Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron? Question options:
They lack carriers.
They are extremely complex molecules.
They are too large to pass through the fenestrations.
They are not lipid soluble.
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal? Question options:
Net filtration would increase above normal.
Capsular osmotic pressure would compensate so that filtration would not change.
Filtration would increase in proportion to the increase in capsular pressure.
Net filtration would decrease.
Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)? Question options:
Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless of age.
Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction.
Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kidney function.
The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________. Question options:
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
is freely permeable to sodium and urea
pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule
is not permeable to water
Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion? Question options:
disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs
ridding the body of excessive potassium ions
eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes
ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate? Question options:
macula densa cells
Which statement is correct? Question options:
Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.
Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood.
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________. Question options:
glomerular filtration membrane
loop of Henle
distal convoluted tubule
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________. Question options:
Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH? Question options:
by secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate
by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions
by secreting sodium ions
by producing new bicarbonate ions
The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium. Question options:
The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney. Question options:
Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle? Question options:
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
absorb electrolytes actively with an automatic absorption of water by osmosis
form a large volume of very concentrated urine or a small volume of very dilute urine
none of these
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________. Question options:
appear in the urine
be reabsorbed by secondary active transport
be actively secreted into the filtrate
be completely reabsorbed by the tubule cells
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________. Question options:
the thickness of the capillary endothelium
the design and size of the podocytes
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________. Question options:
thin segment is freely permeable to water
thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride
thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
thick segment is permeable to water
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________. Question options:
basement membrane of the capillaries
loop of Henle
Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron? Question options:
loop of Henle
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean? Question options:
Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.
The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.
The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________. Question options:
has a basement membrane
is impermeable to most substances
has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems
is drained by an efferent arteriole
Select the correct statement about urinary system development. Question options:
The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation.
Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys.
The metanephric ducts will become the urethras.
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)? Question options:
the stretching of the bladder wall
the pressure of the fluid in the bladder
the sympathetic efferents
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________. Question options:
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________. Question options:
relative permeability of the distal tubule to water
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
the presence of ADH
transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle
The macula densa cells respond to ________. Question options:
changes in pressure in the tubule
changes in solute content of the filtrate
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion? Question options:
angiotensin II and ADH
angiotensin I and epinephrine
angiotensin II and aldosterone
angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide
Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________. Question options:
there are no functional nephrons until after birth
there is no way a fetus could excrete urine until the seventh month of development
the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood
fetuses do not have any waste to excrete
The filtration membrane includes all except ________. Question options:
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________. Question options:
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
capsular hydrostatic pressure
colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
Select the correct statement about the ureters. Question options:
The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch.
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine.
The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only.
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle? Question options:
an efferent arteriole
a fenestrated capillary
a vasa recta
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________. Question options:
not Tm limited
hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
in the distal convoluted tubule
completed by the time the loop of Henle is reached
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________. Question options:
produces vitamin D
is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
Tubular reabsorption ________. Question options:
by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient
by passive processes requires ATP to move solutes from the interior of the tubule to the blood
includes substances such as creatinine
is a way for the body to get rid of unwanted waste
The renal corpuscle is made up of ________. Question options:
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
the renal papilla
the descending loop of Henle
the renal pyramid
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________. Question options:
cotransport with sodium ions
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system? Question options:
maintains blood osmolarity
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
Select the correct statement about the nephrons. Question options:
Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the tubules of the nephron.
Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their name.
The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the proximal convoluted tubule.
The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? Question options:
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________. Question options:
Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters? Question options:
They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently.
They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
They are made up of several layers of endothelium.
They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________. Question options:
when the peritubular capillaries are dilated
by a decrease in the blood pressure
when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
when the pH of the urine decreases
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________. Question options:
is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
increases the rate of glomerular filtration
inhibits the release of ADH
increases secretion of ADH
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption? Question options:
atrial natriuretic peptide
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________. Question options:
secondary active transport
The function of angiotensin II is to ________. Question options:
constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
decrease arterial blood pressure
decrease the production of aldosterone
decrease water absorption
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop
of urine to its elimination from the body.
1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
6. collecting duct
2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4
6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
Urine passes through the ________. Question options:
glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule
renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter
pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
hilum to urethra to bladder
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________. Question options:
decrease in the production of ADH
decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma
increase in the production of ADH
increase in the production of aldosterone
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule? Question options:
Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method? Question options:
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? Question options:
The male urethra is longer than the female urethra.
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems but at different times.
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.
The male urethra is a passageway for both urine and semen.
What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? Question options:
help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________. Question options:
the secretion of acids and ammonia
reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water
regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
the secretion of drugs