessile attached at foot to substrate

hollow cylindrical body

103

medusa

one of the two body planes of Cnidarian

motile=moves

dome or umbrella shape

typical jellyfish

104

Cnidocytes

stinging cells in Cnidarian

105

Cnidae

capsule like organelles that release the nematocyst (venom)

106

nematocyst

barbed hollow coiled tube in Cnadocytes

injects toxin into prey

107

hermaphrodites

having both female and male reproductive organs

108

gemnules

cluster of cells made of ameobocytes

surrounded by spicules that develops into a new individual

asexual reproduction

109

hypostome

elevated mound of tissue that contains the mouth opening

110

spermatozoa

mature male gamete (sperm)

111

Gastrodermis

in Cnidarian the inner layer of the gastrovascular cavity

112

Ova

the female reproductive cell (egg)

113

Mesoglea

the gelatinous material that separates inner and outer cell layers

114

proglottids

the segment of a tapeworm that contains both male and female reproductive organs

115

Scolex

the head of the tapeworm with specialized hook and suckers that attach the intestinal lining

116

Characteristic of Porifera

-Aquatic (mostly marine but some are freshwater)

-multicellular (but lack true tissues/organs)

-cells show division of labor

-filter feeders

117

Three body types of sponges

1) Asconoid: simple/small; the Ostia are open directly to the spongeoceol

2)Syconoid: the intermediate; Ostia open into chambers that open into the spongeoceol

3) Leuconoid: comples; Ostia open into cannals that with multiple chamber that lead to spongeoceol

118

Characteristics of Cnidaria

-Radial symmetry

-true tissue and primitive neural net

-Cnidocytes: stinging cells

-body structures: polyp and medusa

119

Body Structures of Cnidaria:

-epidermis: nerve and muscle tissue; contains the cnidocytes

-mesoglea: non cellular jelly layer

-gastrodermis: ingestion and egestion; secretes digestive enzymes into coelenterons

-

120

Reproduction of Cnidaria

Obelia colony: reproductive polyps and gonangia

Hydra: hermaphrodites; reproduces sexually and asexually; Gonozoids

-Cnidaria: reproductive organs develop in the lining of the gut

121

Reproduction of Planaria

reproduce asexually (worms did in lab)

regenerates both its anterior and its posterior

122

Characteristics Phylum Platyhelminthes

-marine, fresh-water, damp soil, or parasitic

-Triploblastic

-Body: solid tissue; no fluid cavity (acoelomate)

-gas and nutrient exchange must be from cell to cell (flat dorsal-ventral surface)

123

-Types of Platyhelminthes

tapeworms:

parasites of vertebrate digestive tracts

scolux: head with suckers and hook; attaches to intestine

no digestive system

proglottids: segments full of reproductive organs

flatworms:

-free living ex: planaria

-eyespot: phototaxis

-regeneration: asexually

flukes:

-Ex: Chlonorchis (snail, fish, human bile-duct)

-parasites with vertebrates with intricate life-cycles

124

Characteristics of Mollusks and Annelids

Protostomes I. Soft-bodied Invertebrates

-Bilateria (bilateral symmetry)

-Tripoblastic (3 germ layers)

-Trochophore: larvae

-Cephalization: concentration of neuro and sensory organs towards the anterior region of the body

-Segmentation (metamerism) repetition of body units

125

Phylum Molusca

-most soft-bodied protected by external shell made of CaCO3

-Foot: used for propulsion

-Mantale: secretes shell

-Radula : a rasping organ covered with chintinous teeth

-complete digestive system

126

Phylum Molusca: Class Polyplacophora

-Chitons

-marine

-graze algae from rocks ( with large oval foot)

-body made of 8 overlapping plates

-body dorso-ventrally flattened

127

Phylum Molusca: Class Gastropoda

(snails & slugs; nudibranches)

-marine; f/w; terrestrial

-graze on algae and plants

-torsion: during development visceral cavity twists so that mantel cavity is positioned above the mouth

128

Phylum Molusca: Class Bivalvia

(clams; oysters; mussels; scallops)

-marine and f/w

-laterally compressed body between two valves (shells)

-lack: eyes;radula; suspension feeders

-gills function in gas exchange and feeding

129

Phylum Molusca: Class Ce phalopoda

"head foot"

(squid; octopuses, and nautiluses)

-marine: fast; voracious predators

-foot modified as tentacles

-move backward; by water jet propulsion

-shell absent or reduced to internal cuttlebone (except Natutilus retains outer shell)

130

Plylum Annelida

-segmented worm

-complete digestive system

-closed circulatory system

-muscle tissue for locomotion develops from mesodermal tissues

-well developed nervous system

131

Longitudinal and Circular muscles in Annelids

Locomotion

-Contraction of the circular muscles makes the worm thinner, but because liquid is essentially incompressible the increase in pressure forces the liquid outwards stretching the worm (becomes longer and thinner)

-Contraction of the longitudinal fibers shortens the worm, pushed the coelom liquid out to the sides; making the worm fatter

132

Plylum Annelida: Class Oligochaeta

-terrestrial and f/w segmented worms

-important to decomposition and soil areation (hollow diggings of the worms)

-Complete digestive system with functional regions: pharynx; esophagus; crop; intestine

-septae: partitions of body wall between segments

133

Annelida: Oligochaeta (earthworms) Reproduction

-simultaneous hermaphrodites (cross-fertilization)

-Fertilization takes place externally

-after mating when the eggs are shed through the female gonopore onto a collar of mucus released by the clitellum; passed over opening of seminal receptacles where stored sperm is released onto the eggs

-the collar slips off the anterior end (head) of the worm and becomes cocoon for developing embryo

-male gonopores (segment 15) sperm exists during mating and stored in seinal receptacles (segments 9&10)

134

Phylum Annelida: Class Polychaeta

(mostly marine segmented worms)

-"many setae" parapodia used in locomotion

-each parapodium has setae (bristles) made of chitin

-parapodium function as gills in some species

-external fertilization

Ex: Lugworm and Nereis (clam worm)

135

Plylum Annelida: Class Hirudinea

(leeches)

-f/w and moist terrestrial habitats

-blood sucking parasite

-feed infrequently; engorge themselves then digest slowly

-reduced circulatory system

-simultaneous hermaphrodites

-develops w/in cocoon

136

Characteristics of Nematodes and Arthropods

Protostomes II. Animals with Ecdysis

-common ancestor that evolved a relatively hardened exoskeleton that does not grow with the organism;has to be shed and regrown periodically

137

Phylum Nematoda

(roundworms)

-most abundant and widespread animals in the world

-habitat: aquatic; damp soil; parasitic (plants & animals)

-complete digestive tract with mouth and anus

-no circulatory system

-longitudinal muscles only

138

Symbiotic relationship of Nematodes

Parasitic worms

Ascaris- large intestinal parasite of pigs and humans; males have hook on posterior end

Trichinella spiralis- parasite of humans; pigs; and rats; agent that causes trihinosis; get from eating undercook pork

Wuchereria- responsible for the human tropical DZ: Elephantiasis

others: pinworm; hookworm

139

Phylum Arthropods

(animals with jointed appendages)

-segmented (important to specialize regions)

-open circulatory system

-metamorphosis

140

Metamorphosis/ molting

-change in body form that occurs as some arthropods become adults

-Ecdysis: simple form; arthropod sheds the cuticle and basically becomes a larger version of the same form ex: grasshopers; crustaceans; millipedes; centipedes

-Holometabolus: complex form; go through a pupal stage; ex: formation of a cocoon by a caterpillar that emerges into butterfly (grub-->beetle and maggot-->fly)

-H emimetabolous: begin as aquatic nymphs and show ecdysis simple metamorphosis; Ex: damselfies and dragonflies

141

Phylum Arthropoda: Subphylum Trilobita

-extinct 250 mya

-segmentated

-relatively unspecialized appendages

142

Phylum Arthropoda: Subphylum Chelicerata

-cephalothorax + abdomen

-all appendages attached to cephalothorax

-no antenea

Class Merostoma: Horseshoe crabs:

-heavily armored carapace (protection)

-Telson: tail-like appendage

-4 additional appendages

-Book gills: fan back and forth

Class Arachnida: (scorpians; spiders; ticks and mites)

-pedipalps: 2nd pair of appendages (sensing/feeding organs)

-4 pairs of walking legs

Spiders:

-fangs for injecting venom

-pedicel: where cephalothorax meets abdomen

-Spinnerets: produce silk/ webs

-Book lungs: spiracles/slits (allow gas exchange through the cuticle)

Scorpions:

-abdomen more segmented (obvious)

-stinger: subdue prey; defense

-Spiders:

143

Phylum Arthropoda: Subphylum Crustacea

-primarily aquatic (mostly marine)

-characterized by jointed appendages

-head; thorax; abdomen

-many molt through different body stages

Ex: copepods; lobster; crabs; shrimp; crayfish; barnecles

144

Phylum Arthropoda: Subphylum Uniramia

(arthropods with unbranched appendages)

-characterized with appendages with ONE branch (enable gripping of walking surfaces)

-evolved on land

-head; thorax; abdomen

-one pair of antenae

Class Chilopoda (centipedes)

-predators on small inverterbrates

-1st pair of legs: fang-like appendages

-each segment has one pair of legs

Class Diplopoda (millipedes)

-harmless decomposers: feed mainly on decaying vegetation

-emit foul smelling secretion when feel threatened

-each segment has two pairs of legs


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