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ch 17 Nutrtion

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created 3 years ago by mmm654
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1

What fraction of the U.S. population is at least 65 years old?

1/8

2

What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States?

Over 85 years

3

What is the life expectancy of black males and females in the United States?

70-77 years

4

What was the average life expectancy of a person born in the year 1900?

47 years

5

What is the life expectancy of white males and females in the United States?

76-81

6

Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?

130

7

Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is under control of her genes

B

8

Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is dependent upon his personal behavior?

75

9

What would be the physiological age of a 75-year-old woman whose physical health is equivalent to that of her 50-year-old daughter?

50

10

Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except

short periods of sleep

11

What is the most important predictor of a person’s mobility in the later years?

Regular physical activity

12

Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats?

Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature

13

Which of the following is a feature of energy intake and longevity?

Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat

14

What minimum reduction from the usual intake of energy in people brings about measurable improvements in body fat, blood pressure, insulin response, and blood lipids?

10%

15

People who persistently restrict energy intake by 30% for 30 years can expect to increase longevity by up to how many years?

3

16

In people who practice energy restriction to prolong life, hunger becomes persistent when kcal intake first drops by what percentage?

30

17

Which of the following is a proposed mechanism for energy restriction and improved longevity in animals?

Reduced oxidative stress

18

Which of the following is a feature of the stress response in men and women?

Women’s general reactions to stress are different than those of men

19

All of the following are characteristics of body weight and older people except

a higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia

20

The relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age

65

21

What is sarcopenia?

Loss of muscle mass and strength

22

Which of the following is a characteristic of aging and the immune system?

Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems

23

Which of the following terms describes an immune system that is inefficient and overactive in the aged?

Inflammaging

24

Mary is 75 years old and has been getting sick recently and losing weight. After assessing all symptoms, her doctor diagnoses atrophic gastritis and prescribes an antibiotic. All of the following are symptoms associated with this condition except

acid reflux

25

A person with dysphagia has

difficulty swallowing

26

All of the following are characteristics of tooth loss in the elderly except

the consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavailability and impairs nutritional health.

27

Atrophic gastritis is typically characterized by all of the following signs except

insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin

28

A person who is edentulous has

no teeth

29

Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living

in nursing homes

30

What is the highest age group recognized in the Dietary Reference Intakes

71 years and older

31

A person with a pressure ulcer has damage to her

skin

32

Approximately what percentage decline in basal metabolism is seen in an 80-year-old person compared with a 40-year-old?

4-8

33

Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditure is seen in a 70 year old versus a 30 year old

20

34

Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?

They vary according to individual histories

35

Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?

They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth

36

What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?

6

37

Marie is an 80-year-old woman with a BMI of 27 who has been admitted to the hospital for dehydration. She lives alone, her diet is very high in desserts and sweets, and she only drinks diet colas. On morning hospital rounds, the attending physician asks the group of interns what they recommend for the patient. With which intern should you disagree?

Intern A: Try to lose enough weight to achieve a desirable BMI

38

Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from

insufficient intake of vitamin B12

39

John is 60 years old and has been experiencing numbness in his hands for the past 3 months. His doctor suspects that John is not producing enough hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor and encourages him to eat more foods containing vitamin B12. What is wrong with this suggestion?

Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement

40

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin B12 nutrition in older people except

the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.

41

Which of the following is a recent finding on vitamin D nutrition in the elderly

The skin’s capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced

42

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?

Aging reduces the kidneys’ ability to convert vitamin D to its active form

43

To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective except

taking vitamin B12 injections

44

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in the elderly

Calcium intakes are well below recommendations

45

Although many health-care professionals do not recommend a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement, the needs for which of the following nutrients are usually met from supplement use?

Vitamin D

46

Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?

Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity

47

A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is

poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.

48

What are the thickenings that occur to the lenses of the eye, thereby affecting vision, especially in the elderly?

cataracts

49

Jimmy is 33 years old and his obese parents each have cataracts in both eyes. They rarely eat fruits or vegetables and prefer a meat and potatoes existence. To reduce his risk of developing cataracts like his parents, Jimmy should incorporate all of the following into his diet except

getting enough sleep at night to preserve the integrity of his eyes

50

All of the following are characteristics of age-related macular degeneration except

therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods

51

All of the following are features of osteoarthritis except

nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility

52

What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation?

Vitamin C and vitamin E

53

What organ is affected by macular degeneration?

eyes

54

Which of the following foods seems to benefit rheumatoid arthritis in some people?

Olive oil

55

All of the following are features of arthritis except

weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis.

56

Which of the following types of diets has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis inflammation?

Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids

57

All of the following are characteristics of gout except

it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles

58

Glucosamine and/or chondroitin supplements are used by some people to treat symptoms of

arthritis

59

Which of the following is not a common feature of gout?

It is treated by reducing intake of milk products

60

Which of the following is thought to promote the development of brain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles?

oxidative stress

61

What percentage of U.S. adults are affected by Alzheimer’s disease after age 70?

10

62

Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer’s disease include all of the following except

a decrease in homocysteine synthesis

63

Which of the following is a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease

It is associated with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain

64

What is the main reason for dieting in the elderly?

To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose

65

Which of the following is a feature of food choices and eating habits of older people?

opportunity for social interactions

66

What is a congregate meal?

A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center

67

All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except

it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals.

68

Goals of the federal Older Americans Act nutrition program include the provision of all of the following except

high-cost nutritious meals

69

A principal reason that congregate meals are preferable to Meals on Wheels is that

there are more social benefits to congregate meals

70

Rose is a 73-year-old spunky, energetic woman who is wheel-chair bound. She cannot go to the grocery store and has no family members nearby. Which of the following would be the most appropriate suggestion for ensuring that Rose is obtaining adequate nutrition?

Sign her up for the Meals on Wheels program

71

Which of the following is a program that provides low-income older adults with coupons that are exchangeable for fresh vegetables and fruits at community-supported farmers’ markets and roadside stands?

Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program

72

What percentage of eligible people 60 years and older participate in nutrition assistance programs?

30

73

What fraction of prescription drugs sold in the United States is taken by people over 65 years of age

1/3

74

How does aspirin reduce inflammation and pain?

It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins

75

What are the known consequences of taking a single two-tablet dose of aspirin?

It doubles the bleeding time of wounds

76

All of the following are characteristics of aspirin use except

it acts as a pro-clotting agent

77

What is the primary action of the medication megestrol acetate?

it promotes weight gain

78

A major side effect from the regular use of some antipsychotics, antidepressants, and corticosteroids is

substantial weight gain

79

What two nutrients are known to interfere significantly with the utilization of the antibiotic tetracycline?

iron and calcium

80

Regular use of antacids interferes significantly with absorption of all of the following except

zinc

81

Which of the following drugs has a chemical structure similar to folate?

Methotrexate

82

What is a common side effect from taking certain prescription drugs and consuming grapefruit juice?

Blood concentrations of the drugs increase

83

Which of the following is a feature of warfarin use and vitamin K utilization?

Dietary vitamin K intake determines the amount of warfarin prescribed

84

Your father was recently prescribed an anticoagulant medicine and was surprised that the doctor advised him to maintain consumption of consistent amounts of green leafy vegetables every day. You inform your father that

inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug.

85

Which of the following foods in particular must be restricted in the diet of a person taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug?

aged cheeses

86

What ingredient commonly used as a sweetener in liquid medicines often causes diarrhea?

sorbitol


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