The Ultimate Test Study Guide for Campbell Essential Biology and Mastering Biology Chapters 13-17.
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Which one of the following statements most closely agrees with the theory of evolution by means of natural selection, as put forth by Darwin?
When they were first sold, aerosol insecticides were highly effective in killing flies and mosquitos. Today, some 30 years later, a much smaller proportion of these insects die when sprayed. The reason fewer insects are being killed is that
Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics (for instance, penicillin) for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because
Which one of the following was an assumption of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection?
In a population of bears, which is most likely to be considered to have the greatest Darwinian fitness?
The phrase Darwin used to describe his broad theory of evolution is "descent with __________."
The __________ of life arises from the adaption of species to different habitats over long spans of time.
Two key observations underlying natural selection are that members of a population vary in their __________ and that all species can produce more offspring than their environment can support.
Darwin inferred that most organisms with traits best suited to their environment tend to leave more __________ than other members of a population.
This unequal reproduction in a population leads to the gradual accumulation of __________ to the environment.
Provide an alternative definition of evolution.
Darwin's phrase for evolution, __________ with __________, captured the idea that an ancestral species could diversify into many descendant species by the accumulation of different __________ to various environments.
Why are older fossils generally in deeper rock layers than younger fossils?
Ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in the rock layers, marking the passage of geologic time.
Geographic distribution of species, that first suggested to Darwin that today's organisms evolved from ancestral forms.
Remnants of features that served important functions in the organism's ancestors.
Name the five lines of evidence for evolution presented in this section.
How did Darwin hypothesize that adaption is related to the origin of new species?
Explain why the following phrase is incorrect. "Pesticides cause pesticide-resistance in insects."
The total collection of alleles in a population at any one time; total of all the alleles in all the individuals making up the population.
Which process, mutation or sexual reproduction, results in most of the generation-to-generation variability in human populations? Why?
Would you expect modern cheetahs to have more genetic variation or less genetic variation than cheetahs did 1,000 years ago?
Which mechanism of microevolution has been most affected by the increased ease of people traveling throughout the world?
The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals.
Shifts overall makeup of a population by selecting in favor of one extreme phenotype.
Can lead to balance between two or more contrasting phenotypes in a population.
Favors intermediate phenotypes; typically occurs in relatively stable environments where conditions tend to reduce physical variation.
What is the best measure of relative fitness?
Form of natural selection in which individuals with certain traits are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates.
What were the two proposals made by Darwin in his The Origin of Species?
Represents a succession of related species, with the most recent at the tips of the branches; each branch represents a common ancestor of all species that radiate from it.
Define fitness from an evolutionary perspective.
The processes of __________ and __________ generate variation, and __________ produces adaptation to the environment.
As a mechanism of evolution, natural selection can be most closely equated with
The fauna and flora of Australia are very different from those of the rest of the world. Why might this be true?
Put the following in order, beginning with the most general: class, family, genus, kingdom, order, phylum, species.
Cladistic analysis indicates that crocodiles are more closely related to __________ than __________.
Two animals are considered members of different species if they
In the late 1900s, molecular studies and cladistics led to the development of a __________ classification system.
Defines species as a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring.
Anything that prevents individuals of closely related species from interbreeding.
Operate if interspecies mating actually occurs and results in hybrid zygotes.
Why is behavioral isolation considered a prezygotic barrier?
In _______________, the initial block to gene flow is a geographic barrier that physically isolates the splinter population.
What mechanism accounts for most observed instances of sympatric speciation?
Describes long periods of little apparent change (equilibria) interrupted (punctuated) by relatively brief periods of rapid change.
A new species changes most as it first branches from a parent species; little change for the rest of the species' existence.
Species that are descended from a common ancestor diverge gradually in form as they acquire unique adaption.
Evolutionary change above the species level, including the origin of evolutionary novelty and new groups of species, and the impact of mass extinctions on the diversity of life and its subsequent recovery.
The retention into adulthood of features that were solely juvenile in ancestral species.
Method based on the decay of radioactive isotopes, including isotopes of carbon, potassium, and uranium; established the dates in the geologic time scale.
Discipline of biology that focuses on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships.
Biologists use _______________ to depict hypotheses about the evolutionary history of species.
Consists of an ancestral species and all its evolutionary descendants-- a distinct branch in the tree of life.
What lines of evidence cause biologists to develop the three-domain system of classification?
Why is a small, isolated population more likely to undergo speciation than a large one?
The animals and plants of India are almost completely different from the species in nearby Southeast Asia. Why might this be true?
A major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is that ______________________________.
The evolutionary link between unicellular and multicellular life was probably ____________________.
The bacteria initially persist in the predatory cell because
The abiotic synthesis of _______________, such as amino acids and nitrogenous bases, may have occurred near volcanoes or around deep-sea vents.
The abiotic synthesis of __________ may have occurred as organic monomers splashed onto hot rocks and spontaneously joined into chains.
The first __________ may have formed when collections of organic molecules became isolated within membranes.
Once some protocells contained self-replicating molecules, ___________ could have begun to shape their properties, as those that reproduced more efficiently would have increased in number.
The earliest evidence of life on Earth is 3.5 billion-year-old fossils of __________, which were built up by ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes.
According to one of the main hypotheses for the origin of life, what must have come first?
Early pre-cells developed an important prerequisite for life, which was self-replicating _____.
E. coli bacteria, which live in human intestines, are shaped like tiny, straight sausages. They are _________.
What is the correct sequence of the appearance of the four major groups of plants in the fossil record from most ancestral to most recent?
What is the function of vascular tissue in plants?
The main evolutionary advantage of pollen is ____________________.
Describe one difference between plants and fungi.
A __________ is a close association of fungi and plant roots that is beneficial to both.
You are a plant physiologist specializing in how humidity affects water transport in white pines. What would you study?
You open your refrigerator and grab some broccoli for a snack. It has a pungent, sharp smell. What causes this?
Your aunt lives in Iowa. What is likely the biggest problem she faces when she tries to grow broccoli?
At the grocery store, you notice the broccoli is yellowish. What likely caused this?
The earliest organisms were all __________, their cells lacking true __________.
__________ are composed of one or more cells that contain nuclei and many other organelles absent in __________ cells.
One reason why the spontaneous generation of life on Earth could not occur today is the abundance of __________ in our modern atmosphere.
Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers occurs in which stage of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life?
Abiotic synthesis of polymers occurs in which stage of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life?
The packaging of molecules into pre-cells occurs in which stage of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life?
The origin of self-replicating molecules occurs in which stage of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life?
Droplets with membranes that maintained an internal chemistry different from the surroundings.
What is the name of the chemical reaction whereby monomers are linked together into polymers?
What are ribozymes? Why are they a logical step in the formation of life?
The cells copy their DNA almost continuously and divide again and again by the process of __________.
In many natural environments, prokaryotes attach to surfaces in a highly organized colon called a __________.
A(n) __________ is a thick-coated, protective cell produced within the prokaryotic cell when the prokaryote is exposed to unfavorable conditions.
Using a microscope, how could you distinguish the cocci that cause staph infections from those that cause strep throat?
Why do microbiologists autoclave their laboratory instruments and glassware rather than just washing them in very hot water?
A bacterium requires only water and the amino acid methionine to grow and lives in very deep caves where no light penetrates. Based on its mode of nutrition, this species would be classified as __________.
These organisms are photosynthesizers that use light to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2; includes plants and algae.
These organisms extract energy from inorganic substances such as ammonia, NH4; all are prokaryotes.
These organisms harness energy from light but must obtain carbon in organic form; all are prokaryotes.
These organisms consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon; includes some prokaryotes and protists and all fungi and animals.
What is the carbon source of chemoheterotrophs? The energy source?
How can an exotoxin be harmful even after bacteria are killed?
How do bacteria help restore the atmospheric CO2 required by plants for photosynthesis?
Which organelles of eukaryotic cells probably descended from andosymbiotic bacteria?
What three modes of locomotion occur among protozoans?
_______________ are named for the feeding stage in their life cycle, an amoeboid mass called a plasmodium.
The feeding stage of a _______________ consists of 1. Solitary amoeboid cells, or swarming together to form 2. Slug-like colony functioning as a single unit and 3. Extends a stalk and develops into a multicellular reproductive structure.
Which protozoans are most similar intheir movement to the unicellular stage of slime molds?
Communities of organisms, mostly microscopic, that drift or swim weakly near the surfaces of ponds, lakes, and oceans.
Each __________ species has a characteristic shape reinforced by external plates made of cellulose; abundant in the aquatic pastures of plankton.
Defined as large, multicellular marine algae, __________ grow on rocky shores and just offshore beyond the zone of the pounding surf.
Place the following events in the history of life on Earth in the order that they occurred.
-Colonization of land by animals- colonization of land by plants and fungi- diversification of animals (Cambrian explosion)- origin of eukaryotes- origin of humans- origin of multicellular organisms- origin of prokaryotes.
What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs in terms of the source of their organic compounds?
Plants are specialized to take advantage of all resources necessary to photosynthetic organisms by having both aerial leaf-bearing organs called __________ and subterranean organs called __________.
An important terrestrial adaptation of plants is __________, a chemical that hardens cell walls.
The terrestrial equipment of most plants includes _______________, a system of tube-shaped cells that branch throughout the plant.
Consists of dead cells with tubular cavities for transporting water and minerals from roots to leaves.
Consists of living cells that distribute sugars from the leaves to the roots and other non-photosynthetic parts of the plant.
A __________ has a jacket of protective cells surrounding a moist chamber where gametes can develop without dehydrating.
Nonvascular plants lacking true roots and leaves, and also lignin, resulting in weal upright support, including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
A __________ consists of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective covering.
Today, the most widespread and diverse __________ are the __________, consisting mainly of cone-bearing trees, such as pines.
If you examine a mat of moss closely, you can see two distinct forms. The green, sponge-like plant called the __________ and the __________, growing out as a stalk with a capsule at its tip.
A __________ is a haploid cell that can develop into a new individual without fusing with another cell.
Bryophytes, like all plants, have a life cycle that involves an alternation of generations. What are the two generations called? Which generation dominates?
Why are ferns able to grow taller than mosses?
What are the three additional adaptations of gymnosperms that make survival in diverse terrestrial habits possible?
Name three ways that we benefit from fungi in our environment.
Describe how the structure of a fungal mycelium reflects its function.
Symbiotic associations of unicellular algae or photosynthetic bacteria held in a mass of fungal hyphae.
Which of the following structures is common to all four major plant groups: vascular tissue, flowers, seeds, cuticle, or pollen?
Angiosperms are distinguished from all other plants because only angiosperms have reproductive structures called
During the Carboniferous period, the dominant plants, which later formed the great coal beds, were mainly
You discover a new species of plant. Under the microscope, you find that it produces flagellated sperm. A genetic analysis shows that its dominant generation has diploid cells. What kind of plant do you have?
The earliest evidence of life on earth comes from fossils that are about _____ billion years old.
Scientific evidence indicates that earth and the other planets of our solar system formed about __________ years ago from a vast swirling cloud of dust.
Layered rocks that result from activities of prokaryotes that blind thin films of sediment together.
Because __________ is not a simple process, it suggests that life evolved earlier than the first prokaryotes, perhaps as much as 3.9 billion years ago.
The formation of __________, __________, and __________ molecules represent stages in the origin of the first cells.
The entire 4.6 billion years of Earth's history can be broken down into three sons of geologic time. The __________ and __________ eons lasted about 4 billion years. The __________ eon includes the last half billion years.
Atmospheric oxygen began to appear 2.7 billion years ago as a result of __________.
__________ and __________ cellular respiration allowed prokaryotes to flourish.
The evolution of __________, which uses O3 in harvesting energy from organic molecules, allowed their prokaryotes to flourish.
The origins of __________ and __________ organisms and the colonization of land are key events in life's history.
Atmospheric oxygen began to appear 2.7 billion years ago as a result of __________.
__________ and __________ cellular respiration allowed prokaryotes to flouish.
The evolution of __________, which uses O2 in harvesting energy from organic molecules allowed other prokaryotes to flourish.
The oldest fossils of single-celled called _______________ are about 2.1 billion years.
The origins of __________ and __________ organisms and the colonization of land are key events in life's history.
The most widespread and diverse land land animals are __________ (particularly insects, and spiders, and __________..
__________ are inevitable in a changing world and the fossil record shows that the vast majority of species that has ever lived no longer exist.
The Permian and Cretaceous mass extinctions mark the ends of the __________ and ___________ eras.
Addresses the interface of evolutionary biology and developmental biology and examines how slight genetic changes can produce major morphological difference.
A salamander that illustrates a phenomenon called __________, the retention in the adult of features that were juvenile in an ancestral species.
Paedomorphosis occurs in the _______________, which sexually mature adults retain gills and other larval features.
In the evolution of any complex structure, behavior, or biochemical pathway, each step must bring a _______________ to the organism possessing it and __________ the organism's fitness.
__________ are similarities due to a shared ancestry, evolving from the same structure in a common ancestor.
Some similarities are due to similar adaptations favored by a common environment, a process called _____________________.
Which evolutionary advance gave the gymnosperms an adaptive advantage at the time they were evolving?
During the B=Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of __________ and __________ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.
__________ are vascularized plants that produced seeds but do not bear flowers. They are basically trees.
__________ are radially symmetrical carnivores that use tentacles armed with batteries of stinging cells to capture prey.
__________, though tied to water for __________, include species that are, otherwise entirely terrestrial.
The __________ allows for reproduction and development within a structure that provides moisture, food, waste storage, and gas exchange.
__________ have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton that must be shed to permit growth.
__________ exhibit two radial body forms, the polyp and the medusa, and use stinging cells to capture prey.
__________ (meaning"spiny skin") have a water vascular system that functions in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.
__________ have a body plan with three main parts; a visceral mass, a mantle, and a foot.
__________ have a pseudocoelom and are the simplest animals that have a complete digestive tract.
__________ are sessile animals that have specialized cell called amoebocytes and choanocytes.
The phrase "Cambrian explosion" refers to _________________________.
One body plan, called bilateral symmetry, represents a major branch point in animal evolution and can be described as
Consider the following list of animals: giant squid, earthworm, largemouth bass, snail, tapeworm, coral, and sea star. The two that belong to the same phylum are the __________ and the __________, and their phylum is __________.
Biology deals with many kinds of worms. Which choice includes three different phyla of "worms"?
While on a biological expedition, you discover a new species with the following characteristics: has an exoskeleton, exhibits bilateral symmetry, and has jointed appendages. What phylum does this newly discovered organism belong to?
There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _______________.
Which phylum includes animals that have the following characteristics: a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal gill slits; and a post-anal tail?
Imagine you are a paleontologist. In a recent dig, you unearthed the following bones: jaw bone, vertebral column, and femur. Which phylum does the organism you unearthed belong to?
Most members of which class of chordates exhibit a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations?
Primates are distinguished from other mammals by _________________________.
An organism is multicellular, ingests food, and undergoes a metamorphosis stage during its lifetime. What type of organism is it?
Animals probably evolved from colonial protists. How do animals differ from these protist ancestors?
How are animals different from fungi?
Members of the phylum Mollusca _________________________.
Sea stars and sand dollars belong to a group of spiny marine animals called __________.
An animal has segments, bilateral symmetry, pharyngeal slits, a post-anal tail, and a notochord. It must be a member of the phylum __________.
The development that freed vertebrates from water for reproduction and allowed them to radiate into diverse terrestrial environments was the __________.
__________ arose very early in hominid evolution; _________ evolved more recently.
What mode of nutrition distinguishes animals from fungi, both of which are heterotrophs.
Why is animal evolution during the early Cambrian referred to as an "explosion"?
A round pizza displays __________ symmetry, whereas a slice of pizza displays __________ symmetry.
If the body cavity is not completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm, it is called a __________.
The type of body cavity humans and many other animals have, is completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm.
The body plan of an annelid displays __________, meaning that the body is divided into a series of repeated regions.
What is the primary difference between your skeleton and a crab's skeleton?
What are the four major groups of arthropods?
Unique to echinoderms is the _______________, a network of water-filled canals that circulate water throughout the echinoderm's body, facilitating gas exchange and waste disposal.
During our early embryonic development, what four features do we share with invertebrate chordates such as lancelets?
__________ have a lateral line system, a row of sensory organs running along each side of the body.
Sensitive to changes in water pressure, the _______________ enables a shark to detect minor vibrations caused by animals swimming in its neighborhood.
The skeletons of __________ are reinforced by calcium, having a lateral line system, a keen sense of smell, and excellent eyesight.
Protective flap on each side of bony fishes' heads; covers a chamber housing the gills, feathery external organs that extract oxygen from water.
bony fishes have an organ that helps keep them buoyant-- the _______________, a gas-filled sac.
What is an amniotic egg?
The evolution of __________ from an amphibian ancestor included many adaptations for living on land.
Birds differ from other reptiles in their main source of body heat, with birds being __________ and other reptiles being __________.
The duck-billed platypus and the echidna, or spiny anteater are the only existing species of __________, egg-laying mammals.
__________ are also called placental mammals because their placentas provide a more intimate and longer-lasting association between the mother and her developing young than do marsupial placentas.
Which hominin species was the first to walk upright? Which was the first to spread beyond Africa?
Bilateral symmetry in the animal kingdom is best correlated with
Reptiles are much more extensively adapted to life on land than amphibians because reptiles
Fossils suggest that the first major trait distinguishing human primates from other primates was __________.
Which of the following types of animals is not included in the human ancestry?:
-Bird; bony fish; amphibian; primate.
Put the following list of species in order, from the oldest to the most recent: Homo erectus, Australopithecus species, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens.