ch 17 Nutrtion

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by mmm654
updated 3 years ago by mmm654
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
code changes based on your size selection

What fraction of the U.S. population is at least 65 years old?



What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States?

Over 85 years


What is the life expectancy of black males and females in the United States?

70-77 years


What was the average life expectancy of a person born in the year 1900?

47 years


What is the life expectancy of white males and females in the United States?



Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?



Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is under control of her genes



Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is dependent upon his personal behavior?



What would be the physiological age of a 75-year-old woman whose physical health is equivalent to that of her 50-year-old daughter?



Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except

short periods of sleep


What is the most important predictor of a person’s mobility in the later years?

Regular physical activity


Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats?

Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature


Which of the following is a feature of energy intake and longevity?

Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat


What minimum reduction from the usual intake of energy in people brings about measurable improvements in body fat, blood pressure, insulin response, and blood lipids?



People who persistently restrict energy intake by 30% for 30 years can expect to increase longevity by up to how many years?



In people who practice energy restriction to prolong life, hunger becomes persistent when kcal intake first drops by what percentage?



Which of the following is a proposed mechanism for energy restriction and improved longevity in animals?

Reduced oxidative stress


Which of the following is a feature of the stress response in men and women?

Women’s general reactions to stress are different than those of men


All of the following are characteristics of body weight and older people except

a higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia


The relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age



What is sarcopenia?

Loss of muscle mass and strength


Which of the following is a characteristic of aging and the immune system?

Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems


Which of the following terms describes an immune system that is inefficient and overactive in the aged?



Mary is 75 years old and has been getting sick recently and losing weight. After assessing all symptoms, her doctor diagnoses atrophic gastritis and prescribes an antibiotic. All of the following are symptoms associated with this condition except

acid reflux


A person with dysphagia has

difficulty swallowing


All of the following are characteristics of tooth loss in the elderly except

the consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavailability and impairs nutritional health.


Atrophic gastritis is typically characterized by all of the following signs except

insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin


A person who is edentulous has

no teeth


Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living

in nursing homes


What is the highest age group recognized in the Dietary Reference Intakes

71 years and older


A person with a pressure ulcer has damage to her



Approximately what percentage decline in basal metabolism is seen in an 80-year-old person compared with a 40-year-old?



Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditure is seen in a 70 year old versus a 30 year old



Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?

They vary according to individual histories


Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?

They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth


What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?



Marie is an 80-year-old woman with a BMI of 27 who has been admitted to the hospital for dehydration. She lives alone, her diet is very high in desserts and sweets, and she only drinks diet colas. On morning hospital rounds, the attending physician asks the group of interns what they recommend for the patient. With which intern should you disagree?

Intern A: Try to lose enough weight to achieve a desirable BMI


Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from

insufficient intake of vitamin B12


John is 60 years old and has been experiencing numbness in his hands for the past 3 months. His doctor suspects that John is not producing enough hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor and encourages him to eat more foods containing vitamin B12. What is wrong with this suggestion?

Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement


All of the following are characteristics of vitamin B12 nutrition in older people except

the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.


Which of the following is a recent finding on vitamin D nutrition in the elderly

The skin’s capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced


Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?

Aging reduces the kidneys’ ability to convert vitamin D to its active form


To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective except

taking vitamin B12 injections


Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in the elderly

Calcium intakes are well below recommendations


Although many health-care professionals do not recommend a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement, the needs for which of the following nutrients are usually met from supplement use?

Vitamin D


Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?

Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity


A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is

poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.


What are the thickenings that occur to the lenses of the eye, thereby affecting vision, especially in the elderly?



Jimmy is 33 years old and his obese parents each have cataracts in both eyes. They rarely eat fruits or vegetables and prefer a meat and potatoes existence. To reduce his risk of developing cataracts like his parents, Jimmy should incorporate all of the following into his diet except

getting enough sleep at night to preserve the integrity of his eyes


All of the following are characteristics of age-related macular degeneration except

therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods


All of the following are features of osteoarthritis except

nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility


What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation?

Vitamin C and vitamin E


What organ is affected by macular degeneration?



Which of the following foods seems to benefit rheumatoid arthritis in some people?

Olive oil


All of the following are features of arthritis except

weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis.


Which of the following types of diets has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis inflammation?

Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids


All of the following are characteristics of gout except

it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles


Glucosamine and/or chondroitin supplements are used by some people to treat symptoms of



Which of the following is not a common feature of gout?

It is treated by reducing intake of milk products


Which of the following is thought to promote the development of brain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles?

oxidative stress


What percentage of U.S. adults are affected by Alzheimer’s disease after age 70?



Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer’s disease include all of the following except

a decrease in homocysteine synthesis


Which of the following is a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease

It is associated with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain


What is the main reason for dieting in the elderly?

To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose


Which of the following is a feature of food choices and eating habits of older people?

opportunity for social interactions


What is a congregate meal?

A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center


All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except

it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals.


Goals of the federal Older Americans Act nutrition program include the provision of all of the following except

high-cost nutritious meals


A principal reason that congregate meals are preferable to Meals on Wheels is that

there are more social benefits to congregate meals


Rose is a 73-year-old spunky, energetic woman who is wheel-chair bound. She cannot go to the grocery store and has no family members nearby. Which of the following would be the most appropriate suggestion for ensuring that Rose is obtaining adequate nutrition?

Sign her up for the Meals on Wheels program


Which of the following is a program that provides low-income older adults with coupons that are exchangeable for fresh vegetables and fruits at community-supported farmers’ markets and roadside stands?

Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program


What percentage of eligible people 60 years and older participate in nutrition assistance programs?



What fraction of prescription drugs sold in the United States is taken by people over 65 years of age



How does aspirin reduce inflammation and pain?

It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins


What are the known consequences of taking a single two-tablet dose of aspirin?

It doubles the bleeding time of wounds


All of the following are characteristics of aspirin use except

it acts as a pro-clotting agent


What is the primary action of the medication megestrol acetate?

it promotes weight gain


A major side effect from the regular use of some antipsychotics, antidepressants, and corticosteroids is

substantial weight gain


What two nutrients are known to interfere significantly with the utilization of the antibiotic tetracycline?

iron and calcium


Regular use of antacids interferes significantly with absorption of all of the following except



Which of the following drugs has a chemical structure similar to folate?



What is a common side effect from taking certain prescription drugs and consuming grapefruit juice?

Blood concentrations of the drugs increase


Which of the following is a feature of warfarin use and vitamin K utilization?

Dietary vitamin K intake determines the amount of warfarin prescribed


Your father was recently prescribed an anticoagulant medicine and was surprised that the doctor advised him to maintain consumption of consistent amounts of green leafy vegetables every day. You inform your father that

inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug.


Which of the following foods in particular must be restricted in the diet of a person taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug?

aged cheeses


What ingredient commonly used as a sweetener in liquid medicines often causes diarrhea?


Related pages

secretions of the stomachshallow or slow respirationthe tricuspid valve is shaped like a half moonear physiology quizsocial statics definition sociologyinside an active mitochondrion most electrons follow which pathwayskin receptors diagramthe velocity of blood flow is ________as blood travels from arteries to veinsmrna processing in eukaryoteseasy notecards reproductive systemfiltration fraction calculationskeletal system terminologymonoacylglycerol structureloin human anatomycochlear anatomy and physiologyhardy weinberg experimentthe anaerobic breakdown of glucose is calledobliquus capitis superior muscledna alkaline hydrolysisanterior abdominal cavitymicrobiology chapter 6 quizletwhat happens when blood vessels dilatethe rungs of the dna ladder are composed ofmixed drinks with amaretto8th grade vocabulary words and definitionschapter 52 an introduction to ecology and the biosphere answersthis organ produces bilewhich of the following is a role of lymph nodeschapter 19 apushdo all arteries carry oxygen rich bloodthe cognitive behavioral approach to therapy stressesproteus vulgaris sizeunfavorable response to medical treatmentwhat is the difference between appendicular and axial skeletonthe sagittal plane divides the body intofrontanelsprovides temporary storage of food enzymes and waste productspolypeptides are composed ofanatomy and physiology quizletwhat are lymphatic tissueswhere does lipogenesis occurlord of the flies study guide answershow do the light reactions help the calvin cyclea monopolistically competitive firmfibularis anteriorwhat is the end product of oxidative phosphorylationlabelled diagram of muscular systemwhat is the medical term for bedwettingchapter 20 apushdefine nitrogen balanceblood supply to av nodejohn f kennedy apushquizlet chapter 25trimmed mean calculatorinflammation of bony tissue is calledwhat does a recombination frequency of 50 indicateendospore life cycleprions and viroidswhere is areolar tissuefrom the capillaries the blood flows intoendocrine system hormones and functions chartejaculatory muscleusa with states and capitalsanatomy parts of the body quizfunction of efferent neuronswhy are the testes in the scrotumdol sentencesfunctions of superior vena cavawhat is the total number of carpals in the wristexponential reproductive strategiesphylum of hookwormthe first line of innate defenses against pathogens isnorway maple barktrace the path of sound through the earin the sussex pledge germany promisedwhat is the function of calvin cycleconcept map of the endocrine systemunlinked genes definitioncollenchyma parenchyma sclerenchymaspecial senses olfaction and taste