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ch 16 nutrition

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1

What would be a normal body weight after 1 year for a healthy infant with a birthweight of 8 lbs

24

2

What is the typical weight gain (lbs) of an infant between the first and second year of life?

10

3

What is the approximate energy requirement of infants, in kcalories per kilogram body weight

100

4

Infants showing symptoms of acidosis, dehydration, diarrhea, elevated blood ammonia and urea, and fever may be reacting to the nutritional problem of

protein overload

5

Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in infancy

iron

6

When expressed per kilogram body weight, the nutrient needs of infants are markedly higher than those of young adults for all of the following nutrients except

iron

7

What organ in the infant uses more than half of the day’s total energy intake?

brain

8

What is the relative weight of an infant brain compared to an adult’s brain?

six times as much

9

All of the following are features of nutrition and metabolism in infancy except

the protein content in breast milk can be high enough to occasionally induce protein overload.

10

The recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals for infants are based on the

average amounts ingested by thriving infants breastfed by well-nourished mothers

11

Which of the following is a feature of water in infancy?

Much of the infant’s body water content is located extracellularly

12

All of the following are characteristics of breastfeeding frequency and duration except

more infrequent and short-duration feedings are preferable to stimulate lactation and breast-filling.

13

For optimal breast-feeding benefits, it is recommended that the infant be encouraged to suckle on each breast for about

10-15 minutes

14

All of the following are features of breast milk composition except

the concentration of protein is slightly higher than for cow’s milk

15

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Pediatric Society, breastfeeding of full-term infants is

strongly recommended

16

What is the chief reason that breast-fed infants usually need to eat more frequently than formula-fed infants

Breast milk is digested faster

17

Which of the following is a finding regarding the importance of fatty acid intake for preterm infants fed formulas?

Formulas enriched with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid resulted in improved visual acuity compared with standard formulas

18

What is the chief protein in human breast milk?

Alpha-lactalbumin

19

Breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except

vitamin D

20

Nutrient characteristics of human breast milk include all of the following except

the vitamin D content meets optimal growth requirements

21

Which of the following vitamin-mineral supplements need not be prescribed for an infant breastfed beyond 6 months of age?

Vitamin E

22

What is colostrum

A milk-like substance secreted right after delivery

23

Which of the following is an advantage of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding?

It provides immunological protection

24

Which of the following is a feature of infant development and nutrition?

Breast-fed infants obtain iron-binding proteins that inhibit bacterial infections

25

Which of the following is associated with bifidus factors?

Increased bacterial growth

26

What factor in breast milk binds iron and prevents it from supporting the growth of the infant’s intestinal bacteria?

Lactoferrin

27

What is lactadherin?

A breast milk protein that inactivates a GI virus that causes diarrhea

28

You are presenting a talk on the benefits of breastfeeding to a group of new mothers with a Peace Corps group in Zimbabwe. There have been numerous cases of infant diarrhea within this population over the past several years. Why is breastfeeding especially important under these circumstances?

The lactadherin protein present in breast milk attacks diarrhea-causing viruses

29

All of the following are features of breast milk banks except

they accept milk from mothers who smoke cigarettes but not marijuana

30

Which of the following describes the results of studies on weight gain of people who were either breastfed or formula fed?

The findings on weight gain of people who were formula fed or breastfed are inconsistent

31

Which of the following is not known to be an advantage of breastfeeding

Breastfed infants born prematurely grow more slowly than formula-fed infants born prematurely

32

Compared with cow’s milk, breast milk contains

less protien and calcium

33

To gradually replace breast milk with infant formula or other foods appropriate to an infant’s diet is to

wean.

34

Which of the following formulas is available for infants with lactose intolerance

soy

35

Which of the following is a feature of infant soy formulas?

They contain cornstarch and sucrose rather than lactos

36

Features of infant formulas include all of the following excep

they contain antibodies

37

What type of formula is available for infants with milk allergy?

soy

38

Which of the following is a common source of lead poisoning in infants

Contaminated water used to make infant formula

39

What is the most realistic advice for reducing lead exposure from the tap water used to prepare infant formula?

Because the first water drawn from the tap each day is highest in lead, let the water run a few minutes before using it

40

Goat’s milk is inappropriate for infants due to its low content of

folate

41

An infant diagnosed with “goat’s milk anemia” is most likely deficient in

folate

42

Which of the following sources of nutrition for infants is least likely to become contaminated with microorganisms?

breast milk

43

Which of the following defines nursing bottle tooth decay?

Marked tooth decay of an infant due to prolonged exposure to carbohydrate-rich fluids from a bottle

44

Low-fat or nonfat milk should not be given routinely to a child until after the age of

two years

45

What term defines the condition of infant tooth deterioration resulting from chronic exposure to carbohydrate-rich fluids from a bottle?

nursing bottle tooth decay

46

During the first year of life, cow’s milk is considered an inappropriate food due to all of the following except

it is too low in sodium

47

Which of the following should not be used to feed an infant?

whole milk

48

Approximately what percentage of infants are born prematurely?

12

49

Which of the following feeding practices is recommended for preterm infants?

They should be fed preterm breast milk, occasionally fortified with specific nutrients

50

Of the following cereals, which is most likely to result in an allergic reaction upon first feeding?

wheat

51

What is beikost

A term that describes any nonmilk food offered to an infant

52

Which of the following represents a good age to introduce solid foods to infants?

five months

53

At what age does the normal infant first develop the ability to swallow solid food

4-6 months

54

Why should new foods be introduced to an infant one at a time?

Any allergic reactions can be detected

55

What should be the first cereal introduced to the infant?

rice

56

Roberta’s first child is now 8 months old. Roberta has been breastfeeding and would like to begin to introduce solids foods. She read somewhere to introduce one food at a time to the infant. Which of the following would be the best choice for the first food to introduce to the baby

rice

57

Which of the following nutrients need to be supplied first by solid foods in a baby’s diet?

vitamin c and iron

58

Infants should not be given canned vegetables due to excessive amounts of

sodium

59

Infants fed honey or corn syrup are at increased risk for

botulism

60

What is the principal reason that information about fat on food labels of infant foods is intentionally omitted?

To prevent parents from restricting their infants’ fat intake

61

Foods containing sorbitol or other sugar alcohols should not be given to infants because they

promote diahreaa

62

All of the following are characteristics of vegetarian diets and infancy except

rice milk may substitute for other beverages from the age of 12 months and on

63

Which of the following is the primary factor in the development of milk anemia?

excessive intake of cows milk

64

Young children who drink more than 2 to 3½ cups of milk a day are most likely at increased risk for deficiency of

iron

65

A child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of

anemia

66

The consumption of milk by children should not exceed 4 cups per day in order to lower the risk for

iron deficiency

67

What should be the parent’s response when a one-year-old child wants to clumsily spoon-feed himself?

Let the child try to feed himself so that he will learn

68

Which of the following is associated with energy metabolism of the preschool child?

A 1-year-old who needs 800 kcal/day would require only about 1600 kcal at 6 years of age

69

Approximately how many kcal per day does an average 6 year old need to obtain?

1600

70

How much more total energy does a normal-weight 10 year old need vs. a 1 year old?

150%

71

A reasonable daily fiber intake for a 5 year old would be

25g

72

Which of the following is a characteristic of fat in the diet of children?

Fat intakes below 30% of total energy do not impair growth provided that total energy intake is adequate

73

Which of the following is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency among U.S. and Canadian children?

iron

74

Which of the following is a feature of nutrition in childhood?

Children who fail to consume vitamin D-fortified foods should receive a daily supplement of 10 micrograms

75

Which of the following is a characteristic of meal planning for children?

Children 1½ years of age consume more french fries than any other vegetable

76

Which of the following is a characteristic of hunger and behavior in children?

Children who eat nutritious breakfasts are absent from school less often than their friends who do not

77

Which of the following is the most likely reason that teachers promote the consumption of midmorning snacks for children?

It provides carbohydrate for maintenance of blood glucose and brain function

78

Which of the following is characteristic of children who regularly eat breakfast or skip breakfast?

Breakfast-skippers actually show lower scores on IQ tests than those who eat breakfast

79

Jenny is a 13-year-old Hare Krishna who follows a vegan diet due to religious beliefs. She has not been performing as well as her non-vegetarian study friend on math tests and has been very upset about it. The teacher reports to Jenny’s mom that she does not appear focused during lessons and can’t seem to concentrate

The diet provides insufficient bioavailable iron and she many be anemic

80

All of the following are features of iron nutrition in children except

the brain appears to be less sensitive to iron deficiency than the rest of the body

81

Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency in children?

It affects brain function before anemia sets in

82

Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition and behavior in children?

Children who had iron-deficiency anemia as infants perform poorly even after iron status improves

83

All of the following are common signs of mild lead toxicity except

dermatitis

84

Which of the following is a characteristic of lead exposure and health?

Absorption of lead is higher on an empty stomach

85

What is the prevalence of hyperactivity in children?

5-10%

86

All of the following are characteristics of hyperactivity in children except

in many cases, it responds favorably to dietary manipulations such as limiting sugar intake

87

All of the following are characteristics of hyperactivity in children except

excessive amounts of sugar may cause or aggravate hyperactivity

88

What is the term given to the child who is hyperactive with severe and impulsive behavior

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

89

A child who develops antibodies to a certain food is said to have a

food allergy

90

An adverse reaction to food that does not signal the body to form antibodies is termed a

food intolerance

91

Which of the following is a characteristic of a food allergy

It always involves the production of antibodies

92

You have just started work as a summer camp counselor and completed a training session for all the new employees on safety. Counselors were instructed to prohibit campers from eating peanut butter and jelly sandwiches anywhere other than the cafeteria. You believe that the most likely explanation for this rule is to

minimize peanut exposure for campers with peanut allergies.

93

Which of the following foods are most often the cause of allergies?

eggs,peanuts, milk

94

What food is responsible for the most life-threatening allergic reactions in people?

peanuts

95

A life-threatening whole-body allergic reaction is known as

anaphylactic shock

96

A child known to be allergic to peanuts who begins to show signs such as difficulty breathing, swelling of the tongue, and severe abdominal discomfort is most likely in immediate need of a life-saving injection of

epinephrine

97

All of the following are features of food allergies except

the presence of antibodies always coincides with physical symptoms

98

A child with a true allergy to milk is actually allergic to the milk’s

casein

99

If a child is allergic to soy, which of the following should be avoided?

Textured vegetable protein

100

People who show adverse reactions to foods such as increased pulse rate, nausea, and hives, but do not show antibodies to the offending foods, are displaying

food intolerances

101

Approximately what percentage of U.S. children between 2 and 19 years of age are overweight?

32

102

Which of the following is a characteristic of obesity in childhood

A nonobese child of nonobese parents has a less than 10% chance of becoming obese in adulthood

103

What are the odds that an overweight 18 year old with only one obese parent will become an obese adult?

4 in 5

104

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, what is the maximum number of hours/day of television viewing for a child under 2 years of age?

0

105

What population group consumes the most soft drinks each day at school?

teenage boys

106

The typical can of soft drink contains the equivalent of how many teaspoons of sugar?

10

107

Five cans of soft drinks provide approximately how many kcalories?

750

108

To help improve a child’s BMI, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends limiting television and video time for children older than 2 years to how many hours per day?

2

109

All of the following describe influences of television and video gaming on nutrition except

children are exposed to thousands of TV commercials each year but their requests for advertised foods are heeded by their parents only half the time.

110

All of the following are typical growth characteristics of overweight children except

they can achieve a normal appearance after losing excess fat

111

Which of the following two conditions are associated with television’s influence?

obesity and high blood lipids

112

What is the most likely explanation for the increased prevalence of obesity in children over the past 30 years?

they are less active physically

113

What is the leading cause of high blood pressure in children

obesity

114

Which of the following is a feature of nutrition and behavior in childre

Television commercials featuring snack foods have been found to affect children’s food preferences

115

Mike is a 10-year-old inactive child who weighs 150 pounds. He has come to your practice with his parents for help on losing weight. What advice should be given to the parents?

Maintain weight and do not encourage weight loss during growth and development

116

To lower the risk of obesity in children, which of the following practices should parents institute for their children

Teach them to take appropriate food portions

117

Which of the following is an effective strategy for dealing with obesity in a child?

Engage the individual in at least 1 hour per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity

118

Why is it recommended that overweight children not follow a low-kcalorie diet?

Diet restriction can interfere with growth and development

119

Who is best able to manage the growth and weight gain of overweight children

Health-care professional

120

Which of the following steps should be undertaken by the parent or guardian to ensure that young people eat well?

Control the availability of food

121

Which of the following practices is not among the recommendations to help children develop an interest in vegetables?

Serve vegetables with the promise that after they are eaten, dessert will follow

122

Even in preschoolers whose habits are being established, existing dietary attitudes are relatively resistant to change. How should wise parents react

Be patient and persistent

123

All of the following are food preferences in children except

hot foods are preferred to warm ones

124

All of the following are features of snacking in children except

snacking should be prevented

125

Which of the following is not among the recommended methods for introducing new foods to children?

present new foods at the end of a meal

126

If a child is reluctant to try a new food, it is best to

quietly remove it and present it again at another time.

127

When children are allowed to eat freely from a variety of foods, they usually select foods that are high in

sugar

128

The single most effective way to teach nutrition to children is

example

129

What minimum fraction of the RDA for key nutrients for children 10-12 years of age should be provided by public school lunches?

1/3

130

Which of the following is a feature of public school food programs?

They must follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

131

All of the following are influences that undermine healthful food intake and food selection at schools except

reducing the prices of nutritious foods does not promote their purchase by students

132

The adolescent growth spurt

begins and ends earlier in girls than in boys

133

What is the approximate duration of the adolescent growth spurt?

2 1/2 years

134

Which of the following is a characteristic of the adolescent period?

Obesity occurs more often in African-American females

135

All of the following are features of the iron RDA for adolescents except

the frequency of iron deficiency is similar among males and females of the sam

136

A local high school has just added milk to the vending machines. Parents were very supportive of this change; however, not all the students believe this is useful. You have a few minutes to speak to the student body, and your talk should

point out that milk is a good source of calcium, which is required for teens during peak bone growth

137

What is menarche

the females time of first menstration

138

Adolescent women may fail to reach peak bone mass for all of the following reasons except

lactose intolerance begins to intensify during the teenage years

139

All of the following are characteristics of adolescents’ food intakes except

eating breakfast results in higher overall daily intakes of protein and fat but unchanged intakes of iron and zinc compared with breakfast skippers

140

Which of the following is a feature of beverage intake in adolescents?

Four standard colas a day provides enough caffeine to alter behavior

141

Approximately how much caffeine is delivered by a typical cola beverage?

30-55 mg

142

About how many meals each week are eaten outside the home by adolescents

7

143

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200mg

144

Approximately what fraction of an average teenager’s daily energy intake is derived from snacks?

1/4

145

A cigarette smoker who is planning to quit should expect a weight gain in the first year of about

10 lbs

146

Which of the following is not a characteristic of cigarette smokers and nutrition?

They have higher intakes of carotene-rich foods

147

Which of the following is a characteristic of tobacco use and adolescents?

Smokers require more vitamin C to maintain body stores

148

All of the following are characteristics in the development of atherosclerosis except

once plaque is formed, it can be contained but cannot regress.

149

The association of cholesterol to the health of children is described by all of the following except

there appears to be only a very weak correlation between obesity in children and their blood cholesterol levels.

150

All of the following are characteristics of blood cholesterol in children except

acceptable total cholesterol levels are up to 240 mg/d.

151

Which of the following is not a characteristic of physically active children and blood lipids?

They respond differently than do physically active adults towards changes in blood lipids

152

Which of the following is not a dietary recommendation for children?

Children with high blood cholesterol should be treated first with statin


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