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Human Anatomy Ch. 14 & 15 Test Review

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1

Rest & Digest division of ANS

Parasympathetic

2

Parasympathetic fibers of what nerve accommodate close vision?

Oculomotor (III)

3

Info from balance receptors goes where?

Brain stem reflex centers

4

Why are sympathetic responses generally system wide?

NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response

5

What sympathetic fibers form a splanchnic nerve?

Those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia

6

Where would you find cholinergic nicotinic receptors?

Skeletal muscle, adrenal and medulla

7

Conscious perception of vision is associated with which lobe?

Occipital lobe

8

Why can corneas be transplanted without tissue rejection?

The cornea has no blood supply

9

What are otoliths?

Each of three small oval calcareous bodies in the inner ear of vertebrates, involved in sensing gravity and movement.

An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium

10

What is the function of the reticular formation?

Regulates states of consciousness and arousal

11

The parasympathetic ganglion which serves the eye?

Ciliary ganglion

12

Sympathetic nerves leave the spinal cord at what level?

First thoracic

13

What is automatic dysreflexia?

Uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons

14

What is the primary visual cortex?

Conscious perception of visual images (seeing) occurs.

15

Action of the inferior oblique

Turns eye upwards and laterally

16

What is striate cortex?

Also called primary visual cortex, provides form, color, and motion inputs to visual association areas collectively called the prestriate cortices

17

What does the tenth cranial nerve innervate?

Liver, gallbladder, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, pancreas, and the proximal half of the large intestine

18

The oval window is connected to which passageway?

Scala vestibuli

19

The only special sense not fully functional at birth?

Vision

20

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division

Constriction of most blood vessels, dilation of vessels serving skeletal muscle, increase of heart rate and force

21

Stimulation of sympathetic division causes

Increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure

22

Function of rods in the eye

Dim light and peripheral vision

23

What is olfaction and what does it involve?

Olfaction: sense of smell

Involves chemoreceptors

Best stimulated by chemicals dissolved in liquid

24

What happens in dark adaptation?

Involves accumulation of rhodopsin

25

In the retina, the axons of which neuron layer form the optic nerves?

Ganglion cells

26

Visual processing in the thalamus contributes to what factors?

Depth perception, high-acuity vision, movement perception

27

The "fight or flight" is from which division?

Sympathetic

28

Photoreceptors ________________________.

Package visual pigment in membrane-bound discs, which increases the efficiency of
light trapping

29

Where is the blind spot of the eye?

Optic disc

30

Where would you find autonomic ganglia?

Head, cervical region, close to the effectors they serve

31

The order that light passes through the eye

Vitreous chamber, layer containing axons of ganglion cells, layer of ganglionic cells, layer of bipolar cells, layer containing cell bodies of rods and cones, layer containing the outer segments of rods and cones embedded in the pigment layer

32

What is the bone pillar located in the center of the cochlea?

Modiolus

33

What is the ANS?

General visceral motor system

34

Erection of the penis or clitoris is the result of what?

Primarily parasympathetic control

35

Control center of the body

Hypothalamus

36

What are splanchnic nerves?

Most of the preganglionic fibers from T5 down synapse in collateral ganglia, and so most of these fibers enter and leave the sympathetic trunks without synapsing. They form several nerves called splanchnic nerves

37

What is the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus?

A relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway. It receives a major sensory input from the retina. The LGN is the main central connection for the optic nerve to the occipital lobe.

38

Most of the body's sensory receptors are found where?

Eyes

39

Where are taste buds found?

Fungiform, foliate, vallate papillae

40

What are gustatory receptors?

Gustatory epithelial cells - taste cells

41

Different parts of sound

Sound: pressure disturbance

Frequency: the number of waves that pass a given point in a given time

Wavelength: distance between two crests

Pitch: different sound frequencies

Quality: a mixture of several frequencies

Amplitude: sound's intensity

Decibels: loudness measured in logarithmic units

Loudness: subjective interpretation of sound's intensity

42

Beta 1 Receptors

Located in the heart, increase cardiac activity

43

What is malnutrition-induced blindness?

Prolonged Vitamin A deficiency

44

Parasympathetic outflow from the head involves what nerve?

Vagus nerve

45

What is hyperopia?

A condition in which visual images are routinely focused behind rather than on the retina - commonly known as farsightedness

46

Differences between somatic & autonomic nervous systems?

Their effectors & their efferent pathways

47

Secretions of the adrenal medulla are what effects?

Supplement the effects of sympathetic stimulation

48

Where do nerve fibers from the medial eye go?

Cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

49

What is involved with dark adaptation?

Cones do not function (visual acuity decreases) and rod function resumes when sufficient rhodopsin accumulates

50

What is involved with equilibrium?

Vestibular nuclei receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles

51

Visible light can fit between which wavelengths?

UV and infrared

52

What is sound localization?

Requires input from both ears, uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears - difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline

53

What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus?

Serves to synchronize body rhythms with natural light and dark

54

What are the receptor membranes of gustatory cells?

Gustatory hairs

55

What prevents the eye from sticking together when closed?

Tarsal gland secretions

56

What do autonomic ganglia contain?

Cell bodies of motor neurons

57

Most parasympathetic fibers arise from which nerve?

Vagus nerve (CN X)

58

What are alkaloids?

  • Bitter taste is elicited by alkaloids (such as quinine, nicotine, caffeine, morphine, and strychnine) as well as a number of nonalkaloid substances, such as aspirin.
59

What are ceruminous glands?

Modified apocrine sweat glands

60

What can a parasympathetic preganglionic axon do once it reaches a trunk ganglion?

Synapase with a ganglionic neuron in the same trunk ganglion, ascend or descend the trunk to synapse in another trunk ganglion, pass through the trunk ganglion without synapsing with another neuron

61

Vagus nerve plexus

Cardiac, pulmonary, esophageal

62

What causes conduction deafness?

Impacted cerumen, middle ear infection, otosclerosis

63

Raynaud's Disease

Characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

64

How do emotions influence autonomic reactions?

Primarily through integration in the hypothalamus

65

What happens to outer hair cells as sound increases in the spinal organ of Corti?

Outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

66

Effects of parasympathetic tone

GI and UT activity, lowers heart rate

67

Chemicals associated with sweet, umami, bitter, sour & salty

Sweet: Sugars, saccharin, alcohol, lead salt

Umami: glutamate and aspartate

Bitter: alkaloids such as quinine, nicotine, caffeine

Sour: Acids, hydrogen ions

Salty: metal ions (inorganic salts)

68

Meniere's Syndrome

  • Affects both the semicircular canals and the cochlea
  • may result from distortion of the membranous labyrinth by excessive endolymph accumulation.
  • Less severe cases can usually be managed by antimotion drugs.
  • For more debilitating attacks, salt restriction and diuretics are used to decrease overall
    extracellular fluid volumes.
69

Which structure cannot be seen with an ophthalmoscope?

Optic chiasma

70

Where are action potentials generated within the retina?

Ganglion cells

71

What would damage to the medial rectus affect?

Convergence

72

What effectors are directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

Smooth, cardiac, most glands

73

Parts of external ear

Pinna, external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane

74

How do visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic?

Visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

75

What stimulates olfactory and taste buds?

Substances in solution

76

Characteristics of olfactory receptor cells

They are ciliated chemoreceptors with a short lifespan of about 60 days

77

What are optic vesicles?

First vestiges of eyes in the embryo

78

What type of neurons are replaced throughout adulthood?

Olfactory receptor cells

79

What are beta blockers?

Drugs that attach to beta receptors to dilate lung bronchioles. Decrease heart rate and blood pressure

80

What causes motion sickness?

Results from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

81

When we see the color of an object, what is happening to the light?

All light is being absorbed by that object except the light being experienced

82

What does the iris regulate?

Amount of light passing to visual receptors of eye

83

Where are receptors for hearing located?

Cochlea

84

The tarsal plate is connected to which structure?

Levator palpebrae

85

What is the macula?

Receptor for static equilibrium

86

ESSAY QUESTION: Meniere's Syndrome

  • May result from distortion of the membranous labyrinth by excessive endolymph accumulation
  • Affects both semicircular canals and cochlea
  • Attacks of nausea, vertigo, vomiting
  • Howling tinnitus is common
  • Less severe cases can usually be managed by antimotion drugs
  • For more debilitating attacks, salt restriction and diuretics are used to decrease overall extracellular fluid volumes.
87

ESSAY QUESTION: Orthostatic Hypotension

  • Low blood pressure following changes in position
  • Aging pressure receptors become less responsive to changes in BP
  • Aging CV centers fail to maintain healthy BP
  • Alleviated by changing position slowly
  • A decrease in systolic blood pressure greater than 20 mm HG after moving from a supine to sitting is typically indicative of orthostic hypotension
  • Elastic stockings and ace wraps can be used to wrap extremities
  • Blood pressure medication may be used to increase BP

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