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Ch. 25 - Urinary System

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1

Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron? Question options:

They lack carriers.

They are extremely complex molecules.

They are too large to pass through the fenestrations.

They are not lipid soluble.

They are extremely complex molecules.

2

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal? Question options:

Net filtration would increase above normal.

Capsular osmotic pressure would compensate so that filtration would not change.

Filtration would increase in proportion to the increase in capsular pressure.

Net filtration would decrease.

Net filtration would decrease.

3

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)? Question options:

Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless of age.

Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction.

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kidney function.

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

4

The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________. Question options:

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

is freely permeable to sodium and urea

pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule

is not permeable to water

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

5

Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion? Question options:

disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs

ridding the body of excessive potassium ions

eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes

ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

6

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate? Question options:

juxtaglomerular cells

podocytes

macula densa cells

mesangial cells

macula densa cells

7

Which statement is correct? Question options:

Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.

Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.

Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.

The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood.

Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.

8

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________. Question options:

glomerular filtration membrane

loop of Henle

distal convoluted tubule

collecting duct

loop of Henle

9

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________. Question options:

1.000-1.015

1.001-1.035

1.041-1.073

1.030-1.040

1.001-1.035

10

Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH? Question options:

by secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate

by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions

by secreting sodium ions

by producing new bicarbonate ions

by secreting sodium ions

11

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium. Question options:

stratified squamous

pseudostratified columnar

simple squamous

transitional

transitional

12

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney. Question options:

interlobar

lobar

cortical radiate

arcuate

arcuate

13

Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle? Question options:

form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

absorb electrolytes actively with an automatic absorption of water by osmosis

form a large volume of very concentrated urine or a small volume of very dilute urine

none of these

form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

14

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________. Question options:

appear in the urine

be reabsorbed by secondary active transport

be actively secreted into the filtrate

be completely reabsorbed by the tubule cells

appear in the urine

15

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________. Question options:

the thickness of the capillary endothelium

the design and size of the podocytes

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

16

In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________. Question options:

thin segment is freely permeable to water

thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

thick segment is permeable to water

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

17

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________. Question options:

glomerular capsule

basement membrane of the capillaries

loop of Henle

nephron

nephron

18

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron? Question options:

loop of Henle

principal cell

macula densa

vasa recta

macula densa

19

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean? Question options:

Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.

The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.

The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

20

Which gland sits atop each kidney? Question options:

thymus

pancreas

adrenal

pituitary

adrenal

21

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________. Question options:

has a basement membrane

is impermeable to most substances

has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems

is drained by an efferent arteriole

is drained by an efferent arteriole

22

Select the correct statement about urinary system development. Question options:

The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation.

Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys.

The metanephric ducts will become the urethras.

Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

23

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)? Question options:

the stretching of the bladder wall

the pressure of the fluid in the bladder

the sympathetic efferents

motor neurons

the stretching of the bladder wall

24

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________. Question options:

coma

diabetes mellitus

diabetes insipidus

diabetic acidosis

diabetes insipidus

25

Excretion of dilute urine requires ________. Question options:

relative permeability of the distal tubule to water

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

the presence of ADH

transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

26

The macula densa cells respond to ________. Question options:

aldosterone

changes in pressure in the tubule

antidiuretic hormone

changes in solute content of the filtrate

changes in solute content of the filtrate

27

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion? Question options:

angiotensin II and ADH

angiotensin I and epinephrine

angiotensin II and aldosterone

angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide

angiotensin II and aldosterone

28

Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________. Question options:

there are no functional nephrons until after birth

there is no way a fetus could excrete urine until the seventh month of development

the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

fetuses do not have any waste to excrete

the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

29

The filtration membrane includes all except ________. Question options:

podocytes

basement membrane

glomerular endothelium

renal fascia

renal fascia

30

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________. Question options:

myogenic mechanism

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

capsular hydrostatic pressure

colloid osmotic pressure of the blood

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

31

Select the correct statement about the ureters. Question options:

The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine.

The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

32

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle? Question options:

an efferent arteriole

a fenestrated capillary

a vasa recta

a podocyte

a vasa recta

33

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________. Question options:

not Tm limited

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

in the distal convoluted tubule

completed by the time the loop of Henle is reached

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

34

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________. Question options:

produces vitamin D

is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

35

Tubular reabsorption ________. Question options:

by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient

by passive processes requires ATP to move solutes from the interior of the tubule to the blood

includes substances such as creatinine

is a way for the body to get rid of unwanted waste

by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient

36

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________. Question options:

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

the renal papilla

the descending loop of Henle

the renal pyramid

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

37

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________. Question options:

active transport

solvent drag

cotransport with sodium ions

osmosis

osmosis

38

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system? Question options:

maintains blood osmolarity

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood

regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

39

Select the correct statement about the nephrons. Question options:

Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the tubules of the nephron.

Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their name.

The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the proximal convoluted tubule.

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

40

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? Question options:

podocyte cells

granular cells

macula densa

mesangial cells

podocyte cells

41

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________. Question options:

plasma protein

electrolytes

hormones

glucose

plasma protein

42

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters? Question options:

They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently.

They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).

They are made up of several layers of endothelium.

They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.

They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).

43

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________. Question options:

when the peritubular capillaries are dilated

by a decrease in the blood pressure

when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10

when the pH of the urine decreases

by a decrease in the blood pressure

44

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________. Question options:

is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells

increases the rate of glomerular filtration

inhibits the release of ADH

increases secretion of ADH

inhibits the release of ADH

45

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption? Question options:

aldosterone

ADH

atrial natriuretic peptide

thyroxine

ADH

46

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________. Question options:

secondary active transport

countertransport

facilitated diffusion

passive transport

secondary active transport

47

The function of angiotensin II is to ________. Question options:

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

decrease arterial blood pressure

decrease the production of aldosterone

decrease water absorption

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

48

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
3. nephron
4. urethra
5. ureter
6. collecting duct

Question options:

2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4

6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4

3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4

3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

49

Urine passes through the ________. Question options:

glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule

renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter

pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

hilum to urethra to bladder

pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

50

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________. Question options:

decrease in the production of ADH

decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma

increase in the production of ADH

increase in the production of aldosterone

increase in the production of ADH

51

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule? Question options:

Na+

K+

creatinine

glucose

creatinine

52

Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method? Question options:

renal autoregulation

electrolyte levels

hormonal regulation

neural regulation

electrolyte levels

53

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? Question options:

The male urethra is longer than the female urethra.

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems but at different times.

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

The male urethra is a passageway for both urine and semen.

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

54

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? Question options:

help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

55

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________. Question options:

the secretion of acids and ammonia

reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

the secretion of drugs

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure


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