Nutrition ch 15

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1

All of the following are characteristics of nutrition and pregnancy except

underweight has little, if any, effect on fertility

2

Which of the following describes the capacity of a man to produce sperm and a woman to periodically produce a normal egg?

Fertility

3

Which of the following has a favorable influence on fertility?

Choosing diets providing protein from vegetable sources

4

What organ of the pregnant woman is central to the exchange of nutrients for waste products with the fetus

Placenta

5

What organ functions to prepare the mother’s breasts for lactation?

Placenta

6

What connects the umbilical cord to the fetus?

Belly button

7

What is the placenta?

An organ from which the infant receives nourishment

8

A newly fertilized egg is known as a(n)

zygote.

9

What is the approximate length of the fetus at 11 weeks of development?

1 inch

10

A newborn infant at full gestational age has an average length of

20 inches

11

How many weeks is the usual duration of a full-term pregnancy?

38-42

12

Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of

3 months, called trimesters

13

All of the following statements are specific to the critical periods of cell division except

high-nutrient-density food fed after the critical period can remedy a growth deficit

14

What term is given to the time period during which irreversible damage to the fetus may occur from specific events such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins

Critical period

15

What is the name given to the human organism two to eight weeks after fertilization and the stage at which the digestive system is formed?

Embryo

16

What is the term given to the developing infant from the eighth week after conception until birth

Fetus

17

At what stage of pregnancy does an embryo show a beating heart and a complete central nervous system?

8 weeks

18

During development of the fetus, what organ(s) is/are the first to develop?

Central nervous system and brain

19

The neural tube forms the early parts of the

brain and spinal cord

20

Among the following, which is not known to represent a significant risk factor for a pregnancy being affected by a neural tube defect?

Age at time of pregnancy

21

Which of the following is a characteristic of neural tube defects?

They are found in about 1,000 newborns in the United States each year

22

An infant born with incomplete closure of the spinal cord has

spina bifida

23

The most common forms of neural tube defects are spina bifida and

anencephaly

24

What organ is most affected in anencephaly?

brain

25

You are working as a nutrition consultant in a women’s health clinic and have been advising patients to make sure they consume about 400 micrograms of folate every day. One patient is aware that folate helps prevent birth defects but she isn’t sure why she should take it if she is not pregnant. Which of the following is the most appropriate reply?

The neural tube develops early on in pregnancy, oftentimes before the woman realizes she is pregnant

26

Which of the following nutrients taken as a prenatal supplement has been found to be associated with a lower incidence of neural tube defects?

folate

27

Studies report that folate supplements for women may lower the incidence of neural tube defects of infants when the vitamin is taken during the

month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy.

28

What is the percentage increase in the folate RDA during pregnancy?

50

29

What percentage of pregnancies in the United States are unplanned

50

30

As a means to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in newborn infants, grain products are fortified with what nutrient?

folate

31

Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal nutrition and the development of abnormal metabolism?

Nutrition during pregnancy is the chief determinant of pancreatic beta cell growth and the risk for type 2 diabetes of the offspring

32

The process by which maternal nutrient intake affects the child’s development of diseases later in life is known as

fetal programming

33

What is the most reliable indicator of an infant’s future health status?

infants birthweight

34

What is macrosomia?

a high-birthweight infant

35

Which of the following increases the risk of macrosomia?

Prepregnancy obesity

36

Which of the following describes an infant born during the 36th week of pregnancy?

preterm

37

Which of the following describes an infant born during the 43rd week of pregnancy?

post term

38

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman?

25-35

39

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for an underweight woman?

28-40

40

In obese pregnant women, the risk for neural tube defects in the infant is believed to result from

poor glycemic control

41

Which of the following describes a relationship between body weight and pregnancy?

Underweight women who gain 30 lbs during pregnancy tend to birth smaller babies than heavier women who gain 30 lbs

42

You work with a primary care physician to help newly pregnant women plan their diets. What vital information is needed to formulate a plan of weight gain?

Weight and height

43

In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time period is evidence of

edema

44

For the normal-weight woman who becomes pregnant, what is the ideal weekly weight gain from the start of the second trimester and onward?

1lbs

45

Usually, what is the first sign of preeclampsia?

A large weight gain over a short time

46

What is the recommended minimum weight gain, in lbs, of a woman who will bear twins?

37

47

What is the minimum recommended weight gain for the obese pregnant woman?

11

48

In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time is usually an indication of

excessive fluid retention.

49

The component of weight gain during pregnancy that is similar to the average weight of the infant at birth is the

maternal fat stores.

50

Which of the following is a characteristic of body weight changes associated with pregnancy?

Most women are unable to lose all of the weight that was gained during pregnancy

51

To maintain physical fitness during pregnancy, all of the following activities are considered acceptable except

saunas

52

All of the following are normal body responses to pregnancy except

body water level decreases.

53

Jenny has just learned that she is one month pregnant (1st trimester). She has been looking forward to all the ice cream, chips and cakes she has seen women on TV and in the movies eating when they are pregnant. What is the most appropriate advice for Jenny?

She does not have increased energy needs in the first trimester and should not indulge herself

54

What is the recommended increase in daily energy intake, in kcal, for the third trimester of pregnancy?

450

55

Over the course of the entire pregnancy, approximately how much extra energy, in kcal, does the average pregnant woman need to consume?

72,000

56

Which of the following statements characterizes energy needs during pregnancy?

Carbohydrates should supply a minimum of 135 g and ideally 175 g per day.

57

Which of the following nutrients are required in higher amounts during pregnancy due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells?

Folate and vitamin B12

58

In the United States, what is the minimum daily amount of protein that should be consumed by a 135-pound woman during pregnancy?

74g

59

Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy, often because of low body stores?

Iron

60

All of the following reflect a state of iron nutrition in pregnancy except

most women enter pregnancy with adequate stores of the mineral.

61

All of the following are features of zinc nutrition in pregnancy except

supplements are effective in preventing neural tube defects.

62

During pregnancy, which of the following nutrients show a dramatic increase in absorption?

Calcium and iron

63

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?

Intestinal absorption increases substantially

64

Which of the following is a characteristic of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?

The AI for calcium is the same as in nonpregnancy

65

The amount of vitamin D recommended in pregnancy can be obtained by consumption of fortified milk and

exposure to the sun.

66

In pregnant women unable to meet their calcium needs, how many mg of a daily calcium supplement is advised?

600

67

Examine the following menu for a pregnant woman

meats

68

Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother’s nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval between pregnancies?

1 ½-2 years

69

Which of the following is a characteristic of vegetarian diets during pregnancy or lactation?

It is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation

70

The common problems of pregnancy include all of the following except

low blood pressure.

71

To help alleviate pregnancy-related nausea, all of the following actions are recommended except

eat large, infrequent meals so as to limit contact time with food.

72

Which of the following is one of the recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?

Eat many small meals

73

Which of the following statements reflects current knowledge of food choices in pregnancy?

Cravings and aversions to certain foods are probably the result of altered taste and smell sensitivities induced by hormones

74

All of the following are features of nonfood cravings during pregnancy except

they are known to lead to premature delivery and to low-birth-weight infant

75

Jane is visiting with her doctor during her 2nd trimester of pregnancy and has just revealed her strange cravings. The doctor declared that Jane is experiencing pica, which is causing her intense craving for

dirt.

76

What is the most likely reason for a pregnant woman to crave pickles?

a change in hormones

77

A craving for non-food substances is known as

pica

78

Which of the following is the standard classification for a low-birthweight infant?

5½ lbs or less

79

Which of the following is the standard classification for a very-low-birthweight infant?

3 1/2

80

Risks from malnutrition in women or men before conception include all of the following except

it usually results in macrosomia

81

Which of the following is not a feature of malnutrition in pregnancy?

Around the time of conception, it prevents the uterus from developing fully but spares the placenta

82

What is WIC

A food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants

83

Which of the following is a feature of the WIC program?

It saves an estimated $3 in medical costs in the first two months after birth for every dollar spent

84

Brenda is in her 26th week of gestation and has a family history of diabetes. She has been consuming a diet containing 60% of energy from carbohydrates. If she does not make appropriate dietary changes, she is at high risk for developing

gestational diabetes

85

What is gestational diabetes?

Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy

86

Which of the following is a characteristic of gestational diabetes?

It leads to adult-onset diabetes in about a third of the women

87

All of the following are features of gestational diabetes except

infant birthweights are typically low.

88

What is the name of the condition characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine of a pregnant woman?

Preeclampsia

89

Preeclampsia typically develops during the

second half of pregnancy

90

All of the following are features of preeclampsia except

diabetes

91

Approximately what percentage of newly pregnant women develop gestational diabetes?

4

92

Which of the following is not a characteristic of preeclampsia

It almost always progresses slowly to eclampsia

93

Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of eclampsia?

Convulsions by the mother

94

Which of the following is a characteristic associated with adolescent pregnancy?

The recommended weight gain is approximately 35 lbs

95

Which of the following may be effective at reducing the risk for preeclampsia?

exercise

96

All of the following are features of older pregnant women in comparison with younger pregnant women except

maternal mortality rates are lower

97

Tobacco use in pregnancy increases the risk for all of the following except

macrosomnia

98

What is the risk of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome for a woman who is 40 years old compared with a 20 year old?

100 times higher

99

What term best describes a factor that causes abnormal fetal development and birth defects?

teratogenic

100

Which of the following recommendations for pregnant women and alcohol intake has been issued by the U.S. Surgeon General?

They should drink absolutely no alcohol

101

With few exceptions, all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except

artificial sweeteners

102

Relationships between the use of tobacco products and complications of pregnancy include all of the following except

taking zinc supplements prevents the development of pregnancy-induced hypertension in smokers.

103

A positive relationship exists between sudden infant death syndrome and which of the following behaviors during pregnancy?

Cigarette smoking

104

Which of the following is a characteristic of foodborne illness during pregnancy?

The risk for listeriosis is substantially higher in pregnant women than in other healthy adults

105

Which of the following is a feature of heavy metal intake and pregnancy?

The adverse effects of lead can be reduced by liberal intakes of calcium

106

A feature of heavy caffeine use in human pregnancy is that it may

increase the risk of infant death.

107

In general, what are the chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother?

Reduced quantity of milk

108

Which of the following is a function of prolactin?

It acts on mammary glands to promote milk production

109

What causes the “let-down reflex”?

oxytocin

110

The number of extra kcalories per day needed to produce a normal supply of milk during the first six months of lactation is approximately

500

111

Penny is a new mom and, on the advice of her doctor, has been eating an extra whole-wheat bagel with strawberry jelly every night in addition to her nutrient-dense diet. Why did Penny receive this advice?

These bagels provide the extra carbohydrates and fiber lactating mothers need for lactose production

112

Which of the following describes the findings from studies of lactating women who exercised intensely compared with sedentary lactating women?

Their milk contained more lactate, which altered the milk’s taste

113

Which of the following is a feature of lactation?

Breast milk quantity but not quality is most affected by nutritional inadequacies

114

Why might a lactating woman need to take an iron supplement?

To replace the iron stores she lost during pregnancy

115

Which of the following statements describes an association between nutrient intake and lactation?

Ingestion of garlic may lead to an off-flavor of the milk

116

Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal smoking and breast milk production?

The milk produced by mothers who smoke contains nicotine

117

It is still acceptable for a mother to breastfeed even if she has

an ordinary cold

118

Which of the following reflects one of the effects of alcohol intake on lactation?

It hinders the infant’s ability to breastfeed

119

Which of the following is an effect of alcohol intake in the mother who breastfeeds?

it alters the flavor

120

What is the benefit of postpartum amenorrhea?

It conserves iron in the mother

121

Which of the following is not a characteristic of caffeine and lactation?

The A.M.A. recommends no caffeine intake during lactation

122

Which of the following statements describes a relationship between alcohol intake and fetal development?

Birth defects are most severe when the woman drinks around the time of conception

123

Which of the following is not a feature of children born with alcohol-related complications?

All children born with these complications show marked outward signs

124

A less severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome is known by all of the following terms except

fetal subdevelopment syndrome

125

In what period of pregnancy would most damage from alcohol consumption occur?

First trimester

126

According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?

1 drink/day


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