Lower Extremity Muscles

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created 3 years ago by nicolefraserr
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Iliacus

O: Iliac Fossa

I: Lesser trochanter of femur

A: Flexion of Hip

A: Assists with adduction & lateral rotation of hip

A: Anterior rotation of pelvis with femur stabilized

N: Femoral nerve (L2-L4)

2
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Psoas Major

O: L1-L4 - bodies and transverse process, IV discs at same levels

I: Lesser trochanter

A: Flexion of hip

A: Assists with adduction & lateral rotation of hip; some rotation of the lumbar spine

A: Flexion of lumbar spine with femur stabilized

N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)

3
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Psoas Minor

A: Assists psoas major with flexion of lumbar spine

*Not a true muscle of the hip joint (coxofemoral joint)

*Not present in some people

4
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Sartorius "Tailor's Muscle"

O: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

I: Medial surface of tibia (pes anserine)

A: Flexes hip & knee: crosses both joints

A: Also acts to laterally rotate the knee at the tibiofemoral joint

N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)

5
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Rectus Femoris

O: Anterior inferior iliac spine

I: Tibial tuberosity

A: Assists iliopsoas with flexion of hip

A: Knee extension and stabilization

N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)

6
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Vastus Lateralis

O: Lateral lip of linea aspera & greater trochanter

I: Tibial tuberosity

A: Knee extension

N: Femoral nerve (L2-L4)

*Largest muscle of the quads

7
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Vastus Medialis

O: Medial lip of linea aspera

I: Tibial tuberosity

A: Knee extension

N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)

*Vastus medialis obliquus

8
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Vastus Intermedius

O: Proximal, anterolateral shaft of femur

I: Tibial Tuberosity

A: Knee extension

N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)

9
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Pectineus

O: Superior Ramus of Pubis

I: Intertrochanteric line to line aspera

A: Adduction & Flexion of hip

N: Femoral Nerve

10
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Gracilis

O: Inferior ramus & body of pubis

I: Medial surface of tibia (pes anserine)

A: Adduction & flexion of femur

A: Medial rotation of tibia

N: Obturator nerve (L2-L4)

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Adductor Brevis

O: Inferior ramus & body of pubis

I: Upper 1/3 of linea aspera

A: Adduct & laterally of the hip

N: Obturator (L2-L4)

12
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Adductor Longus

O: Inferior ramus & body of pubis

I: Middle 1/3 of linea aspera

A: Adducts & laterally rotates femur

N: Obturator Nerve (L2-L4)

13
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Adductor Magnus

O: Ischial tuberosity & Pubis

I: Linea aspera & adductor tubercle - anterior & posteior portions (BIG!)

A: Adduction of femur

Anterior = flex & lateral rotation

Posterior = extend & medial rotation

N: Obturator (L2-L4)

N: Sciatic nerve (L4-S3)

14
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Tensor Fascia Latae (TFL)

O: Anterior iliac crest

I: Fascia of the thigh-Iliotibial (IT) Band

A: Abduct femur

A: Flex hip joint

A: Helps depress femoral head into acetabulum

N: Superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

15
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Gluteus Maximus

O: Iliac crest, Sacrum, Coccyx

I: Posterior portion of femur - blends with IT band

A: Hip extension (prime mover)

A: Also laterally rotates

A: Also abducts & adducts

N: Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5-S1)

16
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Gluteus Medius

O: Posterior aspect of ilium

I: Greater trochanter of femus

-portion of gluteus medium is deep to the gluteus maximus

A: Abduct & medially rotate femur

N: Superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

17
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Gluteus Minimus

O: Posterior aspect of ilium

I: Greater trochanter of femus

-portion of gluteus medium is deep to the gluteus maximus

A: Abduct & medially rotate femur

N: Superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

18
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Piriformis

O: Upper portion of sacrum

I: Greater trochanter - crosses greater sciatic notch

A: Lateral rotation of femur

N: Anterior rami of first and second sacral nerves

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Gemellus superior

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Obturator internus

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Obturator externus

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Gemellus inferior

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Quadratus femoris

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Semitendinosus

O: Ischial tuberosity

I: Medial surface of tibia (pes anserine)

A: Knee flexion

A: Medial rotation of the tibia

A: Hip extension

N: Sciatic Nerve (L5, S1, S2)

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Semimembranosus

O: Ischial tuberosity

I: Posterior, medial condyle of tibia

A: Flex knee & medially rotate femur

N: Sciatic Nerve (L5, S1, S2)

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Biceps Femoris

O: Long head - ischial tuberosity

O: Short head - posterior femur (line aspera) - not a hip extender

I: Fibular head, lateral condyle of tibia

A: Flex knee & laterally rotate femur

N: LH - tibial part of sciatic nerve (S1-S3)

N: SH - common perennial part of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)

27
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Popliteus

O: Lateral epicondyle of femur

I: Shaft of tibia

A: Unlocks knee to allow flexion to occur

Open kinetic chain (OKC) position: Medial rotation of the tibia

Closed kinetic chain (CKC) position: Lateral rotation of the femur

N: Tibial Nerve

28
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Tibialis Anterior

O: Shaft of the tibia

I: Medial cuneiform & 1st metatarsal

A: Dorsiflexion & inversion

N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

*Most medial of the anterior leg muscles

29
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Extensor Digitorum Longus

O: Lateral condyle of tibia

I: Distal phalanx; digits 2-5

A: Extend digits 2-5

A: Dorsiflex foot

N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

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Extensor Hallucis Longus

O: Fibula

I: Distal phalanx - digit 1

A: Extends digit 1

A: Inversion

N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

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Peroneus Tertius

O: Anterior shaft of fibula

I: Base of 5th metatarsal

A: Everts & dorsiflexes foot

*Tendon crosses anterior to lateral malleolus

*Causes dorsiflexion

N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

32
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Peroneus Longus

O: Head & shaft of fibula

I: First metatarsal & medial cuneiform

A: Evert foot (strongest pronator)

A: Plantar flexion of the ankle

A: Tendon travels behind lateral malleolus, then under foot to medial side

N: Superficial peroneal

33
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Peroneus Brevis

O: Lateral aspect of shaft of fibula

I: Base of 5th metatarsal

A: Eversion & plantar flexion of ankle

*tendon travels behind lateral malleolus

N: Superficial peroneal

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Gastrocnemius

O: Lateral & medial epicondyles of femur

I: Calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles') tendon

A: Plantar flexion & assists knee flexion

*Important in walking/running activities

N: Tibial Nerve

35
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Soleus

O: Head/shaft of fibular & posterior surface of tibia

I: Calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles') tendon

A: Plantar flex foot

N: Tibial Nerve

*Mostly lies deep to the gastrocnemius

36
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Tibialis Posterior

O: Posterior upper half of tibia & fibular

I: Lower surfaces of navicular, cuneiform, & bases of metatarsals 2-5

A: Plantar flex and invert foot

N: Tibial nerve

37
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Flexor Digitorum Longus

O: Posterior surface of tibia

I: Distal phalanges of 2-5

A: Flex digits 2-5 & plantar flexion

N: Tibial Nerve

*Helps support the arch

38
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Flexor Hallucis Longus

O: Middle 2/3 of posterior fibular

I: Base of distal phalanx of big toe

A: Flex digit 1, inversion, plantar flexion

N: Tibial Nerve

39

What is the name for the iliacus & psoas major together?

Iliopsoas

40

What is the "Groin"?

Anterior aspect of the hip joint, but commonly accepted as adductor group

41

What is the Femoral Nerve?

Innervates the quadriceps & hip flexors

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What causes this?

Over activation or tightness

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Medial retinaculum

44
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Lateral retinaculum

45
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Iliotibial band

46
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Quadriceps Tendon

47
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Patellar Tendon

48

What is the quadriceps group?

Rectus Femoris

Vastus Medialis

Vastus Intermedius

Vastus Lateralis

49

What muscles are involved in a Groin strain?

Pectineus

Gracilis

Adductor Brevis

Adductor Longus

Adductor Magnus

50

What are the hip adductors?

Adductor Magnus

Adductor Brevis

Adductor Longus

Gracilis

Pectineus

51

What do the gluteus minimum & medium do together?

Stabilize pelvis when:

-Foot is on the ground

-They prevent the pelvis from dropping toward opposite side during walking

--Swinging leg

--Trendelenburg's Sign

52
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–Trendelenburg’s Sign

53

What is sciatica?

Compression of the sciatic nerve

Radiating or shooting pain down the leg

54

What are the "Deep 6" External rotators?

Piriformis

Gemellus superior

Obturator internus

Obturator externus

Gemellus inferior

Quadratus femoris

55

What are the hamstring muscles?

Biceps Femoris (long & short head)

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

56

Innervation of anterior compartment

Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

57

Innervation of lateral compartment

Superficial peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

58

Innervation of deep posterior compartment

Tibial nerve (L4-S3)

59

Innervation of superficial posterior

Tibial nerve (L4-S3)

60

Anterior compartment muscles

Tibialis anterior

Extensor digitorum longus

Extensor hallucis longus

Peroneus tertius

61

Lateral compartment muscles

Peroneus longus

Peroneus brevis

62

Superficial Posterior compartments

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

63

Deep Posterior compartments

Tibialis posterior

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallicis longus

64

What encloses a compartment?

Fascia

65

When tendons pass behind lateral malleolus what does it make them?

Plantar flexors

66

Another name for the calf muscle

Triceps surae

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Calcaneal tendon

68

Strengthening the Triceps surae in the standing position

Work primarily gastrocnemius because it is stretched (lengthened position) & in direct line of pull

69

Strengthening the Triceps surae in the seated position

Work primarily soles because gastrocnemius is relaxed (shortened position) across knee joint

70

Hip abductors

Gluteus Maximus

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

TFL

Sartorius

Piriformis (when hip is flexed)

71

Hip adductors

Adductor Magnus

Adductor Longus

Adductor Brevis

Pectineus

Gracilis

Psoas major

Iliacus

Gluteus Maximus (lower fibers)

72

Internal (Medial) Rotation

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

Gluteus Medius (anterior fibers)

Gluteus Minimus

73

External (Lateral) Rotation

Biceps Femoris

Gluteus Maximus (all fibers)

Gluteus Medius (posterior fibers)

Sartorius

Piriformis

Quadratus Femoris

Obturator Internus/Externus

Gemellus Superior/Inferior

Iliopsoas

74

Hip Flexion

Rectus Femoris

Gluteus medius (anterior fibers)

Gluteus minimus

Add. magnus/longus/brevis (assists)

Pectineus

TFL

Sartorius

Psoas major/Iliacus

75

Hip Extension

Biceps femoris

Semitendinosus

Semimebranosus

Gluteus Maximus (all fibers)

Gluteus Medius (posterior fibers)

Adductor Magnus (posterior fibers)

76

Internal (Medial) Rotation

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Gracilis

Sartorius

Popliteus

77

External (Lateral) Rotation

Biceps Femoris

78

Knee Flexion

Biceps Femoris

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Gracilis

Sartorius

Gastrocnemius

Popliteus

Plantaris (weak)

79

Knee Extension

Rectus Femoris

Vastus Lateralis

Vastus Medialis

Vastus Intermedius

80

Plantar Flexion

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Tibialis Posterior

Peroneus Longus

Peroneus Brevis

Flexor Digitorum Longus (weak)

Flexor Hallucis longus (weak)

Plantaris (weak)

81

Dorsiflexion

Tibialis Anterior

Extensor Digitorum Longus

Extensor Hallucis Longus

82

Inversion

Tibialis Anterior

Tibialis Posterior

Flexor Digitorum Longus

Flexor Hallucis Longus

Extensor Hallucis Longus

83

Eversion

Peroneus Brevis

Peroneus Longus

Extensor Digitorum Longus


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